Unit Reveiw

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Unit Reveiw by Mind Map: Unit Reveiw

1. Armed services, military researchers, and private defense industries that benefited from increased tensions from The Cold War and military spending.

2. Chapter 22

2.1. Anticolonialism

2.1.1. India

2.1.1.1. Indian National Congress (INC)

2.1.1.1.1. An elite organization of English educated Indians from high caste Hindu family. It was a political protest that differed from earlier rural uprising in that, initially, it was much more moderate. Their goal was to gain more influence in the political, military, and business life of British India as to better protect Indian interests.

2.1.1.2. Mohandas Gandhi

2.1.1.2.1. Leader of the INC. Developed the Satyagraha movement, meaning "truth force" which was the founder of all non-violent revolutions. Gandhi's philosophies preached "putting one's whole soul against the will of the tyrant". He also believed that one individual could stand against an empire and win. His policies were Muslim inclusive. After the partitioning of India and Pakistan and the mass migration of Muslims to the new country, Gandhi was shot by a Hindu extremist.

2.1.2. Africa

2.1.2.1. Apartheid

2.1.2.1.1. "Separation of the race". The systematic racism practice on Black South Africans by White South Africans. There were separate facilities for everything. "Pass laws" kept black South Africans out of the cities except for work, where they experienced extreme forms of segregation. They divided Black South Africans into small, overcrowded "native reserves' called Bantustans or Townships. These slums were basically military states.

2.1.2.2. Much like Indian National Congress: led by educated, professional and middle-class men who did not want to overthrow their oppressive leaders, but wished to gain more influence and equality within the existing power. They used tactics of non-violent revolution such as civil disobedience, boycotts, strikes, demonstrations, and the burning of pass books.

2.1.2.3. African National Congress

2.1.2.3.1. The Sharpville Massacre: In 1960, police shot 69 unarmed demonstrators while they were running away. The government made the ANC illegal and imprisoned its leaders, including Nelson Mandela. The ANC then turned to violent, armed struggle and Guerrilla warfare. By 1976, South Africa was out of control and by the 1980's, spreading violence and massive strikes of over two million workers forced the Government to talk.

2.1.3. Turkey (The Ottoman Empire)

2.1.3.1. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk

2.1.3.1.1. Completely removed Islam from public life in order to promote the modernization and secularization of Turkey. The old ruling position, the Sultan, was replaced, Turkey became a republic, and the Caliphate was abolished. He changed the traditional dress of Turkey's citizens, making it much more western. Women had equal rights in divorce, inheritance, and child custody, Polygamy was outlawed, and women gained the right to vote in 1934.

2.1.4. Iranian Revolution and Ayatollah Khomeini

2.1.4.1. Khomeini's vision of Iran was the complete opposite of Turkey, moving towards rather than away from Islam. The new Iranian government, which was put in place by Khomeini after the pervious Shah abdicated, was an Islamic republic, where Islamic clerics, headed by Khomeini, exercised power. The country experienced complete Islamization, as history, education, literature, and law were all modified to fit Islamic code. Women in this new republic still had the right to vote as well as education and employment opportunities, but they were harassed or beaten if they did not wear the proper head covering and experienced sexual segregation. Also, the legal marriage age with parent's convent was 9 and was 15 without it.

2.1.5. Global South

2.1.5.1. A group of newly independent, developing countries that were not industrialized, such as China, Thailand, Ethiopia, Iran, Turkey, and Central and South America. These new countries experienced 90% population growth during the 20th century. More babies meant less resources.

2.2. Deny Xiaoping

2.2.1. Came to power after Mao's death, did away with the collectivized farming system and went more towards small-scale private agriculture. While the government still had control over enterprise, managers were encouraged to seek a profit and make their own decisions. China participated in the world's economy and opened special enterprise zones for foreign investors. Essentially, a capitalist economy had been put in place by the CCP. Despite this, any and all talk of democracy was quickly silenced, as the Communist party still held tight to its political monopoly.

3. Chapter 21

3.1. NATO

3.1.1. North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The U.S. promised to use its nuclear arsenal to protect western Europe from the Soviet Union. Allowed Western Europe to thrive economically under the political and military leadership of the United States. In defense of this, the Soviet Union and Easter Europe created the Warsaw Pact.

3.2. Russia

3.2.1. Bolshevik Revolution

3.2.1.1. Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin) began emerging through the outrage over the failure of the provisional government that was set up after Tsar Nicholas II abdicated the throne. Lenin preached the end of the war, land for peasants, and worker controlled factories, which appealed to the revolutionary mood of the Russians. The Bolsheviks seized power during an overnight coup and managed to hang on despite the three year civil war that followed. After the victory over their opponents, the Bolsheviks signed a treaty with Germany to remove Russia from the war.

3.2.2. Joseph Stalin

3.2.2.1. Stalin was the longtime leader of the USSR, and he moved to spread communism to Eastern European after the Marshall Plan threatened to make Eastern Europe part of a Western Economic network. It was outside forces rather than internal revolution that brought communism to Eastern Europe.

3.2.3. Marxism

3.2.4. Glasnost

3.2.4.1. Mikhael Gorbachev's policy of openness and cultural and intellectual freedoms. Newspapers and TV were uncensored, films broke nudity and sex bans, soviet history was re-evaluated as Stalin's crimes were revealed, atheist propaganda stopped and religious freedom became more widespread, and banned poems, plays, novels, and films were released to the public.

3.2.5. Five Year Plan

3.2.5.1. Plan to industrialize the U.S.S.R. make it powerful and completely self-reliant, rid the country of capitalism, and create a socialist society by providing an economic foundation for abolishing class systems. Took place roughly during 1928-1932, initiated by Joseph Stalin.

3.3. China

3.3.1. Chinese Communist Part (CCP)

3.3.1.1. Came to power in 1949 after emerging victorious over the Guomindang (Nationalist party) which had ruled China since 1949. The party gained support by allying with the peasants in the countryside as opposed to the Soviet Union's strategy, which focused on allying with workers in the cities. The party also gained support through the Japanese invasion, which required women, who were some of the strongest soldiers, to fight against invaders, drove the Guomindang further into China which allowed the CCP to gain more territory, and taught them Guerrilla warfare tactics as they fought against superior Japanese forces. The CCP lowered taxes, property rents, and interest payments, put children in school, and gave women who lived in their territories their rights.

3.3.2. Great Leap Forward

3.3.2.1. Mao Zedong's response to widespread industrialization, and it focused mainly on small scale industrialization in rural areas over large city enterprises. Rather than have an elite group of technical experts, the government tried to provide practical technical education for all. They also tried to make the jump to a full communist system without waiting for industrial development to help make that shift. Massive famine resulted.

3.3.3. Cultural Revolution

3.3.3.1. 1966-1969 Similar to the Great Purges of the Soviet Union. Mao Zedong believed that members of the communist party were turning to capitalism and materialism, and called for rebellion against the CCP itself. Young people organized the Red Guards, who went out into the Chinese countryside and attacked party and government officials, teachers, intellectuals, factory managers, and others who were deemed enemies of the party. Rival revolutionary groups began fighting and the violence escalated to a near civil war until Mao was forced to call in the military to restore control. The Cultural Revolution and the great purges greatly discredited the idea of socialism.

3.4. The Cold War

3.5. Military-Industrial Complex

3.5.1. The military standoff between the United States and the Soviet Union, using weapons as a threat to mutually assured self-destruction of both nations if war was to break out. Started due to the rival military alliances of the Warsaw Pact and NATO. The arms race during the Cold War was the continual creation of better nuclear weapons over a forty year period until finally there were 60 thousand nuclear warheads aimed at the two combatants. Even a small fraction of these weapons, if used, could completely destroy the Earth. Luckily, the leaders of both sides knew that a nuclear war would only end in mutual self-destruction.

4. Both were revolutionary organizations that, at first, focused on non-violent means of protest. Their goal was to gain more influence and equality to protect the interests of their peoples.

5. Chapter 19

5.1. Japan

5.1.1. Sino- Japanese (1894-1895) and Russo- Japanese (1904-1905) Wars

5.1.1.1. Japan gained the territories of Taiwan and Korea, as well as control in Manchuria through their victories and established themselves as a major Asian military contender and the first Asian state to defeat a major European power. those who had been subjected to European imperialism saw Japan's victory against Russia as inspiration for their own liberation, while those in Korea and Taiwan who experienced Japan's subjugation had a much less positive outlook, as their oppression rivaled that of European colonial polices.

5.1.2. Meiji Restoration

5.1.2.1. Coup d'etat. Army overthrew the shogun and put the emperor in charge. They started to modernize Japan and transform it into an imperial power.

5.1.2.2. Social Changes

5.1.2.2.1. They got rid of the samurai class, made all Japanese people equal under the law, and Japanese women struggle for rights but do not get them.

5.1.2.3. Political Changes

5.1.2.3.1. They created a parliament, political parties, and a constitution that was very western, but the emperor still had complete control.

5.1.2.4. Westernization

5.1.2.4.1. All cities had newspapers, movie theaters, electric lights, and most had tram systems.

5.2. China

5.2.1. Qing Dynasty

5.2.1.1. The weakening of the Qing Dynasty by the Taiping Rebellion and the failure of the self-strengthening movement led to the overall disillusionment with the dynasty. These failures plus the pressures from groups of educated elite eventually caused the dynasty to collapse in 1911, ending the ancient imperial order that had ruled over China for two millennia.

5.2.2. Opium Wars

5.2.2.1. Opium was a highly addictive drug that Great Britain was smuggling into China during the 19th century to cover their trade imbalance with China. Lin Zexu made the drug illegal to smoke and trade in China due to the negative impact it had on the millions of citizens who were addicted, which angered the British, which led to the Opium Wars. The British won the wars, leading to the Treaty of Nanjing, which was highly skewed in British favor.

5.2.3. Treaty of Nanjing

5.2.3.1. End of the Opium Wars. Restricted Chinese sovereignty and opened up five ports that allowed free European trade in China. Foreigners were allowed to travel freely, buy land, preach Christianity under the protection of the Chinese authorities, and patrol Chinese rivers. Western nations, Japan, and Russia granted themselves special privileges in China. China became a nation that served the interests of and relied upon European countries.

5.2.4. Taiping Rebellion

5.2.4.1. A revolution that sought to bring revolutionary change to change, preached a milenarian, christian, end-of-the-world message, hoped to transform China into a more industrialized nation, wanted to share and redistribute land, and end illegal activities such as Opium smoking and prostitution. They also wanted gender equality and organized society into separate men and women camps. The revolution weakened the Qing Dynasty, but strengthened local gentry and officials, No social economic problems were solved, no modernization or industrialization happened, and the Chinese economy was weakened. The human cost of the uprising was estimated to be around 20-30 million people.

5.2.5. Self Strengthening Movement

5.2.5.1. Reconstruction movement after the Taiping Rebellion and the Opium Wars whose goal was to restore economic and social order, industrialize, update communication systems, and keep up with foreign arsenals. It was restricted by conservative leaders who feared the development would take power from the landlord class. Also, the newly created industries relied on foreign materials and expertise. They also only benefited the local authorities who owned them rather than the Central State.

5.2.6. Boxer Rebellion

5.2.6.1. An anti-foreign movement led by the "Society of Righteous" and "Harmonious Fists" also known as "Boxers". The rebels killed Europeans in China and Chinese Christians while also attacking the foreign embassies in Beijing. Japan was brought in to suppress the uprising, but forced China to pay as punishment.

5.3. Ottoman Empire

5.3.1. Tanzimat Reforms

5.3.1.1. Intended to lay a legal, social, and economic foundation for a newly re-centralized state. The empire underwent modernization, industrialization, and westernization. Non-Muslim citizens were given the same equal rights as the predominant Muslims citizens under the law, which led to more secularized institutions appearing within the empire. The reforms also gave more opportunities and educational openings for women.

5.3.2. Young Turks

5.3.2.1. Pushed for the complete modernization, and westernization of the Ottoman Empire. They pushed for a militantly secular public life, with Islam being pushed more into private life, and viewed the Ottoman Empire as a Turkish national state. This nationalism led to the disintegration of the Ottoman empire after WWI, but defined the polices of Turkish republic that followed.

5.3.3. Young Ottomans

5.3.3.1. Supported the Tanzimat Reforms. Saw the Ottoman Empire as secular state where the people are loyal to the dynasty that ruled over the state rather than a state based on Muslim religious principles. Favored "Islamic Modernism", an ideal that put a more democratic and constitutional system over an emperor's absolute power. They believed that they could incorporate western science and technology while rejecting its materialism, and that Islam could maintain its religious ideals while still modernizing. This system, they believed that this system could defend the empire from European agression.

5.3.4. "The Sick Man of Europe"

5.3.4.1. During the nineteenth century, the Ottoman Empire lost over half its territory to Russia, Britain, Austria, Spain, France, and independence movements with the help of Russia and Britain. The Central State was weakening as local authorities gained power (much like China) and the once elite military force known as the Janissaries became inefficient. As trade in Asia opened up with the west, Ottoman artisans had a hard time competing with cheap, European manufactured goods. Capitulations, much like the unequal trade treaties in China, gave Europeans generous leeway with Ottoman laws and taxes The empire became dependent on foreign loans, but was unable to pay back the interest on those loans.

5.3.4.2. The military standoff between the United States and the Soviet Union, using weapons as a threat to mutually assured self-destruction of both nations if war was to break out. Started due to the rival military alliances of the Warsaw Pact and NATO. The arms race during the Cold War was the continual creation of better nuclear weapons over a forty year period until finally there were 60 thousand nuclear warheads aimed at the two combatants. Even a small fraction of these weapons, if used, could completely destroy the Earth. Luckily, the leaders of both sides knew that a nuclear war would only end in mutual self-destruction.

5.3.5. Communism

6. Chapter 20

6.1. World War One

6.1.1. Nationalism

6.1.1.1. The idea of having an individual nation

6.1.2. Triple Alliance (Central Powers)

6.1.2.1. Germany: (Have) Industrialized and Militarized

6.1.2.2. Austria Hungary: (Have Not) Agricultural Society

6.1.2.3. Italy (Have Not)

6.1.3. Triple Entente (Allies)

6.1.3.1. Great Britain: (Have)

6.1.3.2. France: (Have)

6.1.3.3. Russia: (Have Not)

6.1.4. Schleiffen Plan

6.1.4.1. Failed German plan to end the war quickly by attacking France and Russia all at once before Great Britain could get involved and cut them off from their allies. Planned to completely take out France then fend off Russians at the border. What Germany did not expect was the France's industrialized warfare, and the two sides ended up not being able to dislodge each other at the Battle of the Marnes

6.1.5. Fourteen Points

6.1.5.1. Freedom of the Seas

6.1.5.2. Removal of the International Trade Barriers

6.1.5.3. Reduction in Arms

6.1.5.4. End to Secret Alliances

6.1.5.5. Adjustment of European Boundaries according to Nationality

6.1.5.6. Guiding Framework for the United States

6.1.6. Pan-Slavism

6.1.6.1. Slavic Nationalism. Many Slavic people are in the Austrian and Russian Empires or the Balkan's region which is a region that was once controlled by the Ottoman Empire (Which is now falling apart). Serbia is in favor of pan-Slavism)

6.1.7. League of Nations- General Association of Nations

6.1.7.1. It was an international peacekeeping society based on good political morals that wanted to end all future wars.

6.1.7.2. Largely failed because Britain and France manipulated it to benefit themselves and the U.S. Senate blocked.

6.1.7.3. Wilson compromised on other demands in order to get it created.

6.1.8. Paris Peace Conference

6.1.8.1. January 1914. Representatives from 27 different countries, but no one from the Central Powers or Russia was invited. Separate peace treaties signed with the five defeated nations: Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey. Most decisions were made by the big four: The United States, France, Italy, and Great Britain.

6.1.9. Treaty of Versailles

6.1.9.1. Largest of the treaties signed with the five defeated nations. Created the League of Nations and a defensive alliance between Britain and the United States to help protect France if attacked by Germany.

6.1.9.1.1. War Guilt Clause: Article 231 declared Germany and Austria responsible for starting the war. Ordered Germany to pay reparations for all damage suffered by the allied governments and their people. Germany lost its colonial empire and 15% of its territory, which was mostly industrial. Germany had to reduce their army to one hundred thousand men and cut back their army and their air force.

6.1.10. Mandates in the Middle East

6.1.10.1. Nation administers a territory on behalf of the League of Nation. France got Lebanon and Syria, Britain, Britain got Iraq and Palestine.

6.1.11. War of Attrition

6.1.11.1. Wearing down the other side with constant attacks. The side that loses is the side that can't afford to lose any more men.

6.2. The Great Depression

6.2.1. American factories were mass producing products that were built to last, so nobody bought anything twice. This led to manufacturers losing money. People were buying stocks with bank loans, but because no one was buying anything, stocks dropped. Because stocks dropped, no one was able to pay back their bank loans. All of this led to the Stock Market crash of 1929.

6.2.2. The New Deal

6.2.2.1. Based on the principles of John Maynard Keynes. The government spent more money to provide jobs to the people and respark the economy. Roosevelt started bridge, dam, highway, and national park building projects. The New Deal pumped up the economy, reduced unemployment, and created the Social Security System, minimum wage, and welfare programs. It supported labor unions and made workers' rights stronger. It gave money to farmers to support their farms.

6.3. World War Two

6.3.1. Pearl Harbor

6.3.1.1. America placed on oil embargo on Japan in 1941, leaving Japan with the option to either accept America's terms, which may have reduced Japan to a 2nd or 3rd rank country, or engage in war with America. Japan reluctantly chose the latter, and launched an attack on the military base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii in December of 1941. This attacked caused the U.S. to enter the war in the Pacific, which ended with the dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

6.3.2. Fascism

6.3.2.1. The goal of fascism was to revitalize and purify a nation and bring its people together for a grand task. It celebrated violence against enemies and action over reflection. Power was placed in a charismatic leader. Fascists believed that individualist movements, parliamentary democracy, and communism were dividing forces for a nation. They were determined to overthrow existing regimes, but were conservative when it came to embracing to traditional. People of the upper and middle class, demobilized soldiers, merchants, artisans, farmers, and intellectuals felt threatened by the rise of communism and socialism and were susceptible to the message of fascism.

6.3.3. United Nations

6.3.3.1. A political body whose primary goal was to maintain world peace and agreement among its members. It was more of an international forum than a means of resolving conflict, unlike its League of Nations predecessor.

7. Both were communist revolutions that wanted to overthrow capitalist institutions.

8. The collapse of the Qing Dynasty led to the Guomindang, which was eventually overturned by the CCP

9. World War I severely weakened Europe, leading to the conditions of NATO

10. The complicated alliances between nations led to the outbreak of the war and its international scale.

11. League of Nations was a model for the UN

12. Treaty of Versailles, which blamed Germany for starting WWI, instilled resentment in Germany and ultimately led to WWII

13. Many citizens of European colonies fought in the World Wars and witnessed the atrocities associated with European war. This led to the overall disillusionment with European colonial rule, as the moral superiority Europeans had established over their colonies disintegrated. Thus, colonies began seeking independence.

14. The idea that each individual culture deserved its own nationhood was proclaimed after WWII

15. The Young Turk's policies laid the foundation for the Turkey that emerged after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire

16. The Serbian's nationalism led to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, which was one of the causes of World War 1

17. The Opium Wars, the Taiping Rebellion, and the Boxer Rebellion, and the failure of the Self-Strengthening movement weakened China and led to the collapse of the Qing dynasty.