Biology Midterm Review

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Biology Midterm Review by Mind Map: Biology Midterm Review

1. Eukaryotic Structure

1.1. Nucleus

1.1.1. DNA is located in here

1.2. Has a cytoplasm, ribosomes, DNA, and plasma membrane as well as a Prokaryote

1.3. Cytoplasm is located between nucleus and plasma membrane

1.4. Bigger and more complex than Prokaryotes

1.5. Organelles found

1.5.1. Centrosome

1.5.2. Ribosomes

1.5.3. Cytoskeleton

1.5.4. Surface

1.5.4.1. Flagellum

1.5.4.2. Plasmadesmoda

1.5.4.3. Cell Wall

1.5.4.4. Plasma Membrane

1.5.4.5. Microvilli

1.5.5. Endomembrane System

1.5.5.1. Endoplasmic Reticulum

1.5.5.1.1. Rough

1.5.5.1.2. Smooth

1.5.5.2. Golgi Apparatus

1.5.5.3. Vesicle

1.5.5.3.1. Lysosomes

1.5.5.3.2. Vacuole

1.5.6. Endosymbiosed

1.5.6.1. Chloroplast

1.5.6.2. Mitochondrion

2. History of Life on Earth & Organic Chemistry

2.1. Early Earth

2.1.1. Physical and Chemical Processes that Led to the First Cell in 4 stages:

2.1.1.1. 1. Abiotic Synthesis of Small Organic Molecules

2.1.1.2. 2. Joining of these Small Molecules into Macromolecules

2.1.1.3. 3. Packaging of these Molecules into Protocells

2.1.1.3.1. Protocells: droplets with membranes that maintained an internal chemistry different from surroundings

2.1.1.4. 4. Origin of Self Replicating Molecules

2.1.1.4.1. This eventually made inheritance possible

2.1.2. Conditions

2.1.2.1. Earth was formed 4.6 billion years ago

2.1.2.2. Earth was uninhabitable until 4.2-3.9 billion years ago

2.1.2.3. The first atmosphere was thick with water vapor and various compounds were released by volcanic eruptions

2.1.2.4. As earth cooled, water vapor condensed into oceans and lots of hydrogen escaped to space.

2.1.2.5. Early earth is hypothesized to have been a reducing environment

2.2. Water

2.2.1. All properties of water are a result of its polarity

2.2.1.1. High Specific Heat: Water heats very slowly and is therefore good at maintaining its temperature

2.2.1.2. High Heat of Vaporization

2.2.1.2.1. Perspiration

2.2.1.3. Universal Solvent

2.2.1.4. Capillary Action

2.2.1.4.1. Cohesion: Water is attracted to itself

2.2.1.4.2. Adhesion: Water is attracted to other polar substances

2.3. Organic Chemistry

2.3.1. Lipids

2.3.1.1. Lipids are hydrophobic

2.3.1.2. 5 Classifications

2.3.1.2.1. Fats and Oils

2.3.1.2.2. Cholesterol and Steroids

2.3.1.2.3. Phospholipids

2.3.1.2.4. Waxes

2.3.1.2.5. Pigments

2.3.2. Carbohydrates

2.3.2.1. Simple Sugars

2.3.2.1.1. Monosaccharides

2.3.2.1.2. Disaccharides

2.3.2.2. Polysaccharides

2.3.2.2.1. Storage Polysaccharides

2.3.2.2.2. Structural Polysaccharides

2.3.3. Proteins

2.3.3.1. Shape Dictates Function

2.3.3.1.1. Structure

2.3.3.1.2. Hormones

2.3.3.1.3. Immune System

2.3.3.1.4. Transport

2.3.3.1.5. Muscle

2.3.3.1.6. Enzyme

2.3.3.1.7. Receptors

2.3.3.1.8. Storage

2.3.3.2. Backbone: composed of an amino group, a carboxyl group and an "R" group attached to a carbon

2.3.3.3. Protein Folding

2.3.3.3.1. Primary Structure

2.3.3.3.2. Secondary Structure: maintained by hydrogen bonds of the backbone

2.3.3.3.3. Tertiary Structure

2.3.3.3.4. Quaternary Structure

2.3.3.3.5. Chaperonins ensure proper folding

2.3.3.4. Denaturation

2.3.3.4.1. Can occur at high temperatures, too high or too low pH levels and at abnormal amount of salinity

2.3.3.5. Polymers are called Polypeptides, held together by Polypeptide bonds

2.3.4. Nucleic Acids

2.3.4.1. Function

2.3.4.1.1. Make Proteins

2.3.4.1.2. Make up Genes

2.3.4.1.3. RNA Workers

2.3.4.2. Examples of Nucleic Acids

2.3.4.2.1. DNA

2.3.4.2.2. RNA

2.3.4.3. Structure: Made up of Nucleotides

2.3.4.3.1. Each nucleotide consists of:

2.3.4.3.2. Bonding

2.3.4.3.3. Two strands of DNA wind together in an antiparellel double helix

2.3.4.3.4. There are two ends to each strand

3. Eukaryotes Continued

3.1. Protein Synthesis

3.1.1. Transcription

3.1.1.1. Prokaryotes

3.1.1.1.1. DNA is not separated by nuclear

3.1.1.1.2. Has 1 RNA Polymerase

3.1.1.1.3. Intiation doesn't need any proteins or transcription factors

3.1.1.1.4. mRNA Primary Transcript has few surplus nucleotides

3.1.1.1.5. no RNA Processing

3.1.1.1.6. Has termination sequence

3.1.1.1.7. Uses operons

3.1.1.2. Eukaryotes

3.1.1.2.1. Starts with DNA inside nucleus

3.1.1.2.2. RNA Processing

3.1.1.2.3. Transcription Factors

3.1.1.2.4. Pre-mRNA

3.1.1.2.5. Has 3 RNA Polymerases

3.1.1.2.6. Initiation requires transcription factors which help recognize TATA Box

3.1.1.2.7. mRNA Primary Transcript has more surplus nucleotides than Prokaryotes

3.1.1.2.8. Has Polyadenylation sequence

3.1.1.2.9. No operons (transcription factors instead)

3.1.1.3. General Overview

3.1.1.3.1. Synthesis of RNA on a DNA template

3.1.1.3.2. 2 nucleic acids are rewritten

3.1.1.3.3. DNA strand serves as a template for RNA nucleotides

3.1.1.3.4. Initiation

3.1.1.3.5. Elongation

3.1.1.3.6. Termination

3.1.1.4. DNA to RNA

3.1.2. Translation

3.1.2.1. Prokaryotes

3.1.2.1.1. Synthesizes 20 amino acids per second

3.1.2.1.2. 3 initiation factors

3.1.2.1.3. Continuous process as it's all in the cytoplasm

3.1.2.2. Eukaryotes

3.1.2.2.1. Synthesizes about 1 amino acid per second

3.1.2.2.2. 9 initiation factors

3.1.2.2.3. Non continuous process because of transcription happening inside nucleus

3.1.2.3. General Overview

3.1.2.3.1. Synthesis of a polypeptide using the info in mRNA

3.1.2.3.2. Sites of translation are ribosomes

3.1.2.3.3. Translate nucleotide sequence of mRNA into amino acid sequence of polypeptide

3.1.3. RNA to Protein

3.1.4. `

3.2. Gene Expression

3.2.1. Allows cells to express proteins when needed

3.2.2. Operons in Prokaryotes

3.2.2.1. Lac Operon

3.2.2.1.1. Inducible Operon

3.2.2.2. Trp Operon

3.2.2.2.1. Repressible Operon

3.2.3. DNA Methylation

3.2.3.1. Can put the genes in an "off position" (turn them off)

3.2.3.2. Addition of a methyl (CH3) group to the DNA strand itself often to the fifth carbon atom of a cytosine ring

3.2.3.3. Cytosine can methylate certain bases in DNA

3.2.3.4. Occurs in most plants, animals, and fungi

3.2.3.5. Long stretches of inactive DNA is usually more methylated than active DNA

3.2.3.5.1. Individual genes are more heavily methylated in cells in which they are not expressed

3.2.3.6. A methylation pattern that is passed on through daughter cells correctly accounts for genome imprinting in animals

3.2.3.6.1. Methylation permanentely regulates expression of either the maternal or paternal allele of particular genes at the start of development

3.2.4. Histone Acetylation

3.2.4.1. Acetyl groups are attatched to lysines in histone tails

3.2.4.1.1. Lysines positive charges become neutral and histone tails no longer bind to neighboring nucleosomes

3.2.4.2. Histone Acetylation enzymes promote the initiation of transcription

3.2.4.3. Addition of methyl groups condenses the chromatin

3.2.4.3.1. Histone Methylation

3.2.4.4. Phosphate groups expand the chromatin (opposite of methyl groups)

3.2.4.4.1. Phosphorylation

3.2.5. Epigenetic Inheritance

3.2.5.1. Inhertiance of traits trasmitted by mechanisms not directly involving the nucleotide sequence

3.2.5.1.1. Might help explain why 1 indentical twin acquires a genetic disease and 1 doesn't

3.2.5.1.2. Inappropriate gene expression from from alterations in DNA Methylation can be found in some cancers

3.2.5.2. Modifications in the chromatin can be reversed

3.3. Metabolism

3.3.1. Photosynthesis

3.3.1.1. Light Dependent Reactions

3.3.1.1.1. Step 1

3.3.1.1.2. Step 2

3.3.1.1.3. Step 3

3.3.1.1.4. Step 4

3.3.1.1.5. Step 5

3.3.1.1.6. Step 6

3.3.1.1.7. Step 7

3.3.1.1.8. Step 8

3.3.1.1.9. Step 9

3.3.1.1.10. Step 10

3.3.1.2. Calvin Cycle (Light independent)

3.3.1.2.1. Carbon Fixation

3.3.1.2.2. Reduction

3.3.1.2.3. Regeneration of RuBP

3.3.2. Cellular Respiration

3.3.2.1. Glycolysis

3.3.2.1.1. Means sugar breaking

3.3.2.1.2. Energy Investment

3.3.2.1.3. Energy Payoff

3.3.2.2. Link Reaction

3.3.2.2.1. Purpose is to alter pyruvates

3.3.2.2.2. CoEnzyme A is added to the Pyruvate

3.3.2.3. Krebs Cycle

3.3.2.3.1. 2 Carbon Dioxide is released

3.3.2.3.2. What is Produced

3.3.2.4. Electron Transport Chain

3.3.2.4.1. Uses high energy electrons from Glycolysis and Krebs Cycle to convert ADP to ATP

3.3.2.4.2. NADH and FADH2 pass electrons to the chain

3.3.2.4.3. Composed of a series of electron carriers located in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion

3.3.2.4.4. End of chain combines electrons with O2 to form H20 as water is then released

3.3.2.4.5. Product

4. Prokaryotes: The First Life on Earth

4.1. Enzymes

4.1.1. biological catalyst

4.1.1.1. increases rate of reaction by lowering activation energy

4.1.1.2. not consumed by the reaction

4.1.2. Made of proteins or RNA

4.1.2.1. shape determines function

4.1.3. biological importance

4.1.3.1. Temperature: helps organism reach temperature needed for reaction

4.1.3.2. Speed: can increase the rate of reaction

4.1.3.2.1. helpful in maintaining homeostasis

4.1.3.3. Specificity: only used when specific enzymes are needed

4.1.4. Structure

4.1.4.1. Substrate and enzyme bind together at the active site

4.1.4.1.1. fits together with coordinating charges and shape

4.1.5. How they work

4.1.5.1. Induced fit

4.1.5.1.1. adds stress to bonds so they are easier to break

4.1.5.2. Proper orientation

4.1.5.2.1. puts substrates into position to make new bonds

4.1.5.3. Sheltering

4.1.5.3.1. keeps internal environment different from surroundings, allowing reactions to occur

4.1.6. What affects activity

4.1.6.1. Temperature

4.1.6.2. pH

4.1.6.3. Enzyme Concentration

4.1.6.4. Substrate Concentration

4.1.6.5. Cofactors

4.1.6.5.1. enhance enzyme activity

4.1.6.5.2. Coenzymes

4.1.6.6. Inhibitors

4.1.6.6.1. competitive

4.1.6.6.2. noncompetitive/allostery

4.2. Free Energy

4.2.1. Types of Energy

4.2.1.1. Potential

4.2.1.1.1. Chemical

4.2.1.2. Kinetic

4.2.1.2.1. light

4.2.1.2.2. thermal

4.2.2. Laws of Thermodynamics

4.2.2.1. 1st Law

4.2.2.1.1. Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, only transferred from one type to another

4.2.2.2. 2nd Law

4.2.2.2.1. entropy is constantly increasing in a closed system

4.2.3. Free Energy (G)

4.2.3.1. energy available to do work

4.2.3.2. Spontaneity

4.2.3.2.1. negative change in G

4.2.3.2.2. positive change in G

4.2.3.3. Coupling

4.2.3.3.1. the sum of energy in all reactants compared to products must be less than 0

4.2.3.3.2. ATP

4.2.3.4. Early Earth

4.2.3.4.1. lightning and thermal vents possibly provided the input of energy needed

4.2.3.4.2. making complex molecules is unfavorable without the input of free energy

4.2.3.4.3. all living organisms use ATP

4.3. Cell Membranes

4.3.1. Structure

4.3.1.1. Phospholipid bilayer

4.3.1.1.1. hydrophilic phosphate heads

4.3.1.1.2. hydrophobic tails

4.3.1.2. Proteins

4.3.1.2.1. Integral Proteins

4.3.1.2.2. Peripheral Proteins

4.3.1.2.3. Proteins embedded in the membrane was supported by freeze fracturing

4.3.1.2.4. Functions

4.4. Transport

4.4.1. Active Transport

4.4.1.1. Pumps

4.4.1.1.1. Sodium/Potassium Pump

4.4.1.1.2. powered by ATP - work against the concentration gradient

4.4.2. Bulk Transport

4.4.2.1. Phagocytosis

4.4.2.1.1. "cell eating"

4.4.2.2. Pinocytosis

4.4.2.2.1. "cell drinking"

4.4.2.3. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

4.4.2.4. Exocytosis

4.4.2.4.1. vesicle merges with membrane

4.5. Prokaryotic Structure

4.5.1. found in ALL cells

4.5.1.1. cell membrane

4.5.1.2. cytoplasm (cytosol and organelles)

4.5.1.3. DNA (in nucleoid region)

4.5.1.4. Ribosomes (make proteins)

4.5.2. other parts of prokaryotes

4.5.2.1. Passive Transport

4.5.2.1.1. no energy or coupling needed

4.5.2.1.2. goes from high to low

4.5.2.1.3. Simple Diffusion

4.5.2.1.4. Facilitated Diffusion

4.5.2.1.5. Osmosis

4.5.2.2. pili

4.5.2.3. capsid

4.5.2.4. cell wall

4.5.2.5. flagella

4.5.3. What are Prokaryotes?

4.5.3.1. first membrane-bound organisms alive

4.5.3.2. ancestors to all organisms

4.5.3.3. Modern: Bacteria

4.5.3.3.1. Eubacteria - true bacteria

4.5.3.3.2. Archarbacteria - ancient bacteria

4.5.3.3.3. cell wall made of peptidoglycan

4.6. Cell Division

4.6.1. Binary Fission

4.6.1.1. Definition

4.6.1.1.1. asexual production

4.6.1.1.2. replicate genetic material, cell divides

4.6.1.2. Steps and Processes

4.6.1.2.1. 1. replication of DNA

4.6.1.2.2. 2. replication enzymes move out in both directions until reach terminus of replication

4.6.1.2.3. 3. cell elongates

4.6.1.2.4. 4. new membrane and cell wall begin to grow

4.6.1.2.5. 5. when complete, cell pinches in two

4.6.1.3. Terms

4.6.1.3.1. DNA

4.6.1.3.2. Origin of Replication

4.6.1.3.3. Terminus of Replication

4.6.1.3.4. Septum

4.6.1.3.5. Septation

4.7. DNA Replicaiton

4.7.1. Eukaryotes vs Prokaryotes

4.7.1.1. Prokaryotes

4.7.1.1.1. occurs in cytoplasm

4.7.1.1.2. one origin of replication

4.7.1.1.3. replication of DNA occurs at one point

4.7.1.1.4. only two replication forks are formed and one replication bubble

4.7.1.1.5. one replicon

4.7.1.1.6. Okazaki Fragment is large

4.7.1.1.7. replication is rapid

4.7.1.2. Eukaryotes

4.7.1.2.1. occurs in nucleus

4.7.1.2.2. numerous origins of replication

4.7.1.2.3. replication of DNA occurs simultaneously

4.7.1.2.4. numerous replication forks and bubbles

4.7.1.2.5. large number of replicons

4.7.1.2.6. Okazaki Fragment is short

4.7.1.2.7. replication is slow

5. Life Gets Complex: Eukaryotes

5.1. DNA Replication

5.1.1. Initiation of DNA Replication

5.1.1.1. Helicase

5.1.1.1.1. untwists double helix; separating two parental strands

5.1.1.2. Single-strand Binding Proteins

5.1.1.2.1. after parental strands separate, bind to the unpaired DNA strands to keep them from re-pairing

5.1.1.3. Topoisomerase

5.1.1.3.1. relieve strain by breaking, swiveling and rejoining DNA strands

5.1.2. Primase

5.1.2.1. adds a short RNA sequence to a template strand of DNA

5.1.3. DNA Polymerase

5.1.3.1. adds nucleotides to produce a double stranded DNA molecule

5.1.4. DNA Ligase

5.1.4.1. joins the sugar of one nucleotide to the phosphate of another when the Okasaki fragments have been completed

5.1.5. Structure

5.1.5.1. Antiparallel Elongation

5.1.5.1.1. Direction

5.1.5.1.2. Leading Strand

5.1.5.1.3. Lagging Strand

5.1.5.2. Origins of Replication

5.1.5.2.1. site where replication of DNA begins

5.1.5.2.2. eukaryotes has multiple whereas prokaryotes only have one

5.1.5.3. Replication Bubble

5.1.5.4. Replication Fork

5.1.5.4.1. region where parental strands are being unwound

5.1.5.5. Replicon

5.1.5.5.1. a region of DNA or RNA, that replicates from a single origin of replication

5.1.6. Replication the Ends of DNA Molecule

5.1.6.1. Telomeres

5.1.6.1.1. special nucleotide sequences at the ends of DNA molecules to protect chrosomes

5.1.6.1.2. doesn't contain DNA, consist of multiple repitition of one nucleotide sequence

5.1.6.2. Telomerase

5.1.6.2.1. catalyzes the lengthening of telomeres

5.1.7. Mutations

5.1.7.1. Definition

5.1.7.1.1. they are any changes in the sequence of bases of DNA

5.1.7.2. How do they occur?

5.1.7.2.1. sometimes during replication, the cell makes a mistake and adds the wrong base

5.1.7.2.2. when the cell replicates its DNA again, the two strands produce are no longer exactly the same

5.1.7.3. Types

5.1.7.3.1. Deletion

5.1.7.3.2. Insertion

5.1.7.3.3. Subsitution

5.1.7.3.4. Frameshift

5.1.7.4. Repair

5.1.7.4.1. Mismatch Repair

5.1.7.4.2. Nuclease

5.1.7.4.3. Nucleotide Excision Repair

5.2. Cell Division

5.2.1. Phases of the Cell Cycle

5.2.1.1. Interphase

5.2.1.1.1. G1

5.2.1.1.2. S

5.2.1.1.3. G2

5.2.1.2. Mitotic (M) Phase

5.2.1.2.1. Mitosis

5.2.1.2.2. Cytokinesis

5.2.1.3. Cell Cycle Control System

5.2.1.3.1. 3 Internal Checkpoints

5.2.1.3.2. Stop and Go Signs

5.2.1.3.3. Lost of Control

5.2.2. Order of DNA Organization

5.2.2.1. Chromatin

5.2.2.1.1. together, the entire complex of DNA and proteins that is the building material of chromosomes

5.2.2.2. Chromosome

5.2.2.2.1. a molecule of DNA with associated proteins

5.2.2.3. Sister Chromatids

5.2.2.3.1. joined copies of the original chromosome, each duplicated chromosome has two

5.3. Endosymbiosis

5.3.1. the process by which smaller bacteria were engulfed by larger cells and continue to perform functions for the larger cell

5.3.1.1. Mitochondria

5.3.1.2. Chloroplast

5.3.1.3. Evidence for Endosymbiosis

5.3.1.3.1. these organelles contain prokaryotic DNA

5.3.1.3.2. these organelles contain prokaryotic ribosomes

5.3.1.3.3. these organelles replicate with binary fission - not mitosis

6. Basics of Biology as a Science

6.1. Ecology

6.1.1. Organization

6.1.1.1. Individual

6.1.1.1.1. Single organism comprised of one or more cells

6.1.1.1.2. Biotic

6.1.1.2. Population

6.1.1.2.1. Many individuals of the same species living in a shared environment

6.1.1.2.2. Biotic

6.1.1.3. Community

6.1.1.3.1. Many populations of species living together in a shared environment

6.1.1.3.2. Biotic

6.1.1.4. Ecosystem

6.1.1.4.1. Community of species in a specific location along with abiotic factors such as sunlight, water, and soil

6.1.1.4.2. Biotic and abiotic

6.1.1.5. Biome

6.1.1.5.1. Like ecosystems across the globe with similar abiotic and biotic factors

6.1.1.5.2. Biotic and abiotic

6.1.1.6. Biosphere

6.1.1.6.1. A collection of the biomes on Earth; the entire planet

6.1.1.6.2. Biotic and abiotic

6.1.2. Interactions

6.1.2.1. Symbiosis

6.1.2.1.1. Mutualism

6.1.2.1.2. Commensalism

6.1.2.1.3. Parasitism

6.1.2.2. Predation

6.1.2.2.1. True Predation

6.1.2.2.2. Grazing

6.1.2.2.3. Adaptations

6.1.2.3. Competition

6.1.2.3.1. Interspecific

6.1.2.3.2. Intraspecific

6.1.3. Niche

6.1.3.1. Influenced by abiotic and biotic factors

6.1.3.2. Role a species plays in its ecosystem

6.1.3.3. No organism can occupy the same niche at the same time

6.1.3.3.1. Adaptation for one of the organisms to change something within their niche

6.1.3.3.2. If adaption does not happen, one species will die

6.1.4. Flow of Energy

6.1.4.1. Producers

6.1.4.1.1. Photoautotrophs

6.1.4.1.2. Chemoautotrophs

6.1.4.2. Consumers

6.1.4.2.1. Carnivores

6.1.4.2.2. Omnivores

6.1.4.2.3. Herbivores

6.1.4.3. Decomposers

6.1.4.3.1. Detritivores

6.1.4.3.2. Scavengers

6.1.4.3.3. Saprotrophs

6.1.5. Cycles

6.1.5.1. Water Cycle

6.1.5.2. Carbon Cycle

6.1.5.3. Nitrogen Cycle

6.2. Natural Selection

6.2.1. "Survival of the Fittest"

6.2.2. Reproduction of individuals with advantageous traits survive

6.2.2.1. Over time, as reproduction continues of these traits, leads to evolutionary change

6.2.3. 3 Principles:

6.2.3.1. Characteristics are inherited from parents

6.2.3.2. Resources for survival and reproduction are limited (not all offspring will survive)

6.2.3.3. Offspring vary among each other

6.2.4. Only possible with variation in genetics

6.2.5. Charles Darwin

6.2.5.1. Ground finch variation on the Galapagos Island

6.2.5.2. Book: On the Origin of Species

6.3. Evolution

6.3.1. Processes and Patterns of Evolution

6.3.1.1. Natural Selection

6.3.1.2. Adaptation

6.3.1.2.1. Heritable trait that helps in current environment

6.3.1.2.2. Snow leopards have thick fur to survive their cold, snowy environment

6.3.1.3. Divergent Evolution

6.3.1.3.1. 2 species evolve in diverse directions from common point

6.3.1.3.2. Common ancestor evolved into wooly mammoth and elephants

6.3.1.4. Convergent Evolution

6.3.1.4.1. 2 species evolve independently (w/o common ancestry) to obtain similar traits

6.3.1.4.2. Bats and insects both evolved to have wings even though they share no common ancestor

6.3.2. Evidence of Evolution

6.3.2.1. Fossils

6.3.2.1.1. Show progression of change in species over time

6.3.2.1.2. Age can be determined

6.3.2.1.3. Locations can be compared to each other

6.3.2.1.4. Similarities can be observed

6.3.2.2. Anatomy

6.3.2.2.1. Homologous Structures

6.3.2.2.2. Vestigial Structures

6.3.2.2.3. Embryology

6.3.2.3. Biogeography

6.3.2.3.1. Distribution of organisms on planet explained by tectonic plate movement

6.3.2.3.2. Break-up of Pangaea= geographical isolation

6.3.2.3.3. Endemic species

6.3.2.4. Molecular Biology

6.3.2.4.1. Common ancestor for all of life supported by universality of DNA

6.3.2.4.2. Evolution supported by similar machinery of DNA replication and expression

6.3.3. Coevolution

6.3.3.1. Evolution of traits in prey species leads to evolution of traits in predator species

6.4. Characteristics of Life

6.4.1. Maintain Homeostasis

6.4.2. Grow and Develop

6.4.3. Reproduce

6.4.4. Evolve as a Species

6.4.5. Obtain Materials and Energy

6.4.6. Respond to Stimuli

6.4.7. Genetic Material

6.4.8. Made of Cell(s)

6.5. Phylogeny

6.6. Scientific Method

6.6.1. Lab Practical Questions

6.6.1.1. Labs we have Done

6.6.1.1.1. Catalase Lab

6.6.1.1.2. Osmosis and Diffusion Lab

6.6.1.1.3. Potato Lab

6.6.1.1.4. Jello Cube Lab

6.6.1.1.5. Metabolism Lab

6.6.1.2. Variables

6.6.1.2.1. Relationship between variables