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Biology by Mind Map: Biology
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The study of living things

11-1 Work of Gregor Mendel


Seed shape ,seed color, plant height

Gene=Part of DNA coding for trait

Allele=2 Contrasting forms of gene

Gregor Mendel & Pea Plants

7 Traits each with contrasting alleles

Self Pollination vs Cross Pollination

Mendels First Conclusion

Law of Dominance, Capital Letter=Dominant, Lowercase Letter=Recessive

11-3 Exploring Mendel Genetics

Independent assortment-allels for seed shape segerated independtly of those for seed color

Mendels results were very close to the 9:3:3:1 ratio

Mendels Principles

Biological characteristics are determined by genes

Some parts may be dominant others may be recessive

Allels usually seperate independently

Incomplete Dominance-One allele is not completlt domaint over another

Codominance-Both allels contribute to the phenotype

Multiple Alleles-Genes that have more than two alleles

11-2 Probablity & Punnett Squares

Probability=Liklihood that a particular event will occur

Coin toss

Punnett Squares=Gene combination that might result from a genetic cross can be determined by drawing a diagram

Letters in the Punnett square represent alleles

Punnett squares are used to predict and compare the genetic variables that will result from a cross

Homozygous-organisms that have two identical alles for the same trait

Heterozygous-Organisms that have two different alles for the same trait

11-4 Meosis

Homologous-Each of the 4 chromosomes that came from the male patient has a corresponding chromosome from the female patient

Diploid-"Two sets"

Crossing over-exchange portions of their chromatids

The difference between mitosis and meiosis

Mitosis results in the prodtuction of two genetically identicall diploid cells

Meiosis produces four gentically different haploid cells