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1. Definition

1.1. • Formerly called as manic depression.

1.2. • Causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and ability to carry out day-to-day tasks.

1.3. • These moods range from periods of extremely “up” - energizer behavior (manic episodes) to very “down” - hopeless periods (depressive episodes).

1.4. • The less severe manic periods are known as hypomanic episodes.

1.5. • Mood shifts mat occur only a few times a year.

2. Concepts

2.1. • Hope

2.1.1. To experience long periods of wellness.

2.2. • Perspective

2.2.1. Difficult to believe things will get better, it is important not to give up hope.

2.3. • Personal Responsibility

2.3.1. take action to keep moods stabilized.

2.4. • Education

2.4.1. To make informed decisions about all aspects of life and treatment.

2.5. • Support

2.5.1. To maintaining stability and enhancing the quality of life.

3. Causal Factors

3.1. • The exact cause of bipolar disorder in unknown.

3.2. • Factors:

3.2.1. 1) Biological differences - Appear to have physical changes in their brains.

3.2.2. 2) Neurotransmitters - Imbalance of neurotransmitter seems play a significant role.

3.2.3. 3) Inherited traits - More common in people who have a first-degree relative, such as sibling or parent, with the condition.

4. Symptoms

4.1. • Manic episode

4.1.1. i) Feel very “up”, “high”, or elated

4.1.2. ii) Have a lot of energy

4.1.3. iii) Have increased activity levels

4.2. • Depressive episode

4.2.1. i) Feel very sad, down, empty, or hopeless

4.2.2. ii) Have very little energy

4.2.3. iii) Have decreased activity levels

5. Theories

5.1. • Cognitive

5.1.1. 1) Factors: Always think about drawback characteristics of themselves. Always use negative viewpoint to attest the negative think about themselves. Always dissapointed about future

5.1.2. 2) Cognitive wrong Negative glorify

5.2. • Treatment

5.2.1. 1) Strategy and skill Physicotherapeutics Biotherapy Manual Intervention

5.2.2. 2) Set up cooperation relationship Physician-patient relations

5.2.3. 3) Family cooperation Degree of attentiveness Actively guide Daily maintenance Communication

6. Impacts

6.1. • Lack of awareness.

6.1.1. Leading most to conclude that it is a different mental illness altogether.

6.2. • Inability to detect or recognize symptoms.

6.2.1. Early symptoms are frequently ignored and/or wrongly attributed to other

6.3. • Social Isolation.

6.3.1. Minimising the individual’s opportunities to receive support during times of need.

6.4. • Breakdown of relationship.

6.4.1. Relationships leading to reported high levels of divorce and separation from family and friends.

7. Treatments

7.1. • Bipolar disorder treatment best to be guided by psychiatrist (skilled in bipolar disorder), psychologist, social worker and also psychiatric nurse.

7.2. • The medications used to treat bipolar disorder may include mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, antidepressants, antidepressant-antipsychotic, anti-anxiety medications.