Teaching, Learning & Development

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Teaching, Learning & Development by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning & Development

1. Unit 1: Planning for the Upcoming School Year

1.1. Reflective Practitioner- analyze & reflect on practice to become an effective instructor

1.2. Schwab's Commonplace of Education

1.2.1. Teacher

1.2.2. Student

1.2.3. Topic

1.2.4. Setting

1.3. Curricular Planning- Top-down Approach

1.3.1. Educational Purpose, Learning Experiences, Evaluation

1.4. Combination of Teacher- Centered & Student-Centered

1.4.1. Constructivism

1.5. Educational Psychology

1.5.1. Learning & Cognition, Development, Social & Cultural Influences, Motivation, Behaviour and Classroom Management, Individual Differences, Assessment & Evaluation, Teaching & Instruction, & Psychological Foundations of Curricula

2. Unit 3: Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

2.1. Classroom Management

2.1.1. Dynamic Classroom Management

2.1.1.1. Caring & Supporting relationships with students

2.1.1.2. Organize & implement instruction that optimize student learning

2.1.1.2.1. Collaboratively establish classroom rules, expectations, & consequences

2.1.1.3. Use of group management methods

2.1.1.3.1. Get students to help manage classroom & regulate their own behaviour

2.1.1.4. Develop Student's' social skills & self-regulation

2.1.1.5. Appropriate interventions when assisting students with behavioural problems

2.2. Student Needs

2.2.1. To belong, be respected, & the understanding that teachers believe in them

2.2.2. To feel autonomous; Responsibility & ownership of their actions

2.2.3. To feel competent & accomplished; Increases Self-esteem

2.3. Decreasing Student Behavioural Concerns

2.3.1. Positive Feedback

2.3.2. Sustained Feedback

2.3.3. Ask questions that can be answered by students correctly

2.3.4. Intervene, Punitive & Criticism at low-rate

2.3.5. Using time efficiently

2.4. ADHD

2.4.1. Self-regulated but teacher-facilitated strategy

2.4.1.1. Self-regulation strategy will relieve instructor from constantly keeping track of behaviour, and will hold student accountable for actions

3. Unit 7: Socio-Cultural Considations

3.1. Diverse Learners

3.1.1. Teachers use knowledge on students' social, cultural, & linguistic backgrounds when planning & implementing instruction

3.1.2. Need to be aware of family & community values & norms

3.2. Teachers must gain a Critical Consciousness

3.2.1. Social & political context of society & education

3.2.2. Ideological Clarity- aware of cultural capital that students bring

3.2.3. Socio-cultural Consciousness- being aware of the influence of race, class, gender & language on one's way of thinking

3.3. Culturally Responsive Practice

3.3.1. Celebrate students as individuals, & their cultural identities

3.3.2. Culturally relevant instructional methods

3.3.3. Allow use of multiple languages in addition to target language

3.4. Prejudice

3.5. Socio-economic Status

3.6. Parenting Styles

3.6.1. Authoritarian

3.6.2. Permissive

3.6.3. Authoritative

3.6.4. Aboriginal Education

3.6.4.1. Early intervention, Resiliency, Positive Self-image, Engagement by families, Community involvement, Relevant Programming, Connections to Aboriginal role models & supports

3.7. Views on Multicultural Education

3.7.1. Diversity valued; no superior culture

3.7.2. Values of dominant culture, providing ways for students to function within it

3.7.3. Both values of dominant culture & values of diversity

4. Unit 2: Considering Developmental Differences

4.1. Principles of Development

4.1.1. Follows an orderly & logical progression

4.1.2. Gradual Progression, but not necessarily constant

4.1.3. Involves Quantitative & Qualitative changes

4.1.4. Individuals develop at different rates

4.1.5. Results from combination of Genetics (Nature) & Environment (Nurture)

4.2. Cognitive/Learning Development

4.2.1. Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development

4.2.1.1. Sensorimotor

4.2.1.2. Preoperational

4.2.1.3. Concrete Operations

4.2.1.4. Formal Operations

4.2.2. Vygotsky

4.2.2.1. Zone of Proximal Development

4.2.2.2. Scaffolding

4.3. Personal & Social Development

4.3.1. Self-determination, Self-efficacy, Temperament, Self-concept, Self-esteem

4.4. Moral Development

4.4.1. Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Reasoning

4.4.1.1. Punishment and Obedience Orientation, Instrumental Relativist Orientation, "Good Boy-Good Girl" Orientation, Law & Order Orientation, Social Contract Orientation, Universal Ethical Principle Orientation

5. Unit 6: Individual Differences: Intellectual Abilities & Challenges

5.1. Intelligence

5.1.1. Fluid intelligence (reasoning, Crystallized intelligence (language & oral development) & Visual-Spatial Reasoning (visualization)- most important!

5.2. Gardiner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences

5.2.1. Linguistic, Logical-Mathematical, Spatial, Musical, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, & Naturalistic

5.3. Sternberg's Theory of Intelligence as Processes

5.3.1. Analytical/Componential Intelligence, Creative/Experiential Intelligence, Practical/Contextual Intelligence

5.4. Presenting information in a variety of ways

5.5. Intelligence Test- WISC-IV

5.5.1. Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, & Processing Speed

5.6. Inclusive Education

5.7. Special Education

5.7.1. High-incidence Exceptionalities- Mild Disabilities

5.7.2. Low-incidence Exceptionalities- Moderate & Severe Disabilities

5.8. Individualized Education Program

5.9. Psycho-Educational Assessment

5.9.1. Identification, Diagnostic Instruction, Referral, Evaluation of Student Progress, Educational Intervention, Assessment/IEP

5.10. Differentiated Learning

6. Unit 8: Standardized Achievement Tests

6.1. Designed for large groups of individuals; same questions for all; all in similar environment, & within a specific time period

6.2. Achievement & Aptitude Tests

6.2.1. Achievement Test: based on learning objectives that should be common in all classrooms

6.2.2. Aptitude Test: specific ability test assessing specific cognitive, social & behavioural skills

6.3. Criterion-referenced Test & Norm-referenced Tests

6.3.1. Criterion-referenced Tests- score based on comparison between how individual scored and what is expected

6.3.2. Norm-referenced Test: score based on comparison to other students who had completed the same test

6.4. Purpose of Standardized Testing

6.4.1. Monitor Achievement Trends

6.4.2. Identify/Modify instructional methods that produce the best performance

6.4.3. Hold teachers, schools & districts accountable

6.5. Opinions on ST

6.5.1. "Those who oppose the implementation of standardized tests feel it is not an accurate representation of student ability, that is stressful for students and teachers, that schools go to great lengths to prepare students to match or be above standards (Edmunds & Edmunds, 283), and that it treats students the same despite children learning at different rates and levels (Edmunds & Edmunds, 284). There are also arguments that these tests don’t account for linguistic, cultural or socio-economic differences, and it fails to take into consideration “21st century skills such as creativity, technological ability, problem solving or critical thinking skills” (The Facts on Education: What is the Value of Standardized Testing)."

6.5.2. "Those who are supportive of the tests, stating that the data acquired can be “stimulus for action” (Edmunds & Edmunds, 284). The results of these tests may get the province to support schools who require extra resources or supports to improve their scores. Prof. Pascal noted that there were a number of schools with students who are socio-economically disadvantaged, but still managed to perform well, and which led them to receive more resources (Edmunds & Edmunds, 284)."

7. Unit 4: Making Instructional Decisions

7.1. Diagnostic Assessment

7.2. Backward Design

7.2.1. Learning Objective: What do I want students to learn?

7.2.2. How will I find out whether or not they have learned?

7.2.3. What will be taught?

7.2.4. How will it be taught?

7.3. Breaking down curricula into larger manageable units (broad learning objectives) & then into lesson plans (Specific Learning Objectives)

7.4. Bloom's Taxonomy

7.4.1. Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis & Evaluation

7.5. Universal Instructional Design

7.5.1. Welcoming environment emphasizing academic & behavioural success

7.5.2. Variety of instructional methods

7.5.3. Use of technology

7.5.4. Variety of assessment tools

7.6. Students feel more motivated when their teachers care about them, as as well as their academic performance

7.7. How People Learn (HPL) Framework

7.7.1. Knowledge-Centredness

7.7.2. Learner-Centredness

7.7.3. Community-Centredness

7.7.4. Assessment-Centredness

7.8. Direct Instruction

8. Unit 5: Assessing Student Progress

8.1. Homework

8.1.1. Additional Practice

8.1.2. Higher achievement in Secondary School

8.2. Forms of Assessment

8.2.1. Diagnostic (Before Instruction)

8.2.2. Formative Assessment (Teachers assess understanding-Homework, Class Participation, Quizzes)

8.2.3. Summative Assessment (After Instruction, Following completion of instructional unit)

8.3. Design- tools & measures of student achievement that accurately test what students know

8.4. Content Validity

8.5. Frequency of Testing- Shorter but frequent testing recommended

8.6. Types of Assessment Questions

8.6.1. Selected-Response Questions

8.6.1.1. True/False Questions

8.6.1.2. Matching Questions

8.6.1.3. Multiple Choice Questions

8.6.2. Constructed-Response Questions

8.6.2.1. Short Answer

8.6.2.2. Restricted-essay & Essay Questions

8.7. Criterion-based Assessment