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Concepts by Mind Map: Concepts

1. Imitation

1.1. Intentional

1.2. Copying

1.3. Parietal and Frontal lobes

1.4. Paiget "deferred imitation"

1.5. children imitate reward and punishment

1.6. some animals imitate

2. Observational Learning

2.1. Modeling

2.1.1. General

2.1.1.1. Broad Concepts

2.1.1.2. Attitudes

2.1.1.3. Role Models

2.1.1.4. Peer Group

2.1.2. Specific

2.1.2.1. Template

2.1.3. Most intentional

2.1.4. cognitive structure

2.1.5. Stages

2.1.5.1. Attention

2.1.5.2. Retention

2.1.5.3. Reproduction

2.1.5.4. Motivation

2.2. Behavior

2.2.1. Species Specific Behavior

2.2.2. Species Typical

2.2.3. Fixed Action Pattern

2.2.4. Instinctive Drift

2.3. Mirroring

2.3.1. Matching Behaviors

2.3.2. Begins the first day after birth

2.3.3. Automatic

2.3.4. Some naturally good

2.4. Bandura

2.4.1. Bobo the clown

3. Conflicts

3.1. Types

3.1.1. Approach

3.1.1.1. Anticipation

3.1.2. Avoidance

3.1.2.1. closer you get the more you avoid it

3.1.3. Approach-Appoach

3.1.3.1. choose the most convinient

3.1.4. Avoidance-Avoidance

3.1.4.1. stay in the middle

3.1.5. Approach-Avoidance

3.1.5.1. fear takes over, anxiety

3.1.6. Double Approach-Avoidance

3.1.6.1. in the middle of good/bad

3.2. Dollard-Millar

3.2.1. psychoanalytic theory

3.3. Supidity-misery syndrome

3.3.1. Frustration aggression hypothesis

3.3.1.1. Blocked goal

3.4. Hull

3.4.1. gain and get reward

3.5. Drive

3.5.1. Primary

3.5.1.1. food, water, biological stuff

3.5.2. Secondary

3.5.2.1. rewards, learned from other

4. Expectations

4.1. Impacts decision making

4.1.1. takes energy

4.1.1.1. depletion

4.1.1.2. decision fatigue

4.2. Lyengar & Lepper

4.2.1. more chioces less deciding

4.2.1.1. satisfaction decreases

4.3. handling fatigue

4.3.1. status quo

4.3.1.1. expel no effort

4.3.2. default setting

4.3.2.1. expel limited effort

4.3.3. event substitution

4.3.3.1. switching fight

4.3.4. reasoning by simplification

4.3.4.1. kahneman & Fredrick

4.3.4.1.1. attribute substitution

4.3.4.2. analogies

4.3.5. Heuristic

4.3.5.1. Trial and error

4.3.5.2. algorithms

4.4. Rotter

4.4.1. BP+F (E & RV)

4.4.2. External

4.4.2.1. learned helplessness

4.4.3. Internal

4.4.3.1. Try and change environment

4.5. Polya's

4.5.1. draw a picture

4.5.2. work a problem backwards

4.5.3. switch from abstract and concrete

4.6. Simon

4.6.1. "bounded reality"

4.6.2. "satisficing"

4.7. Gigerenzer

4.7.1. fast and frugal

4.7.2. Focusing effect

4.7.3. placebo effect

4.7.4. Framing effect

5. Cognitive Bias

5.1. based on experience

5.2. cogniton

5.2.1. working memory

5.2.2. input+process=output

5.2.3. prototype

5.2.3.1. used to simplify our thinking

5.2.4. functional fixidness

5.2.4.1. a chair is a chair

5.2.5. maslows hammer

5.2.5.1. everything's a nail

5.3. Theories

5.3.1. Gasalt

5.3.1.1. figure+ground

5.3.1.2. biotic experiments

5.3.1.3. golden ratio

5.3.2. information processing

5.3.2.1. mind like a comp

5.3.2.1.1. proceptions=inputs

5.3.2.1.2. thinking/problem solving=processes

5.3.2.1.3. memories=stores

5.3.2.1.4. behavior=outputs

5.3.2.2. attention

5.3.2.3. preception

5.3.2.4. short term memory

5.3.2.5. stimulus discriminatioin

5.3.2.6. object identification

5.3.3. Constructivism

5.3.3.1. global focus

5.3.3.2. building on schemas

5.3.3.3. discovery learning

5.3.3.3.1. an idea but rely on another to lead

5.3.3.4. cognitive development model

5.3.3.4.1. Paiget

5.3.3.4.2. Vygotsky

5.3.3.4.3. Jarome Bruner

5.3.4. Contextual Theories

5.3.4.1. extension of constructivism

5.3.4.2. multiple concepts

5.3.4.3. Problem solving

5.3.4.4. self-regulate/monitor

5.4. Attentional Bias

5.4.1. reoccurring thoughts, emotional stimuli

5.5. Availability Bias

5.5.1. remember wins, ignore losses

5.6. Edward Tolman

5.6.1. cognitive behaviorism

5.6.2. analysed behavior holistically

5.6.3. latent learing

5.6.4. cognitive maps

5.6.4.1. Bearing map

5.6.4.1.1. vector-based

5.6.4.2. sketch map

5.6.4.2.1. landmark based

5.6.4.3. hippocampus

5.7. fast but have systematic errors

5.8. Band wagon effect

5.8.1. based on what others are doing

5.9. Barnum effect

5.9.1. believe vague discriptions apply to you

5.9.2. Subjective validation

5.10. belief bias

5.10.1. strength of belief=truth

5.11. confirmation bias

5.11.1. looks for info that supports belief

5.12. Current moment Bias

5.12.1. joys of current instead of pains of tomorrow

5.13. Fundamental attribution error

5.13.1. personality characteristics in others but not selves

5.14. Gamblers Fallacy

5.14.1. things will change in short term

5.15. google effect

5.15.1. less likely to remember info believed to find online

5.16. Halo effect

5.16.1. if you like 1 thing about someone you like everything and vice versa

5.17. hindsight effect

5.17.1. believed you knew it after the fact

5.18. IKEA effect

5.18.1. more effort more value

5.19. Lake wobegone effect

5.19.1. rates self as above average

5.20. loss aversion effect

5.20.1. stronger preference to NOT LOSE than to gain

5.21. neglect of probability

5.21.1. small risks ignores big risks overrated

5.22. normalcy bias

5.22.1. under prepare for disasters

5.23. post purchase rationalization

5.23.1. finding uses after purchase

5.24. spot-light effect

5.24.1. over think what people notice about you

5.25. status quo bias

5.25.1. reluctant to change

6. Problem Solving

6.1. Thorndike

6.1.1. founded connectionism

6.1.2. conducted first animal lab studies

6.1.2.1. "stamped in" correct connection

6.1.3. Proposed multifactor theory of intelligence

6.1.3.1. CAVD test

6.1.3.1.1. completion

6.1.3.1.2. arithmetic

6.1.3.1.3. vocabulary

6.1.3.1.4. directions

6.1.4. popularized adult education

6.1.5. changed "trained minds" to "transferable skills"

6.1.6. behaviorism

6.1.7. operant conditioning

6.1.8. psychometrics

6.1.8.1. #'s to measure intelligence

6.1.9. educational psychology

6.1.10. puzzle boxes

6.1.10.1. trial and error

6.1.10.2. "stamped in"

6.1.10.3. transfer

6.1.10.3.1. negative

6.1.10.3.2. positive

6.2. laws

6.2.1. effect laws

6.2.1.1. whatever happens after effects behavior

6.2.2. exercise laws

6.2.2.1. built habits

6.2.3. readiness laws

6.2.3.1. have to be ready

6.2.3.1.1. hungry

6.2.3.1.2. read

6.2.3.1.3. walk

6.3. strategies

6.3.1. 8 D's

6.3.1.1. ford moters

6.3.2. 6 steps

6.3.2.1. who

6.3.2.2. what

6.3.2.3. where

6.3.2.4. when

6.3.2.5. why

6.3.2.6. how

6.4. hill climbing

6.4.1. initial state

6.5. means-end

6.5.1. planning & execution

6.6. GROW

6.6.1. goal

6.6.2. reality

6.6.3. obsticles

6.6.4. options

6.6.5. way forward

6.7. ooda loop

6.7.1. observe

6.7.2. oriant

6.7.3. decide

6.7.4. act

6.8. pdca

6.8.1. plan

6.8.2. do

6.8.3. check

6.8.4. act

7. Forgetting

7.1. stored in different areas

7.2. concepts

7.3. ebbinghaus

7.3.1. verbal learning linear

7.3.2. forgeting verbal learning is non linear

7.4. can happen within minutes

7.5. Bahrick

7.5.1. better at names and faces

7.5.2. foreign language dips around 40-50 yrs old

7.6. semantic memory

7.6.1. temporal lobe

7.6.2. foreign language

7.6.3. non sense syllables

7.7. declarative memory

7.7.1. you know you know

7.8. episotic memory

7.8.1. stories of your life

7.8.2. long term memory of events

7.8.3. decrease 5% a year

7.8.4. works with semantic

7.9. implicit memory

7.9.1. automatic

7.9.2. can't explain

7.9.3. learn how not what

7.10. muscle memory

7.10.1. continuous

7.10.2. hop,twirl

7.11. complex skills

7.11.1. very resistant to forgetting

7.11.2. any loss quickly recovered with warm ups

7.12. amnesia patients

7.12.1. keep their implicit memory

7.12.2. non declarative memory in tacked declaritive not working.

7.13. discrete skills

7.14. interference

7.14.1. mcgeoch

7.14.1.1. time based

7.14.2. types

7.14.2.1. proactive

7.14.2.1.1. previous info impacts new

7.14.2.2. retroactive

7.14.2.2.1. new knowledge impacts old

7.15. mechanisms

7.15.1. response compitition

7.15.1.1. 2 or more responses

7.15.1.2. intrusion

7.15.2. altered $

7.15.2.1. change in context

7.15.3. mental state

7.16. part-set cueing

7.17. memory failures

7.17.1. time gap

7.17.2. cryptomnesia

7.18. amnesia

7.18.1. forgetfulness

7.18.2. brain damaged

7.18.3. desease

7.18.4. drugs

7.18.5. types

7.18.5.1. retrograde

7.18.5.1.1. can extend back decades

7.18.5.1.2. lasts for months

7.18.5.2. anterograde

7.18.5.2.1. cant remember for long periods of time

7.18.6. post tramatic

7.18.6.1. major

7.18.6.1.1. head injury

7.18.6.2. mild

7.18.6.2.1. car crash

7.18.7. childhood

7.18.7.1. cant remember before 2-3

7.18.8. transient global

7.18.8.1. unknown cause

7.18.9. source

7.18.9.1. cant remember where

8. Schemas

8.1. Mental models

8.2. Types

8.2.1. Person

8.2.1.1. General knowledge about people

8.2.2. Self

8.2.2.1. General knowledge about self

8.2.3. scripts

8.2.3.1. Allows us to fill in the blanks

8.3. Cognitive Structures

8.4. Categories

8.5. Piaget

8.5.1. Clinical Method

8.5.2. Assimilation

8.5.2.1. putting schemas into categories

8.5.3. Accommodation

8.5.3.1. adding new categories/changing them

8.5.4. Equilibrium

8.5.4.1. Balance between 2 schemas

8.6. Bertlett

8.7. Kelly

8.7.1. Traveling Counselor

8.8. Bransford & Johnson

8.9. Brewer & Treyens