Geography

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Geography by Mind Map: Geography

1. Equator 12 hours of daylight every 24 hours, 365 days a year Equinox March 21 and September 22 12 hours of sunlight throughout the world. Sun’s rays perpendicular at the Equator Solstices June 22 and December 21 Sun’s rays perpendicular on Tropic of Cancer Arctic gets 24 hours of daylight – Midnight Sun! Matched with Winter Solstice in the Antarctic

2. Politics of nature

2.1. Ecocentric Approach

2.1.1. Importance to non-human nature on the planet

2.1.2. Non-Human nature has "agency"

2.1.3. "post-humanism"

2.2. Constructivist Approach

2.2.1. Nature has never been natural

2.2.2. Consider a "natural" event on you/your family

2.2.2.1. California Drought

2.2.3. Socionature

2.2.3.1. Holistic

2.2.3.2. Involves economics, politics, etc...

2.3. Conceptions of Nature

2.3.1. 17th century Land Limitless

2.3.1.1. available for use- "exploitation"

2.3.2. Period of Merchantlism, colonialism

2.3.2.1. Displacement of local, native people.

2.3.2.2. Theft, Disease, warfare

2.4. Environmentalism Early 1900's

2.4.1. Human impacts on the Enviroment

2.4.2. Urbanization

2.4.2.1. Romanticizing wilderness, rural landscapes Beauty, Aesthetic value, Masculinity

2.4.3. Preservation

2.4.3.1. Over-exploitation of Raw Materials Fear of running out – e.g. timber, soil Dust Bowl Decreased rainfall and human action

2.5. Modern Environmentalism 1960's & 70's

2.5.1. Brown issues – urbanization & industrialization Middle-class support Awareness of downside of Economic Growth Rachel Carson – Silent Spring Paul Ehrlich – The Population Bomb Donella Meadows – Limits to Growth Earth Day April 22, 1970 UN Conference on Human Environment, 1972

2.6. Sustainable Development 1980's & 90's

2.6.1. Term first used by IUCN in 1980 Popularized by Our Common Future in 1987 World Commission on Environment and Development Aka Brundtland Report “Development that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” Economic growth and development not necessarily at odds Earth Summit 1992, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil UN Convention on Biological Diversity Focus on the Global South “Green Imperialism”

2.7. Development & sustainable, What does it all mean?

2.7.1. Measured as GDP or GNI Economic Social Literacy, life expectancy, infant mortality, female participation in labor and politics Carried out without resource depletion

2.8. Environmental 2000's and beyond

2.8.1. Climate Change Kyoto Protocol, 1997, Copenhagen Accord 2009, Paris Climate Talks 2016 Hot Topics Food, Agriculture, Energy Efficiency To eat or not to eat “Organic”

3. Cultural and Political Ecology

3.1. The birth of cultural ecology

3.1.1. Emphasis on technology 50s and 60s Rachel Carson – Silent Spring and DDT Independence of the Global South Faults with local, native, indigenous production Primitive, backward, inefficient, wasteful Belief that production should be market-based and not for subsistence European colonialism  control over cultural habits, imaginations, the way of thinking

3.2. Cultural ecology

3.2.1. Focus on small-scale, subsistence societies in the Global South 2 Primary Contributions Emphasis on the ecological and economic rationality of these systems Questioned the use, implementation, adoption of temperate techniques in tropical and equatorial environments Questioning the transfer of modern techniques to local, native contexts

3.3. Themes prominent in Cultural ecology

3.3.1. Society and Nature intimately connected Resource management techniques through diet, production, technology etc An emphasis on micro-climates and environmental variability Cultural practices and behaviors Seeking the functional aspects of cultural traditions Food production and population dynamics Consider Mesoamericans

3.4. Cultural ecology’s contributions

3.4.1. Esther Boserup Population determined food production Higher population  agricultural innovation and environmental resource management

3.5. Political ecology

3.5.1. Critique of Cultural Ecology What were the reasons? A recognition of the Political Economy Decision-making structures, hierarchies of power

3.6. Development studies

3.6.1. Modernization Theory European innovation is key to economic growth Technical expertise, know-how, attitude, capital growth inevitable Import ideas to tropical countries Transition from developing to developed will occur with investment in infrastructure

3.7. Dependency theory

3.7.1. 1960s – emphasis on “Structure” Under-development because of European colonialism Mercantilism Production of commodity crops for European markets

3.8. dualism

3.8.1. The development of one area/group at the expense of another Analyzed at different scales International, regional, local Within the US Chicago Farmers in commercial agriculture & small-scale subsistence farming Formal and informal work in urban areas

3.9. Political ecology

3.9.1. A concern with scale Understanding processes which lead to marginalization Consideration of social differentiation Importance placed on power (in discourse)

3.10. marginality

3.10.1. Social, Economic, Environmental European settlers in African countries Africans forced on to marginal lands Helps to explain land degradation Apartheid – South Africa

3.11. Feminist political ecology

3.11.1. Women’s experiences with the environment different from that of men Differing societal roles Attention to age, class, ethnicity, race, linguistic grouping Different identities = different socio-ecological experiences Environmental Justice Disproportionate burden of industrialization on people of color

3.12. Power and discourse the environmental narrative

3.12.1. Questioning who controls the power to write the narrative? Who writes the books, the stories? Post-structuralism Fairhead and Leach Guinea

3.13. Critiques of political ecology

3.13.1. What are the critiques of PE? Deterministic Counter-narratives Local resistance, local power

4. The Biophysical Environment

4.1. Physical Geography

4.1.1. The study of the earth Not just about the - “WHERE” It’s about the - “WHY” Definition of Geography What is Where and Why is it there?

4.2. The 4 Realms

4.2.1. Hydrosphere - Water In all its forms Atmosphere – gaseous layer Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen Lithosphere – the life layer Rock, soil, hills, valleys Biosphere – living organisms Depend on the other 3 layers

4.3. Bioshphere

4.3.1. Ecology and Biogeography Biogeography The study of the patterns and relationships in the biotic environment Study of plant and animal life of the past Our window to past climates Indication of future climate change Aids in prediction, adaptation Understand basic life mechanisms Ecology Interrelationships between organisms and their environment Ecosystems Biotic and Abiotic

4.4. Solstice and Equinox

4.5. Heating of Land and Water

4.5.1. Albedo The fraction of the received radiation that is reflected by the surface Why is the Albedo important? Black surface = High or low Albedo? White surface = High or low Albedo? Deep water takes longer to heat

4.6. Effects of Elevation

4.6.1. Temperature decreases in higher latitudes Decreases also with higher elevation Why? Density and pressure decrease with higher elevation

4.7. Pressure, Winds, Precipitation

4.7.1. High temperatures, low pressure Low Temperatures, High Pressure Winds blow from high pressure to low pressure areas

4.8. Physics of Water and Precipitation

4.8.1. Dew Point Saturated air Hot air has the capacity to hold more or less water? Condensation Warm air rises, but it also cools Orographic Effect Rain Shadow

4.9. Urban/Rural Heat

4.9.1. Urban areas warmer than non-urban Urban Heat Island Effect Dark surfaces, low albedo Less vegetation, less transpiration

4.10. Biomes and Major Climates

4.10.1. Climate & Weather Biomes Temperature and Precipitation Community Plants and Animals Overlap, no sharp boundaries Soil type, disturbance, and elevation impact Biomes

4.10.2. Biome Classification Forest Savanna or Woodland Shrubland Grassland Scrub Desert

4.11. Biomes

4.11.1. Tropical Key in the Global Carbon Cycle Savanna and Tropical Dry Forest Desert and Semi-Desert Xerophytes 15° - 30° Usually considered “hot”, but actually dry Mediterranean Temperate Grasslands Bioturbation Temperate and Deciduous Forest Boreal Forest – “Taiga” Tundra Cold Desert - Permafrost

4.12. Disturbance, Succession, Change

4.12.1. Vegetation changes through glacial periods, Ice Ages Pleistocene – 2.6 million years Glacial and interglacial periods Holocene – 12,000 years of history Disturbance – e.g. Fires Disturbance regimes Natural, Anthropogenic, or both Climax Community Succession Primary and Seconda

4.13. Geography Matters

4.13.1. Scale dependency Topography Relief Slope and Aspe

4.14. Specie Interactions

4.14.1. Competition Predation Mutualism Keystone Species

5. human environment interactions

5.1. Area and scope of H-E Geography

5.1.1. Ability of societies to manage resources sustainably

5.1.2. Role of science in the use and management of resources

5.1.3. Limits of coonsumption

5.1.4. Interaction between human and non-human components of the planet

5.1.5. Limits of preservation in open ecosystems

5.2. Landscape Modification

5.2.1. Exploration, conservations, Preservation

5.2.2. Farming

5.2.2.1. Shifting cultivation

5.2.2.1.1. Efficient systems

5.2.2.1.2. agrobiodiversity

5.3. But

5.3.1. Sometimes,unsustainable practices

5.3.2. Stratified decision-making

5.3.3. Lack of ocal ecological knowledge

5.3.4. Heavily reliant on labor

5.4. Trade and urbanization

5.4.1. Ecological seperation

5.4.1.1. Where does the food come from?

5.4.1.2. What impacts do people have on the planet

5.4.2. Humans and the Biophysical World

5.4.2.1. Natural disasters and the urban inerface

5.5. What is Geography?

5.5.1. Seeks to understand the “spatial” organization of human activity and people’s relationship with their environment

5.5.2. The uniqueness and similarities of place and their interdependences

5.5.3. Involves fieldwork, maps

5.5.4. GIS, Remote Sensing, Cartography

5.6. Human Environment Geography

5.6.1. Relationship between humans and the environment

5.6.2. Developed and developing worlds

5.6.3. Rural and urban areas

5.6.4. Spans a wide variety of disciplines, sub-themes

5.6.5. Cartography

5.7. How is H-E Geography Different?

5.7.1. sensitive to scale

5.7.2. spatial patterns of resource use

5.7.3. H-E system as a single unit

5.7.4. Connection between places and regions

5.8. Exploitation, Conservation, Preservation

5.8.1. Exploitation Conservation Sustainable Yield Preservation Non-consumptive use (hiking, camping) Wilderness areas, national parks

5.9. Politics of Scale

5.9.1. Consider the way national park boundaries are drawn Preservation approach or conservation approach? Impact on human activities? Relocation of people? How do National Parks in other countries draw their boundaries? Consideration of human activities, consumptive practices, economic activities? Relocation of people

5.10. Resource extraction

5.10.1. Ecotourists $$$ into an economy Burden of costs and benefits, equally shared? Ecological footprint of global travel

5.11. Key vocab

5.11.1. Cartography, conservation, exploitation, Geographic information systems, Gifford Pinchot, Hetch Hetchy Valley, HUman Geography, Human environment geography, John Muir, Modifiable areal unit problem, net primary productivity, non consumptive use, Physical geography, Politics of scale, preservation, remote sensing, scale, sustainable yield.

6. Environmental History

6.1. Gathering environmental historics

6.1.1. -Paleocogical, palaoclimates

6.1.2. _Pliestoscene,holocene,

6.2. Early Theories

6.2.1. Social Darwinism

6.2.2. cultural problems

6.2.3. Data

6.2.3.1. Soils Pollen record Carbon Dating Ice Cores Tree Rings Geochronology Carbon-14 (C14) Dating

6.3. Oral Histories

6.3.1. Fairhead and Leach False Forest Histories

6.3.2. Christian Kull Fires in Madagascar

6.4. Key Vocab

6.4.1. Delete repeated wordnarrative, oral narrative, oral Archival(methods), Anthropocene(era), Carbon-14, Colonialism, cultural possibilism, direct sources, environmental determinism, declenionst, direct sources, environmental determinism, environmental history, geochronology, historical political ecology, ice cores, indirect sources, irruptive ecology, narrative ,oral history, oral tradition, pastoral transhumance,,portnmaneau, Social Darwinism, Tree ring analysis