Chapter3: Text

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Chapter3: Text by Mind Map: Chapter3: Text

1. Text is obviously the simplest of data types and requires the least amount of storage.

1.1. Text in the form of symbols, words, sentences, and paragraphs

1.1.1. Text is a vital element of multimedia menus, navigation systems, and content.

2. Typeface

2.1. A typeface is a family of graphic characters, often with many type sizes and styles

3. Fonts

3.1. A font is a collection of characters of a single size and style belonging to a particular typeface family.

4. Font styles

4.1. Boldface

4.2. Italic

4.3. Underlining

4.4. Outlining

5. Font Terminology

5.1. Baseline

5.1.1. the line on which the bases of characters are arranged

5.2. Cap height

5.2.1. cap height refers to the height of a capital letter

5.3. x-height

5.3.1. the distance between the baseline and the top of a lower-case letter x

5.4. Ascenders/descenders

5.4.1. strokes that rise above the x-height/drop below the baseline

5.5. Kerning

5.5.1. adjustment of space between certain pairs of letters (e.g. AV) to make them look more uniform

5.6. Tracking

5.6.1. adjustment of space for groups of letters

5.7. Serif versus sans serif

5.7.1. Fonts can broadly be said to be of one of two types: serif or sans serif

5.7.2. A serif is the little decoration at the end of a letter stroke.

5.7.3. Serif fonts are used for printed media or documents that have large quantities of text.

5.7.4. Sans serif fonts do not have decoration at the end of a letter stroke.

5.7.5. Sans serif fonts are used for headlines and bold statements. It is considered better for computer displays.

5.8. Cases

5.8.1. A capitalized letter is referred to as uppercase, while a small letter is referred to as lowercase.

5.8.2. Placing an uppercase letter in the middle of a word is referred to as an intercap or CamelCase

6. Using text elements in a multimedia presentation

6.1. The text elements used in multimedia are

6.1.1. Menus for navigation A user navigates through content using a menu A simple menu consists of a text list of topics

6.1.2. Interactive buttons A button is a clickable object that executes a command when activated Users can create their own buttons from bitmaps and graphics.

6.1.3. Fields for reading Reading a hard copy is easier and faster than reading from the computer screen A document can be printed in one of two orientations: portrait or landscape The taller-than-wide orientation used for printing documents is called portrait. The wider-than-tall orientation that is normal to monitors is called landscape

6.1.4. HTML documents HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language HTML documents are marked using tags is the standard markup language used to create web pages

6.1.5. Symbols and icons Symbols are concentrated text in the form of stand-alone graphic constructs. They are used to convey meaningful messages

6.1.6. Icons are symbolic representations of objects and processes similar to the actual product and anyone can tell what it stands for because of similarities

6.1.7. Symbols A symbol represents products or ideas do not resemble what they stand for, and they have to be learned by people to know what they mean

7. Bitmap font and Vector font

7.1. Fonts can either be stored as bitmapped or vector

7.2. Bitmaps font consist of a matrix of dots or pixels representing the image

7.2.1. File size increases as more sizes are added.

7.2.2. Require a lot of memory

7.2.3. Non-scalable

7.3. Vector fonts drawing use instructions and mathematical formulae to describe each glyph

7.4. can draw any size by scaling the vector drawing primitives mathematically

7.4.1. can draw any size by scaling the vector drawing primitives mathematically

7.4.2. TrueType, OpenType and PostScript are vector font formats.

7.5. Rasterization

7.5.1. Jaggies are the jagged edges you see when a bitmapped image is resized

7.5.2. Font rasterization is the process of converting text from a vector description to a raster or bitmap description

7.6. Anti-aliasing

7.6.1. Antialiasing blend the font into the background color. It refers to the smoothing of jagged edges of drawn graphics and text to improve their appearance or readability

8. Character sets

8.1. Each character is represented by a unique 7-bit binary code word, meaning that there are 128 (27) alternative characters.

8.2. Extended Character Set (ISO Latin-1)

8.2.1. Extra 1 bit in ASCII –up to 256 characters

8.2.2. is used while programming the text of HTML pages.

8.3. Unicode

8.3.1. Unicode is a 16-bit architecture for multilingual text and character encoding

8.3.2. covers 96,382 characters

8.3.3. Unicode can support a wide variety of non-Roman alphabets including Han Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, Korean, Bengali, and so on

9. Font Mapping

9.1. Some fonts installed in your machine may not be available in other user’s machine.

9.2. Specifying which font to be substitution is called font mapping.

10. Fontographer

10.1. Fontographer is a specialized graphics editor.

10.2. It is compatible with both Macintosh and Windows platforms.

10.3. It can be used to develop PostScript, TrueType, and OpenType fonts.

10.4. It can also modify existing typefaces and incorporate PostScript artwork.

11. Hypertext vs Hypermedia

11.1. Hypertext

11.1.1. Hypertext is a text which contains links to other texts.

11.1.2. The term was invented by Ted Nelson around 1965.

11.1.3. Hypertext is the subset of hypermedia

11.2. Hypermedia

11.2.1. Hypermedia is not constrained to be text-based.

11.2.2. It can include other media, e.g., graphics, images, and especially the continuous media – sound and video

11.2.3. Navigating hypermedia structures The simplest way to navigate hypermedia structures is via buttons.

11.2.4. Hypermedia structures Links Links are connections between conceptual elements Links are the navigation pathways and menus. Nodes Nodes are accessible topics, documents, messages, and content elements Nodes and links form the backbone of a knowledge access system. Anchors An anchor is defined as the reference from one document to another document, image, sound, or file on the Web. Hypertext systems are used for Electronic publishing and reference works Technical documentation Educational courseware Interactive kiosks Electronic catalogs