The ways different substances can get in/out of cells

Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address
Rocket clouds
The ways different substances can get in/out of cells by Mind Map: The ways different substances can get in/out of cells

1. Facilitated Diffusion: the process of spontaneous passive transport of molecules or ions across a cell's membrane via specific transmembrane integral proteins.

1.1. Ion channels: pore-forming membrane proteins whose functions include establishing a resting membrane potential, shaping action potentials and other electrical signals by gating the flow of ions across the cell membrane, controlling the flow of ions across secretory and epithelial cells, and regulating cell volume.

1.2. Glucose(C6H12O6): sugar that is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates.

1.3. Channel protein: protein that allows the transport of specific substances across a cell membrane

1.4. Amino Acids: an organic molecule composed of an amino group and an acidic group.

1.5. Concentration gradient: gradual difference in concentration of a dissolved substance in a solution between a region of high density and one of lower density

2. Active transport: movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy.

2.1. Carrier protein(s): transports specific substance through intracellular compartments, into the extracellular fluid, or across the cell membrane

2.2. Ion pumps:  transmembrane protein that moves ions across a plasma membrane against their concentration gradient, in contrast to ion channels, where ions go through passive transport

2.3. Sodium ions: they enter the cell membrane through facilitated diffusion. 3 sodium ions bind to the channel. Once the ATP binds to the channel, one part of it is left behind which causes the channel to move.

2.4. Potassium ions: once the sodium ions are released, potassium ions will most likely come to the channel naturally in which two potassium ions will bind to the channel. Once the protein channel changes its shape again, it will release the phosphate group

2.5. ATP: the energy currency of life. It is the high-energy molecule that stores the energy we need to do just about everything we do.

3. Pinocytosis: mode of endocytosis in which small particles are brought into the cell, forming an invagination, and then suspended within small vesicles.

3.1. ATP: the energy currency of life. It is the high-energy molecule that stores the energy we need to do just about everything we do.

3.2. Vesicles: sac floats through the cytoplasm to the Golgi apparatus and is absorbed. After the Golgi does its work on the molecules inside the sac, a secretory vesicle is created and released into the cytoplasm. From there, the vesicle moves to the cell membrane and the molecules are released out of the cell

4. Endocytosis: energy-using process by which cells absorb molecules (such as proteins) by engulfing them. It is used by all cells of the body because most substances important to them are large polar molecules that cannot pass through the hydrophobic plasma or cell membrane. The opposite process is exocytosis.

4.1. Macromolecules e.g.proteins: very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers). They are typically composed of thousands of atoms or more.

4.2. Receptor-mediated endocytosis: endocytotic mechanism in which specific molecules are ingested into the cell. The specificity results from a receptor-ligand interaction. Receptors on the plasma membrane of the target tissue will specifically bind to ligands on the outside of the cell.

4.3. ATP: the energy currency of life. It is the high-energy molecule that stores the energy we need to do just about everything we do.

4.4. Vesicles: sac floats through the cytoplasm to the Golgi apparatus and is absorbed. After the Golgi does its work on the molecules inside the sac, a secretory vesicle is created and released into the cytoplasm. From there, the vesicle moves to the cell membrane and the molecules are released out of the cell

5. Phagocytosis: process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal vesicle known as a phagosome.

5.1. ATP: the energy currency of life. It is the high-energy molecule that stores the energy we need to do just about everything we do.

5.2. Vesicles: sac floats through the cytoplasm to the Golgi apparatus and is absorbed. After the Golgi does its work on the molecules inside the sac, a secretory vesicle is created and released into the cytoplasm. From there, the vesicle moves to the cell membrane and the molecules are released out of the cell

6. Exocytosis: process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell membrane.

6.1. Macromolecules eg. proteins: very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers). They are typically composed of thousands of atoms or more.

6.2. ATP: the energy currency of life. It is the high-energy molecule that stores the energy we need to do just about everything we do.

6.3. Vesicles: sac floats through the cytoplasm to the Golgi apparatus and is absorbed. After the Golgi does its work on the molecules inside the sac, a secretory vesicle is created and released into the cytoplasm. From there, the vesicle moves to the cell membrane and the molecules are released out of the cell

6.4. Growth hormone: hormone that stimulates growth in animal or plant cells, especially (in animals) a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland.

6.5. Enzymatic protein: act as catalysts within living cells. Catalysts increase the rate at which chemical reactions occur without being consumed or permanently altered themselves.

7. Osmosis: spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a semi-permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides

7.1. Hypotonic solution: hat has a lower osmotic pressure than another solution. In the biological fields, this generally refers to a solution that has less solute and more water than another solution.

7.2. Hypertonic solution: particular type of solution that has a greater concentration of solutes on the outside of a cell when compared with the inside of a cell.

7.3. Aquaporins: integral membrane proteins that serve as channels in the transfer of water, and in some cases, small solutes across the membrane. They are conserved in bacteria, plants, and animals. Structural analyses of the molecules have revealed the presence of a pore in the center of each aquaporin molecule.

7.4. Water: unusually good solvent for a large variety of substances, and is an essential component of all organisms, being necessary for most biological processes.

7.5. Concentration gradient: gradual difference in concentration of a dissolved substance in a solution between a region of high density and one of lower density

8. Surface of plasma membrane: separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment. The cell membrane is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules and controls the movement of substances in and out of cells.

8.1. Phospholipid bilayer: two-layered arrangement of phosphate and lipid molecules that form a cell membrane, the hydrophobic lipid ends facing inward and the hydrophilic phosphate ends facing outward.

8.2. Cell recognition protein: active process giving rise to a specific response. Cell adhesion is a good example of cell recognition when it can be demonstrated that the adhesion is mediated by molecules having specific binding properties.

8.3. Glycoproteins: simply proteins with a sugar attached to them. The sugars can be attached to a protein in two locations in the cell, the endoplasmic reticulum, which produces N-linked sugars, and the Golgi apparatus, which produces O-linked sugars.

8.4. Glycolipids: lipids with a carbohydrate attached by a glycosidic bond.Their role is to serve as markers for cellular recognition and also to provide energy. The carbohydrates are found on the outer surface of all eukaryotic cell membranes.

8.5. Polar: atom like oxygen, which has six electrons in its outer shell, attracts atoms with more strength than a hydrogen atom, which has just one electron in its outer shell. An oxygen atom has stronger polarity. Polar atoms interact with water, meaning they are hydrophilic.

8.6. Non-polar: covalent bond is the bond between two chlorine atoms because they also equally share the electrons. Nonpolar covalent bonds are very strong bonds requiring a large amount of energy to break the bond.

8.7. Hydrophilic: molecules typically have polar groups enabling them to readily absorb or dissolve in water as well as in other polar solvents.

8.8. Hydrophobic: Nonpolar molecules that repel the water molecules

8.9. Cholesterol: waxy type of lipid, a substance that is insoluble in water, like oil or fat. Specifically, cholesterol is a type of fat that is made up of four interlocked rings of carbon called a steroid. ... Cholesterol is found in every single cell of our body.

8.10. Receptor protein: molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell. When such chemical signals bind to a receptor, they cause some form of cellular/tissue response, e.g. a change in the electrical activity of a cell.

9. Diffusion: net passive movement of particles (atoms, ions or molecules) from a region in which they are in higher concentration to regions of lower concentration. It continues until the concentration of substances is uniform throughout.

9.1. Simple diffusion: process whereby a substance passes through a membrane without the aid of an intermediary such as a integral membrane protein. The force that drives the substance from one side of the membrane to the other is the force of diffusion.

9.2. Fat-soluble molecules (e.g.steriods): Can be dissolved in fat. Lipid soluble

9.3. Oxygen: since oxygen is a simple molecule, it's able to go through the cell by passive transportation.

9.4. Carbon dioxide: It is a waste product in our bodies, and is also produced by burning fossil fuels.

9.5. Water: unusually good solvent for a large variety of substances, and is an essential component of all organisms, being necessary for most biological processes.

9.6. Concentration gradient: gradual difference in concentration of a dissolved substance in a solution between a region of high density and one of lower density