Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. The 4 Purposes of Education

1.1.1. Intellectual - to teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics; to transmit specific knowledge (e.g. literature, history, the sciences, etc.): and to help students acquire higher-order thinking skills such as analysis, evaluation, and synthesis

1.1.2. Political- to inculcate allegiance to the existing political order (patriotism); to prepare citizens who will participate in this political order (e.g. in political democracies); to help assimilate diverse cultural groups into a common political order; and to teach children the basic laws of society

1.1.3. Social- to help social problems; to work as one of many institutions, such as the family and the church to ensure social cohesion; and to socialize children into the various roles, behaviors, and values of society. This process, referred to by sociologists as "socialization", is a key ingredient to the stability of any society.

1.1.4. Economic- to prepare students for their later occupational roles and to select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor; the degree to which schools directly prepare students for work varies from society to society, but most schools have at least an indirect role in this process

1.2. My Perspectives:

1.2.1. The Role of the School - I would probably lean toward the conservative side when it comes to my view of the role of the school. I do believe that those who work hard should have their reward and reap the benefits. Schools should stress individual responsibility. However, I do have some views that might have liberalism leanings from the ideas of men such as John Dewey. We, as teachers, need to be careful to not be judgmental of who we think will we think will be the "successful" ones. Any student can succeed given the right support. This is where I think the ideas of liberalism are a little off. They say to give everyone the same thing to create equality. Any effective educator could tell you that giving the same help to every student in a classroom would not lead to them all being successful. Schools have the responsibility to see the needs of their students and respond in the way the students need them to in order for them to achieve on their own. Any child can be the successful student of the conservative viewpoint with the right support from a loving educator. Educational institutions need to be places where students are taught to be productive members of society and good people in general.

1.2.2. Explanations of Unequal Performance- Again, I believe that not just one of these political mentalities completely explains unequal performance among students. I agree with both the conservative and liberal views up to a point. Individuals do need to take responsibility for their own success, but it cannot and must not be overlooked that some students have the desire to succeed but are lacking the means to do so. In those cases schools should do what they can to bridge the gap and help them achieve their goals. Children do not choose their circumstances, and sometimes these are less than desirable. However, I do believe that an individual can become anything he or she wants to be through hard work and support.

1.2.3. Definition of Education Problems- I would mostly agree with the conservative's definition of educational problems. In an effort for "equality", there has been a decline in standards in academics, a decline in cultural literacy, a decline in values, a decline in authority, and schools are being restricted by bureaucracy and inefficiency.

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. 1. Choose and describe a reform movement that you think has had the most influence on education.

2.1.1. I believe Progressivism, led by John Dewey had a huge impact on U.S. education. The end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century saw great changes in U.S. society. The country was dealing with an industrial revolution and many new regulations and reforms aimed at improving the lives of Americans. John Dewey was an important U.S. philosopher at this time. I believe his promotion of active learning and the role of the teacher as a guide made a great impact on U.S. classrooms not matter what some might think about his other ideas.

2.2. 2. Choose and describe one historical interpretation of U.S. education.

2.2.1. Conservative Perspective - During the 1980s, critics began to say that progressive education had focused too much on fixing, or attempting to fix, the country's social problems. They argued that, by doing this, a solid education had been sacrificed. After much consideration by critics such as William Bennett and Diane Ravitch, E.D. concluded that trying to change education in the U.S. in order to solve social problems had only watered down the curriculum and decreased the quality.

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. 1. Define each of the theoretical perspectives concerning the relationship between school and society: functionalism, conflict theory, and interactionalism.

3.1.1. Functionalism emphasizes interdependence in society and the importance of shared values. One system of society works with another like a machine to "make the world go around". Functionalists believe that harmony is the normal state for society and that problems begin to occur when there is a disagreement about shared values. The schools role in functionalism is to teach students the values and their place in society to support social unity.

3.1.2. Conflict theorists believe that society is held to gather by economic, political, cultural, and military powers. These groups impose their will on "lesser" groups. Schools, according to conflict theorists, deceive people into believing that they are places of learning and only look at student performance and success, not social position. Conflict theorists view the school as a sort of battle between students, teachers, and administration.

3.1.3. Interactional theorists study interactions that seem commonplace and are generally accepted in the world of education. They suggest that it is these things that are at the root of school problems. They look at everyday life in school. For instance they suggest that the way special needs and gifted children are determined might not be legitimate at all and may be causing extensive problems in education.

3.2. 2. Identify and describe 5 effects of schooling on individuals that you think have the greatest impact on students as explained in the book.

3.2.1. 1. Knowledge and Attitudes - I believe the knowledge and attitudes children obtain in the classroom is one of the biggest impacts of education. For some children, the classroom may be the only place where they will ever be exposed to any ideas worth knowing. The classroom may be where their morals and attitudes about the world are shaped. The classroom will be where they learn the knowledge that will take them onto greater endeavors outside of the classroom. Research shows that they more an individual is educated, the more likely they will be to be proactive to further their own knowledge and be involved in their world.

3.2.2. 2. Employment - Elementary and high schools are the foundation for the college years that will eventually lead to employment. The obtainment of a career in a field where that person excels is one of the biggest goals of education. Educating students to obtain their college degree will help them find better jobs, which usually leads to a better life for them and their family.

3.2.3. 3. Inside the Schools - The kind of school experience each child has greatly impacts their view of school and the impact that school has on the child. Large schools may offer many experiences but very little personalization, and they may lack a community-feel. Small schools may offer the social-closeness desired by some, but there may be more limited opportunities. Each has its pros and cons that greatly impacts the students that attend each. (A Personal Note: I attended both a larger public school and a small private school and can attest to this. For me personally, the large atmosphere of the first school I attended impacted me negatively. The opportunities there were outweighed by how unhappy I was socially. I moved to a smaller school and blossomed in all areas: academic, social, and extra-curricular because I was happier in a smaller environment. School-size really does make a difference and impact lives.)

3.2.4. 4. Teacher Behavior - The book states that teachers interact with students hundreds to thousands of times during a day. Teachers have a great influence on children both academically and just as normal people. Students look to teachers for guidance in all aspects of life and will use what they learn from them for years to come.

3.2.5. 5. Student Peer Groups and Alienation - Students form groups and either find or are placed in a "role" by others during the school years. The book states that what is often valued in schools such as athletic ability and "coolness" tend to be detrimental to education. I believe this is so true. This impacts every single person who has ever been a teenager, and that is everyone. The pressure to conform to these things constantly takes away from students, especially teens, ability to receive the kind of education they need. This can improve with age, but reputation often follows students even after high school.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Describe the particular world view of one student-centered philosophy of education (pragmatism or existentialism). Include the following information: generic notions, key researchers, goal of education, role of teacher, method of instruction, curriculum.

4.1.1. Pragmatism - What is it? Pragmatism encourages whatever method needed to reach a desired goal. Pragmatists are action-oriented and experientially grounded. A method is considered valid if it produces a desired result.

4.1.2. Generic Notions - Pragmatism is strongly related to progressivism. The students direct their own education after their needs and interests have been identified. Pragmatism encourages a democratic community by pushing for freedom and responsibility for students.

4.1.3. Key Researchers - George Sanders Pierce, William James, and John Dewey

4.1.4. Goal of Education - The goal of education according to pragmatists is growth and reform of society and preparation for students to enter a democratic society.

4.1.5. Role of the Teacher - The teacher is not an authoritarian figure, but rather acts as a guide for the students. The teacher plans and implements the curriculum.

4.1.6. Method of Instruction - Pragmatism does not use formal instruction. The "problem-solving" or "inquiry-method" is used in which children ask questions about things they are interested in. Individual work is still used, but group work is also highly encouraged.

4.1.7. Curriculum - Pragmatism uses an integrated system in which all the academic and vocational disciplines are used. Educators start with what is known and work toward the unknown. This is the "expanding environments" curriculum. The curriculum can change to fit society or the interests or needs of the students.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. My Education Stakeholders

5.1.1. AL Senator - Richard Shelby

5.1.2. House of Representatives - Danny Crawford

5.1.3. State Superintendent - Michael Sentance

5.1.4. Representative on State School Board - Ella B. Bell

5.1.5. Local Superintendent - Dr. Tom Sisk

5.1.6. Local School Board - Earl Glaze, Bret McGill, Edward Winter, Anthony Hilliard, Charles Shoulders, Ronald Christ, Bradley Young

5.2. Identify and describe the elements of change within school processes and school cultures.

5.2.1. "The school is a unity of interacting personalities. The personalities of all who meet in the school are bound together in an organic relation. The life of the whole is in all its parts, yet the whole could not exist without any of its parts. The school is a social organism." -School culture as defined by the educational sociologist, William Waller

5.2.2. Elements of Change in Processes and Culture: Conflict - Conflict is inevitable in the process of improving schools. When school staff look to restructure the school, long-hid problems, issues, and disagreements come to the surface. New behaviors must be learned. - Changes in schools means changes in the partnerships and communication in schools. Changes in communication, collaboration, and conflict resolution must occur. Team building must extend to entire school. - Everyone in the school must feel like their ideas matter in the changes in the school. Everyone must work together and communicate. Process and content are interrelated. - The project will go better if the relationships behind it are trusting and committed. Likewise, the relationships will be better when they are working together to produce a good product.

6. Curriculum & Pedagogy

6.1. Explain a curriculum theory which you advocate.

6.1.1. Developmentalist - Related to Dewey's ideas of progressivism; The curriculum is tailored to the interests and needs of the student; student-centered; importance of relating lessons in school to real-life experiences is an important part of the curriculum; teacher acts as a facilitator

6.2. Identify and describe the two dominant traditions of teaching.

6.2.1. Technicalrational Model- Teachers are not really concerned with philosophy of curriculum (the "why" of education). They are more concerned with what "works" Progress is determined by effectiveness.

6.2.2. Objectivist Perspective- Curriculum strategies are considered more important than transmitting knowledge and value to students.

6.2.3. "concerned with the science of curriculum" page 281

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Describe how class, race, and gender each impact educational outcomes.

7.1.1. Class - Different social classes have different educational opportunities. Children from wealthier families are more likely to have more opportunities in their education.

7.1.2. Race - Race is also a predictor of the quality of education a child will receive. Race is also closely related to class. Minorities often do not have the same opportunities.

7.1.3. Gender - Historically, women have been discriminated against both in the education and in the workforce even though they are often better students overall than men.

7.2. What were the two responses to the Coleman Study from 1982? (All three response summaries included in answer.)

7.2.1. Round One Response - In the first examination of The Coleman Study, researchers came to the conclusion that where a student attends school and the opportunities offered there has little to do with the educational outcome for that student.

7.2.2. Round Two Response - The second response to The Coleman Study studied the differences between public schools and Catholic private schools. The findings stated that differences do exist between schools, but little difference is shown in the learning experience.

7.2.3. Round Three Response - Forty-five years after the original study, researchers determined that the racial and socioeconomic makeup of the school itself has more to do with the quality of the learning experience than the race and class of the student.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Explain the two types of cultural deprivation theory.

8.1.1. "Working-class and nonwhite families often lack the cultural resources, such as books and other educational stimuli, and thus arrive at school at a significant disadvantage."

8.1.2. "The culture of poverty eschews delayed gratification for immediate reward, rejects hard work and initiate as a means to success, and does not view schooling as the means to social mobility."

8.2. Describe at least four school-centered explanations for education inequality.

8.2.1. School Financing - Schools are highly financed through property taxes. Property taxes are going to be much higher in affluent communities.

8.2.2. Between-School Differences - Schools in working-class communities are more likely to have authoritarian teachers, teacher-directed classrooms, and a vocational curriculum for high school students. Middle and Upper-class schools usually have less authoritarian teachers and more student-centered practices.

8.2.3. Within-School Differences - Ability-grouping within classes made lead to educational inequality later on.

8.2.4. Gender and Schooling - Some feminists suggest that women are devalued in educational settings and this could be leading to educational inequality.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. Describe two school-based reforms.

9.1.1. Tuition Vouchers - Families are funded by vouchers and are allowed to choose where they want to send their children. Intersectional choice plans allow parents to use their vouchers for either public or private schools. Intrasectional school choice plans allow parents to only choose between public schools. This still allows students to attend a school outside of their district. Intradistrict plans only allow parents to choose a school within their designated school district.

9.1.2. Charter Schools - Charter schools are public schools that are allowed to avoid many traditional regulations placed on public schools. However, they are expected to show great student performance. They "swap the red tape for results". Charter schools make their own choices about how they want the school to operate. This includes such features as curriculum, instruction, staffing, budget, internal organization, calendar, etc.

9.2. Describe two societal, economic, community, or political reforms.

9.2.1. School Finance Reforms - The Supreme Court decided in 1973 that the constitution provided no right to an equal education. Following that decision, states began their own school finance reforms. States began providing extra funding to rural or poor areas to equalize opportunities among children. This extra funding also provided programs such as full day kindergarten, preschool for 3-4 year-olds, after-school programs, and summer-school programs.

9.2.2. Full Service and Community Schools - Full service schools focus on not only meeting the needs of students but also their families. Schools serve as community centers and work to meet educational, physical, psychological, and social needs.