CHINA

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CHINA by Mind Map: CHINA

1. Qin Dynasty

1.1. Legalism

2. Yuan Dynasty

2.1. Genghis Khan

2.1.1. Sinicization

2.1.1.1. Dressed in Han clothing to legitimize rule

2.2. Pax Mongolia

2.2.1. - Interconnected rule - Deposit banking system - Invention of insurance

2.2.2. Silk Roads

2.2.2.1. - Foreign tolerance - Product/idea exchange

2.3. Kublai Khan

2.3.1. (1279) Zenith of Mongol Empire

2.3.2. (1289-91) Attacks Japan & fails x2

2.3.3. (1294) Attacks Vietnam and fails

2.4. Decline of Mongols

2.4.1. Chinese always resented foreign rule

2.4.2. Heavy taxes

3. Ming Dynasty

3.1. (1368) Emperor Hong (Zhuyuan Zhang)

3.1.1. Rules with iron fist, conservative and agrarian

3.1.1.1. Sends army north to battle Mongols (resent foreign rule)

3.1.1.1.1. "No one shall suffer under foreign rule, ever again!"

3.1.1.2. Eliminated past partner Red Turbans after capturing Ming capital - Nanjing

3.1.2. Small/lean government spending

3.1.2.1. Limits eunuchs (humiliation)

3.1.2.2. Limits concubines (40)

3.1.3. Dies paranoid for immortality and fear of coup

3.2. Yongle Emperor (brother of ZYZ)

3.2.1. Nephew hiers throne

3.2.1.1. (1399) Uncle burns emperor in palace in name of "saving him from untrusted advisors"

3.2.1.2. Erases nephew from records to legitimize himself

3.2.2. Consolidates power and models Confucian rule

3.2.2.1. Standardises 4 Classics

3.2.2.1.1. Controlled spectrum of thought

3.2.2.2. Creates world's largest literary enterprise - Yongle encyclopedia

3.2.2.3. Rebuilt Grand Canal

3.2.2.4. Watchful eye on Mongols

3.2.2.5. Constructs Forbidden City and Peking is capital

3.2.3. Maritime Trade

3.2.3.1. Zheng He

3.2.3.1.1. Muslim family

3.2.3.1.2. (1405-33) 7 voyages

3.2.4. Tributary System

3.2.5. Losing Mandate of Heaven

3.2.5.1. (1430s) Natural disasters

3.2.5.2. (1529) Destruction of world's largest navy

3.2.5.3. 40% of world's silver in China

3.2.5.3.1. Silver replaced money inflation

3.2.5.4. (17th C) Ming dynasty collapses

4. Qing Dynasty

4.1. (1620s) Manchus planned to retake Chinese empire

4.1.1. Qing - purity to legitimize rule

4.1.2. (1644) Rebel bandit takes Beijing and emperor commits suicide

4.1.3. Wu Sangui invites Manchus over Great Wall to help fight

4.1.4. Conquer - surrender and continue life

4.1.4.1. Invasive queue hairstyle to publicly humiliate people

4.2. (1669) Kangxi Emperor

4.2.1. Stable long rule like Peter the Great

4.2.2. Puts down Wu Sangui in ten years

4.2.3. Freezes tax assessment even if population increases

4.2.4. Pushes border to Korea and Russia

4.3. Qianlong Emperor

4.3.1. Vietnam and Korea under Chinese political umbrella

4.3.2. (1732) McCartney Embassy

4.3.2.1. Did not see equal status - tributary system

4.3.2.2. Not only was China behind

4.3.3. Used opium to open Chinese market

4.3.3.1. (1813) Opium trade with British brought addiction

4.3.3.2. Opium trade brought economic depression

4.3.4. Opium Wars

4.3.4.1. (1839-42) 1st Opium War

4.3.4.1.1. Lin Zexu - confiscated and burned all the chests of opium

4.3.4.1.2. No navy since Ming's destruction

4.3.4.1.3. (1842) Treaty of Nanjing

4.3.4.2. (1856-60) 2nd Opium War

4.3.4.2.1. Russia attacks Amur

4.3.4.2.2. Qing trying to put down Xin Jiang rebellions

4.3.4.2.3. Burns Yuanmingyuan - loots precious items

4.3.4.2.4. (1860) Treaty of Tianjin

4.4. Collapsing of Qing

4.4.1. Taiping Rebellion

4.4.1.1. 30M died in rebellion

4.4.1.2. Hong Xiuquan had fever dreams of being second son of God

4.4.1.3. (1850s) Pooled money together to build military camp

5. Confucianism

5.1. Kong Qiu

5.1.1. Believes all men virtuous - perfection to rule

5.1.2. Individual harmony = cosmic harmony

6. JAPAN

6.1. Warring States

6.2. Tokugawa Shogunate Period

6.2.1. Shogun vs. Daimyo

6.2.1.1. Confucianism as state ideology

6.2.1.1.1. Saw China as leader of the world

6.2.1.1.2. Yet, confused and renegotiating role to be less submissive towards China

6.2.1.2. (1601) United country by Tokugawa Ieyasu

6.2.1.2.1. Emperor is figurehead

6.2.1.2.2. Daimyo are feudal lords reporting to Shoguns

6.2.1.3. Fear of India-like colonialization - closed doors to the West

6.2.2. Samuraisation

6.2.2.1. Samurai disenfranchised because no wars

6.2.2.2. Mentality of Samurai applicable to all people

6.2.3. Tokaido

6.2.3.1. Highway connecting all of Japan

6.2.3.2. Public education spread

6.2.3.3. Daimyos travelled to and from continuously

6.2.3.4. Currency circulation

6.2.3.4.1. Industrialization and capitalization

6.2.3.4.2. (1616) Merchant class no longer dishonourable

6.2.4. Western intervention

6.2.4.1. West trades with Ainu (indigenous people)

6.2.4.2. (1793) Adam Laxman beaten back by Japanese Daimyo

6.2.4.3. (1806) Japanese held captive Russian POW from conflict - stunned West

6.2.4.4. British ship barged into Nagasaki due to conflict with Dutch ships

6.2.4.4.1. (1824) Twice more from British

6.2.4.4.2. Gov't regulation to drive foreign forces away if dock

6.2.5. Sakoku - Closure to the West

6.2.5.1. Intelligence gathered about foreign intimidation

6.2.5.2. (1811) Translation bureau head argue influence due to Christian teachings

6.2.5.2.1. Mito scholars engaged in Western readings and interrogated sailors - saw trade as threat

6.2.5.3. Opium War news spreads

6.2.5.3.1. Brings in Western technology and trains foot soldiers

6.2.5.3.2. Breaks up market monopoly to prevent Western commerce intervention

6.2.5.3.3. Relocate Daimyos

6.2.6. (1853) Commodore Perry

6.2.6.1. Displays power and threatens to return in one year

6.2.6.2. (1854) Treaty of Kanawana

6.2.6.2.1. Embassies

6.2.6.2.2. Freedom for foreign residence

6.2.6.3. (1858) Japan embraces unequal "friendship treaty"

6.2.6.3.1. Extraterritoriality and concessions

6.2.6.3.2. Harris Treaty - Amity and Commerce

6.2.7. (1864) Japanese Civil War

6.2.7.1. Young Samurai of Mito and Satsuma assassinate Shogun in front of emperor's palace

6.2.7.1.1. Demands: Expel foreigners

6.2.7.1.2. Shogunate needn't impede foreign affairs - let families of Daimyo home

6.2.7.2. Western powers see "gold rush" ratio between silver and gold

6.2.7.2.1. Forced Shogun to revalue currency

6.2.7.3. Tax rise, crop failure, Shoguns fall out of power

6.3. Meiji Restoration

6.3.1. Legitimizing rule for emperor

6.3.1.1. Link between emperor and sun god/desses

6.3.1.2. Five injunctions delivered to peasantry generals

6.3.1.2.1. Practice Confucian ideologies but embracing international laws

6.3.1.2.2. Stripped of mobility rights -  (1885) wave of Japanese emmigration

6.3.1.3. "Uncivilized ways will be broken, and will seek learning all over the world."

6.3.1.4. Emperor was spiritual/ mythological/absolute power

6.3.1.4.1. Works with elected Dancing Cabinet

6.3.1.4.2. Changes from traditional Japanese clothing to Western style

6.3.2. Restructure of Social Structure

6.3.2.1. 72 Prefectures down to 50

6.3.2.1.1. Domain owners now "Former Samurai"

6.3.2.2. Farmers double taxation and abuse

6.3.2.2.1. Education mandatory but pressure was on locals

6.3.2.2.2. Peasantry rejected education reforms - needed help!

6.3.2.3. (1878) Constitution officially presents

6.3.2.3.1. Shinto religion was of Japanese-origin

6.3.2.3.2. Created legal codes, railroads

6.3.2.3.3. Followed Georgian calendar

7. KOREA

7.1. Choson Kingdom

7.1.1. (1592) Closed door after Japanese invasions

7.1.2. Catholicism

7.1.2.1. Jesuits contacted Korea earlier - probably in China

7.1.2.1.1. Antino Corea baptized and lived in Italy

7.1.2.2. King Sunjo tolerant of Catholicism

7.1.2.3. (1866) Prince Taewongun not tolerant

7.1.2.3.1. French angry and attack Kanghwa island near Seoul

7.1.2.3.2. 1st time West attacks Korea

7.1.3. (1882) Unequal "friendship treaty" with the U.S.

8. Western Influence

8.1. Britain

8.1.1. Industrial Revolution

8.2. Colonialism

8.3. Christianity