CHAPTER 3-TEXT

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CHAPTER 3-TEXT by Mind Map: CHAPTER 3-TEXT

1. Understanding Fonts and Typefaces.

1.1. A typeface is a family of graphic characters, often with many type sizes and styles. Example : Bookman Old Style

1.2. A font is a collection of characters of a single size and style belonging to a particular typeface family. Example : Arial 18 point Bold

1.3. The study of fonts and typefaces includes the following: Font styles Font terminology Cases

1.3.1. Boldface

1.3.2. Italic

1.3.3. Underlining

1.3.4. Outlining

1.4. Font Terminology

1.4.1. Baseline – the line on which the bases of characters are arranged

1.4.2. Cap height - cap height refers to the height of a capital letter

1.4.3. x-height – the distance between the baseline and the top of a lower-case letter x

1.4.4. Ascenders/descenders – strokes that rise above the x-height/drop below the baseline

1.4.5. Kerning – adjustment of space between certain pairs of letters (e.g. AV) to make them look more uniform

1.4.6. Tracking - adjustment of space for groups of letters

1.5. Serif versus sans serif

1.5.1. Fonts can broadly be said to be of one of two types: serif or sans serif

1.5.2. A serif is the little decoration at the end of a letter stroke.

1.5.3. Serif fonts are used for printed media or documents that have large quantities of text.

1.5.4. Sans serif fonts do not have decoration at the end of a letter stroke.

1.5.5. Sans serif fonts are used for headlines and bold statements. It is considered better for computer displays.

1.6. Cases -A capitalized letter is referred to as uppercase, while a small letter is referred to as lowercase. -Placing an uppercase letter in the middle of a word is referred to as an intercap or CamelCase.

2. Using Text Elements in a Multimedia Presentation

2.1. The text elements used in multimedia are:

2.1.1. Menus for navigation

2.1.2. Interactive buttons

2.1.3. Fields for reading

2.1.4. HTML documents

2.1.5. Symbols and icons

2.2. Menus for navigation

2.2.1. A user navigates through content using a menu.

2.2.2. A simple menu consists of a text list of topics.

2.3. Interactive buttons

2.3.1. A button is a clickable object that executes a command when activated.

2.3.2. Users can create their own buttons from bitmaps and graphics.

2.4. Symbols and icons

2.4.1. Symbols are concentrated text in the form of stand-alone graphic constructs.

2.4.2. They are used to convey meaningful messages.

2.5. Fields for reading

2.5.1. Reading a hard copy is easier and faster than reading from the computer screen.

2.5.2. A document can be printed in one of two orientations: portrait or landscape.

2.5.3. The taller-than-wide orientation used for printing documents is called portrait.

2.5.4. The wider-than-tall orientation that is normal to monitors is called landscape.

2.6. HTML documents

2.6.1. HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language.

2.6.2. is the standard markup language used to create web pages.

2.6.3. HTML documents are marked using tags.

2.6.4. An advanced form of HTML is DHTML.

2.6.5. DHTML stands for Dynamic Hypertext Markup Language.

2.6.6. a collection of technologies used together to create interactive and animated web sites.

2.6.7. DHTML uses

2.6.7.1. static HTML

2.6.7.2. Client side scripting language- such as Javascript

2.6.7.3. Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).

2.7. Some of the commonly used tags are:

2.7.1. The <B> tag for making text boldfaced

2.7.2. The <OL> tag for creating an ordered list

2.7.3. The <IMG> tag for inserting images

2.8. Choosing text fonts

2.8.1. Consider legibility and readability.

2.8.2. Avoid too many faces.

2.8.3. Use color purposefully.

2.8.4. Use anti-aliased text.

2.8.5. Use drop caps and initial caps for accent.

2.8.6. Minimize centered text.

2.8.7. Use white space.

2.8.8. Use animated text to grab attention.

3. Computers and Text

3.1. -Bitmap font and Vector font -Character sets

4. Bitmap vs Vector

4.1. Fonts can either be stored as bitmapped or vector

4.2. Bitmaps font consist of a matrix of dots or pixels representing the image.

4.2.1. File size increases as more sizes are added.

4.2.2. Require a lot of memory.

4.2.3. Non-scalable.

4.3. Vector fonts drawing use instructions and mathematical formulae to describe each glyph.

4.4. can draw any size by scaling the vector drawing primitives mathematically

4.4.1. File size is much smaller than bitmaps.

4.4.2. TrueType, OpenType and PostScript are vector font formats.

5. Rasterization

5.1. Font rasterization is the process of converting text from a vector description to a raster or bitmap description

5.2. Jaggies are the jagged edges you see when a bitmapped image is resized

5.3. Character sets

5.3.1. Computers can only understand numbers, so an ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) code is the numerical representation of a character.

5.3.2. Each character is represented by a unique 7-bit binary code word, meaning that there are 128 (27) alternative characters.

5.4. Extended Character Set (ISO Latin-1)

5.4.1. Extra 1 bit in ASCII –up to 256 characters

5.4.2. is used while programming the text of HTML pages.

5.5. Unicode

5.5.1. Unicode is a 16-bit architecture for multilingual text and character encoding.

5.5.2. covers 96,382 characters

5.5.3. Unicode can support a wide variety of non-Roman alphabets including Han Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, Korean, Bengali, and so on.

6. Font Mapping

6.1. Some fonts installed in your machine may not be available in other user’s machine.

6.2. If the fonts that you used is not available in other people’s computer, a default font will be used for substitution.

6.3. Specifying which font to be substitution is called font mapping.

6.4. FontLab, Ltd.

6.5. Creating attractive texts

6.6. Fontographer

6.6.1. Fontographer is a specialized graphics editor.

6.6.2. It is compatible with both Macintosh and Windows platforms.

6.6.3. It can be used to develop PostScript, TrueType, and OpenType fonts.

6.6.4. It can also modify existing typefaces and incorporate PostScript artwork.

6.7. Hypertext

6.7.1. Hypertext is a text which contains links to other texts.

6.7.2. The term was invented by Ted Nelson around 1965.

6.7.3. Hypertext is the subset of hypermedia.

6.8. Hypermedia

6.8.1. Hypermedia is not constrained to be text-based.

6.8.2. It can include other media, e.g., graphics, images, and especially the continuous media – sound and video.

6.9. A hypertext or hypermedia system enables the user to navigate through text in a nonlinear way.

6.10. Navigating hypermedia structures

6.10.1. The simplest way to navigate hypermedia structures is via buttons.

6.11. Hypermedia structures

6.11.1. Links

6.11.2. Nodes

6.11.3. Anchors