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Emulsifiers by Mind Map: Emulsifiers

1. Substances which reduce the surface tension at the interface of two normally immiscible phases, allowing them to mix well form an emulsion.

1.1. Commonly known as surface-active agents or surfactants

2. Functions

2.1. Emulsification -Combination of oil and water in a compatible  dispersion. -Examples: all food products contain  substantial amounts of both oil and water.

2.2. Antistaling - Complexing action on starch to reduce              firming of the crumb. -Examples: most baked goods

2.3. Texture modifications - Complexing action on starch to reduce          clumping and improve consistency and          uniformity. -Examples: macaroni, dehydrated potatoes,     breads, and cakes.

2.4. Aeration or foaming - Initiate or control gas-in-liquid dispersions. -Examples: Toppings, icings, cakes, and  convenience desserts.

2.5. Emulsion stabilization - Improve the stability or quality of an emulsions. -Examples: Non-standardized dressings, frozen  desserts, other vegetable dairy products.

2.6. Solid Fluidization - Uniform suspension of solid particles in a          liquid. -Examples: confectionery coatings and  chocolates, fluidized shortenings.

2.7. Crystal modification - Modification of polymorphic form, size and        rate of growth in fat crystals. - shortenings, coatings and peanut butter

2.8. Palatability improvement - Emulsification of a lipid system to enhance   eating quality. -Examples: icings, coatings

2.9. Agglomeration -Controlled coagulation of fat particles in a         liquid.  - Examples: frozen desserts

2.10. Defoaming - de-emulsification of gas-in-liquid emulsions     usually on top of liquid systems.  -Examples: syrups and yeasts

2.11. Wetting - Reduction of interfacial tension between           liquid and solid surfaces to cause the liquid       to spread more quickly and evenly over             surfaces. -Examples: Convenience foods such as spray-  dried dessert mixes, coffee whiteners, and  instant breakfasts

2.12. Solubilizing - Improving ability of liquid-in-liquid                   dispersions to form clear solutions. -Examples: colors, flavors, perfumes

2.13. Stickiness and tackiness reduction -Examples: candies, chewing gums

3. How it works?

3.1. It works by reducing surface tension between the two immiscible phases due to their molecular structure. They have polar hydrophilic heads and non-polar hydrophobic tails.

3.1.1. Polar heads may consist of anionic, cationic, amphoteric, or nonionic functional groups.

3.1.2. Lipophilic tails are composed of C16 (palmitic) or longer fatty acids.

4. Types of Emulsifiers

4.1. Nonionic

4.1.1. Nonionic emulsifiers consist of uncharged molecules relatively insensitive to effects of pH and salt content. It is the most widely used emulsifier type. Examples: mono- and di-glycerides, sorbitan esters, sucrose esters, polyoxyethylene glycol oleates.

4.2. Anionic

4.2.1. Emulsifiers that possess a negative electrical charge. Its functionality may be markedly influenced by pH and ionic strength. Examples: Stearoyl lactylates, diacetyl tartaric esters of monoglycerides (DATEM), succinylated monoglycerides.

4.3. Cationic

4.3.1. Emulsifiers that have positive electrical charges.  It is not used as food additive due to its toxicity. Example: amine compounds.

4.4. Amphoteric

4.4.1. Emulsifiers that possess both positive and negative charges. Its functionality depends on pH of the system. May act as anionic or cationic emulsifiers Example: Various types of lecithins

5. Hydrophilic-Lipophilic-Balance

5.1. Expresses the balance of size and strength of the hydrophilic and the lipophilic groups on emulsifier.

5.2. High HLB values(>10) indicate relatively polar (hydrophilic) molecules. HLB values from 1-10 indicate that the emulsifiers are more lipophilic.

5.3. Used to describe the emulsifying properties of nonionic emulsifiers.

5.4. HLB values: 1. 3-6: A good w/o emulsifier 2. 7-9: A good wetting agent; can be used for         either w/o or o/w emulsions. 3. 10-18: a good o/w emulsifier.

5.5. Formula

5.5.1. HLB= HM/TM X 20 Where, HM= hydrophilic molecular part TM= Total molecular weight

5.5.2. HLB= H/5 Where, H= hydrophilic part(%)

5.5.3. HLB= 20 (1- (Sv/Av)) Where, Sv= Saponification value Av= Acid value

6. Properties of Common Food Emulsifiers

6.1. mono- and di-glycerides

6.1.1. -most commonly used emulsifiers in bakery       products, frozen desserts, icings, topings, and   peanut butter. -highly lipophilic with HLB values in the range     of 1-10 -produced by transesterification of glycerol and triglycerides

6.2. Sucrose Esters

6.2.1. -approved in 1983 -are the mono-, di- and tri- esters of sucrose      with fatty acids -usually with HLB values of 7-13  -Applications: 1. Mono-esters(HLB>16) are used for o/w             emulsions. 2. Di-esters are good for o/w emulsions. 3. Tri-esters have HLB approximately to 1.

6.3. Sorbitan Esters

6.3.1. -Sorbitan monostearate is the only sorbitan       ester approved for food use. -produced by reaction of sorbitol with stearic     acids  -commercially known as Span 60 - HLB= 4.7 -used in conjunction with polysorbates in oil toppings, cake mixes.

6.4. Polisorbates

6.4.1. -formed from the reaction of sorbitan esters       with ethylene oxide

6.5. Polysorbate 60

6.5.1. -Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate /          TWEEN 60. -HLB= 14.9 - sample applications include oil toppings,          cake mixes, and cake icing

6.6. Polysorbate 65

6.6.1. - Polyoxyethylene sorbitan tristearate or             TWEEN 65. -Permitted for use in ice cream, frozen custard,   ice milk.

6.7. Polyoxyethlene sorbitan monooleate

6.7.1. -TWEEN 80 - HLB= 15.0 - some special applications are for oils in             special dietary foods, vitamin-mineral               preparation, and fat soluble vitamins.

6.8. Stearoyl Lactylates

6.8.1. - ionic emulsifiers -possibly the most hydrophilic emulsifiers used in food -lactic acid ester of monoglyceride with sodium or calcium - form strong complex with gluten in starch -especially valuable in bakery products

6.9. Lecithin and Derivatives

6.9.1. -amphipilic emulsifiers -mixture of phospholipids -rich in egg yolks -derived commercially from soy beans -can be chemically modified to provide wide      range of HLB values -widely used in baked goods, low-fat baked  boods, chocolate, infant foods, confectionery  products, and cooking spray.

7. How to select an Emulsifiers

7.1. Consult Malaysian Food Act & Regulations

7.2. Considering functional requirements of the food system, the method of processing and the forn of finished products.

7.3. Consult suppliers for approximate usage levels and method incorporating the emulsifier into food products.

7.4. Determine HLB requirements for the food system.

7.5. Evaluate different combinations of two or more emulsifiers to determine which gives the most stable emulsion.

7.6. Optimize the usage level of emulsifier.