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Keeping your distance by Mind Map: Keeping your distance
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Keeping your distance

The Dissertation

Chapter 1:Introduction

Substantive area is Distance education, The perception that distance in distance education is a problem for participants

Why GTM, looking for patterns of behavior and the meaning that people attach to their experience, See also propositional attitudes (eg hopes, beliefs, simplest components of thought and can be true and false), Limitations of quantitative research, Translational research Translational research is research that (or so we try to do) spans both basic science and clinical science; i.e., bridges the gap between basic and clinical science., One of the major limitations of systems analysis is that we really don't understand people very well and positivist research doesn't help much., human brain is adapted to recognize patterns and construct models of reality. The process maybe largely intutitve and rational though may block pattern recognition and the ability to form new concepts. GTM promotes the use of abduction which allows for surprising facts and occurances., Concept of eliminative materialism that suggested that there are physical substrates of emotions or beliefs. We just haven't discover them yet. Suggests that folk understanding of the brain will be replaced by neuroscientific explanations as the mechanisms are discovered. Good Quote: people's commonsense view of the mind is actually an implicit theory. It is to be compared and contrasted with other scientific theories in its explanatory success, accuracy, and ability to allow us to make correct predictions about the future., Positivist Research purporting to demonstrate that when people lack control they make up patterns. Whitson, J., & Galinsky, A. (2008). Lacking control increases illusory pattern perception. Science, 322(5898), 115. doi: 10.1126/science.1159845., Positivistic research is easier to do but not as meaningful. Shankar Goulding 2000, John Polkinghorne quote "Most of nature is more cloud-like than clock-like., New node, mid-range theory Robert K Merton, Realms of human existence; material, organic, and meaning Polkinghorne, D. 1988 Quantitative methods may be applied exclusively to the first two realms but not to the realm of meaning. The primary form whereby human experience is made meaningful is through narrative.

The GTM process, The question, The analysts persepective, dealing with preconceptions, Preconceptions must earn their way into the theory, avoiding logical elaboration, Reflexivity, processes of knowledge production, Deduction, Theory, Hypothesis, Observation, Confirmation, induction, Observation, Pattern, tentative hypothesis, Theory, abduction, Sources of data, interview data from emic or insider sources, DE students, DE providers, non-DE, etic data: outsider knowledge or observations, preconceptions and extant theories considered as another source of data and must earn their way into the analysis like any other source of data., the assumption that DE is alienating, lonely and isolating, The assumption that the sense of "distance" is responsible for attrition and poor completion rates, gestalt theory perceptual field studies. Higher order social behavior patterns may be subject to similar operations. You don't notice a pattern until something changes an animal camoflaged in its environment is invisible until a slight movement allows us to resolve the image in our brain we then can't NOT see the animal. Like the behaviors related to KYD they may not have been as visible but now something has change eg tech more available., web based resources, policy documents, conference proceedings, popular culture, movies,literature,new media, SNS, MSM messages, literature from substantive area examined for ideas and concepts after the core variable has emerged to avoid verification and to promote emergence, introspection about experience in substantive area and about reactions to other data sources., collegial comments, remarks of those who hear about KYD Odis, observation

Chapter 2: Method

Data collection

Initial data sample and the emergence of the putative core variable


Properties (Categories) , dimensions and indicators, causes, conditions, contexts, contingencies, consequences, and covariances, codes from Polkinghorne, D (1988): material, organic, meaning realms of human existence

Theoretical sensitivity and theoretical sampling other theoretical frameworks tapped for theoretical concepts, evolutionary psychology, eliminative materialism, folk psychology, Heidegger, Being-in-the-world, discusses concepts of distance and nearness, Memetics, Pierce pragmatism abstract/concrete-concrete to abstract. Distance is a concrete thing but we have abstracted it to have other meanings. Universals, concepts that have meaning beyond symbolic., Sartre, "Hell is other people", behavioral economics, risk aversion Arrow Pratt coefficient

Theoretical outline concept map

Refining memos from concrete to conceptual

Sorting, sampling and delimiting

Articulating the theory

Chapter 3:The Theory of KYD

Core variable:Keeping your distance

Contexts for KYD, World of work, social worlds, family, communities of practice (professional distance), intra-personal emotional and cognitive distance. The causes my be as consequence of maladaptive behavior on the part of individuals or as responses to untenable situations. Higher education is rife with untenable situations and has been characterized as a complex and highly organized hostage taking incident.

Functions of KYD

Properties of KYD, personal distancing, personal space, psychological distancing, eg extremes of classroom behavior in children clinging vs autistic, clinging/flinging, folk psychology is a fully developed but non-formalized theory of human behavior used to explain and make predictions about human mental states and behavior,, Archetypes, spirituality, witchcraft, superstition and religion, pathology: psychopathy, sociopathy, autism, hermit, misanthrope, alienation, escapism, fantasy, As a punishment or torture: solitary confinement, emotional distance, male/female relationship strategies, put a little distance between...., temporal distance, geographic (spatial) distance, experiential distance, dimensions, fragility/resiliance, cultural distancing, age as a dimension, generational styles and preferences, conscious choices to attract some and repel others attracting/repelling, the richer and more powerful you are the greater the distance you can maintain. Dick Cheney sees no one., isolation, quarantine, internment camp, ghetto, concentration camp, segregation, Indian reservations, professional distancing, critical distance eg for analytical purposes with respect to data and theorizing Wilton article about KYD Balancing, professional distance eg therapeutic relationships, break down walls/ maintain distance, context/causes/consequences, boundaries, clothing or personal style choices, hair cut, piercings, suit and tie., emotional fire wall, identifying boundaries, identifying boundary markers, language, Stages of KYD, etiology, As a reaction, to life events, to life stages, to trauma, to changing options, If I can get my needs met without direct physical contact. Eg social contact, emotional support, spirituals support, education, As you gain more power and control over your life choices you tend to intensify KYD to minimize contact with hoi poloi, developmental, Adolescent stage autonomy/idependance, Failure to Launch, evolving, Contexts/causes/consequences, As a conscious strategy, Adaptive, manages chaos where cause and effect aren't clearly linked, social butterfly vs hermit, Maladaptive, covariance with personal demographic changes, institutional distancing, affinity programs to reduce distance between potential customers and the institution., binding/resisting, recognition that some institutions cling to outmoded ideas, epistemologies, pedagogies, but still hold the crediting power. Taken to the extreme gives private universities that exist only to promote certain ideological positions, Christian or African American or MacDonalds Universities., Younger people recognized this innately, hippie, punk movement anti-intelectualism., George Bush has donated all his papers to XXX University who will control access and thus form opinion (history), recent report of testing done on Gr8 in Maine 75% were deficient in their writing skills but the question was loaded and kids responded by not responding with BS detectors on full power., dimensions of institutional distance: between students and faculty, between faculty and administration, between students and administration, illustration of contrasting group values where choice of narrative is part of the strategy for KYD. IT and Admin from McDonagh, J., & Coghlan, D. (2001)., technological distancing, Digital divide, maintaining a metaphorical firewall, spacial metaphors and tech:out in front, on the edge, in the cloud, proximity, propinquitiy, 6 degrees of separation Milgram(1967) reduced from 6 to 3 by SNS, glocalization, networked individualism, technology has changed the concept of distance in a physical sense and people are adapting social borganism, cyborg fundamental social patterns maybe changing profoundly although KYD may be the consistent theoretical component. You wanted to KYD before but it wasn't practical now it is possible and practical and more people are opting for it., Some times you don't see a pattern until something moves or something changes like a magic eye or a gestalt. Once you see the new order of things it is difficult to see the old., The Death of Distance 1995 Cairncross book was an early popular use of this term but earlier references are in Heidegger 1970's commenting on the way that communications technology has fundamentally altered our notion of distance., "How do we shorten the distance between our thoughts? By recognizing that thought networking is not semantically-enhanced social networking. This is the essence of pure and frictionless semantic networks. Semantic representations, the language of thought, provide a medium that makes thoughts tangible. And unlike simple documents, these highly structured models provide the ability for computers to “read” our thoughts and mediate across the thoughts of different people. Decoupled from documents and social networks, the connect time between our thoughts can go from months to seconds." Term distance is used with hesitation to discuss web related thinking and transmission of ideas., "Keeping", implies that you have it, own it, want it, and it has value to you., gerund implies action, "your", Personal strategy but not engaged without interaction., also implies that much of the negotiation of KYD is internal, the deals we do with ourselves, "distance", hugely rich concept for human beings, meaningful at all levels of reality, material, organic and meaning in Polkinghorne's schema., Representialized??? gone from concrete to abstract in human understanding and parlance

Dimensions of KYD

Chapter 4 Conclusions

Implications, For DE, for institutions of higher learning, for individuals, commercial applications

Limitations of the theory, changing situations, changing institutions, Changing notions of distance, does this fit here? Trying to establishe the range of a theory like KYD. Does it verify eliminative materialism. propositional attitudes higher order than qualia or sensation. Is this theoretical sampling.

Further Research, empirical investigation of dimensions, fluctuations and variations, Interaction of KYD with existing theoretical positions

Fit and grab


Fluctuations and variations of KYD

Scope or KYD and generalizability

Chapter 5 Summary


The Theory

Conditions that evoke a KYD response: 1.threats to autonomy, personal safety, emotional stability, self-definition 2. perceived drains on mental, emotional, spiritual or physical energy.

Cause: KYD as filter: personal disposition low tolerance for annoyance, Consequence: adaptive or maladaptive patterns of behavior, Covariance: life experience, emotional trauma, family of origin issues

Cause: KYD as infection control emotional trauma, bullying, physical assault, rape,dislocation, Consequence: alienation, misanthrope, hermit, lone wolf, isolation,, Covariance:Intervention, access to therapy, mentor, significant relationships

Cause:Life circumstances CAGER geography, disability, Consequence: pattern of KYD behaviors variable and adjustable depending on circumstances

Cause: life experience, Consequence: Adaptive pattern of

Cause: Chaos, situations where there is an ambiguous connection between cause and effect., Consequence: KYD is default position, Covariance: Life stages