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Motivation by Mind Map: Motivation

1. Forces

1.1. Direction

1.1.1. a particular goal

1.2. Intensity

1.2.1. level of effort

1.3. Persistence

1.3.1. amount of time

2. Goal Setting Theory

2.1. Effective goal

2.1.1. Specific

2.1.2. Relevant

2.1.3. Challenging

2.1.4. Commitment

2.1.5. Participation

2.1.6. Feedback Specific Relevant Timely Sufficiently Credible

2.2. Limitations

2.2.1. if the goals are tied to monetary incentives many employees tend to select easy goals

2.2.2. the incapability of applying goal setting to every performance dimension of every job

3. Needs Hierarchy Theory

3.1. Satisfaction-progression process / Needs

3.1.1. Self-actualization self-fulfillment realization of one’s potential

3.1.2. Esteem self-esteem social esteem

3.1.3. Belongingness love, affection

3.1.4. Safety a secure and stable environment the absence of pain, threat or illness

3.1.5. Physiological food air water shelter

4. Theory of Learned Needs

4.1. Need for Achievement

4.1.1. High nAch Prefer working alone Desire unambiguous feedback Money is a weak motivator Successful entrepreneurs

4.1.2. Low nAch Money is used as an incentive Team leaders

4.2. Need for Affiliation

4.2.1. High nAff Want to form positive relationships with others Actively support others More effective in coordinating roles Prefer working with others

4.2.2. Low nAff Better for making resource allocation decisions

4.3. Need for Power

4.3.1. High nPow Want to exercise control over others Rely on persuasive communication personalized power socialised power

5. ERG Theory

5.1. Growth

5.1.1. self-esteem personal achievement self-actualisation

5.2. Relatedness

5.2.1. interact with other people

5.2.2. receive public recognition

5.2.3. feel secure around other people

5.3. Existence

5.3.1. Physiologically related safety needs

5.3.2. & physically related safety needs

6. Two-factors Theory

6.1. Motivators

6.1.1. Outcomes Satisfaction No Satisfaction

6.1.2. Factors achievement recognition responsibility advancement

6.2. Hygiene Factors

6.2.1. Outcomes Dissatisfaction No Dissatisfaction

6.2.2. Factors salary working conditions company policy

7. Innate Human Drives

7.1. Drive to Acquire

7.1.1. Need to take/keep objects and experiences

7.1.2. Basis of hierarchy and status

7.2. Drive to Bond

7.2.1. Need to form relationships and social commitments

7.2.2. Basis of social identity

7.3. Drive to Learn

7.3.1. Need to satisfy curiosity and resolve conflicting information

7.3.2. Basis of self-actualization

7.4. Drive to Defend

7.4.1. Need to protect ourselves

7.4.2. Reactive (not proactive) drive

7.4.3. Basis of fight or flight

8. Process

8.1. Unsatisfied Need

8.2. Tension

8.3. Drives

8.4. Search Behavior

8.5. Successful Effort

8.6. Satisfied Need

8.7. Tension Reduction

8.8. Environmental Change

9. Equity Theory

9.1. Elements

9.1.1. What employees receive pay promotion recognition

9.1.2. Investment skills effort experience, amount of time worked performance results

9.1.3. Outcomes Underreward Inequity Correcting methods Overreward Inequity Correcting methods Equity

9.2. Organizational Justice

9.2.1. Distributive Justice

9.2.2. Procedural Justice

9.2.3. Equity Principle

9.2.4. Rules Structural Rules Social Rules

10. Expectancy Theory

10.1. Effort

10.1.1. Self-efficacy Training Abilities

10.1.2. Increasing methods Train employees Select people with required competencies Provide role clarification Provide sufficient resources Provide coaching & feedback

10.2. Performance

10.2.1. Perceptions

10.2.2. Learning

10.2.3. Increasing methods Measure performance accurately Describe outcomes of good & poor performance Explain how rewards are linked to past performance

10.3. Outcomes Valences

10.3.1. Increasing methods Ensure that rewards are valued Individualize rewards Minimize countervalent outcomes

11. Challenges

11.1. Revised employment relationship

11.1.1. Potentially undermines trust and commitment

11.2. Flatter organizations

11.2.1. Fewer supervisors to monitor performance

11.3. Changing workforce

11.3.1. Younger staff have different needs