Lecture Notes - History of Web Mapping

Notes from lecture on Brief History of Web Mapping (2012)

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Lecture Notes - History of Web Mapping by Mind Map: Lecture Notes - History of Web Mapping

1. External factors

1.1. Tech

1.1.1. Bandwidth

1.1.2. GPS

1.1.3. Cheap disk space

1.1.4. AJAX

1.1.5. API's

1.1.6. Mobile bandwidth

2. New language

2.1. Geoweb

2.2. Neogeography

2.3. Mashup

2.4. Geotags

2.5. Crowdsourcing

2.6. Geostack

2.7. Folksonomies

2.8. Geotechnologies

2.9. Web 2.0

2.10. Web Mapping 2.0

3. Content & Usage Timeline

3.1. 2000

3.1.1. Nov 2000 - Multimap adds Aerial Imagery in partnership with GeoInformation Group

3.2. 2004

3.2.1. August: US research describes mapping as “most popular online activity”

3.2.2. Usage of web mapping was limited by complexity, cost & poor user interaction

3.3. 2005

3.3.1. 1st App was a Google built Ride Sharing app

3.3.2. Mashups A new word? 2005 Paul Rademacher - 1st mashup Housing Maps 2005 Adrian Holovaty - Chicago Crime Maps

3.3.3. 20% of internet users worldwide use web mapping

3.3.4. June: Multimap 7.3m users, MapQuest 47m

3.3.5. Sept: 1st Web 2.0 Conference

3.4. 2006

3.4.1. Early local search not really geo

3.4.2. 24% of internet users worldwide use web mapping (45% in UK; 40% in US)

3.4.3. Early mentions of GeoWeb New approaches to Geo Information distribution, usability & application development

3.4.4. Emergence of the term Neogeography Approach or mode of thought not a technology

3.5. 2007

3.5.1. Jun: 50,000 mashups based on Google

3.5.2. Dec: Google Maps 71.5m Google Earth 22.7m

3.6. 2008

3.7. 2009

3.8. 2010

3.9. 2011

3.10. General Observations

3.10.1. MapInfo Massively more users Brilliant quote Customer expectations have grown Data quality will become more of an issue Don't want a map just an anaswer

3.10.2. "Geography becomes mainstream if you make it cheap not premium" Most usage is very simple - where is & directions Over 350,000 sites use the Maps API

3.10.3. Open Source Customers are now users Used to hire people to print custom maps now do it themselves Sharing of data has been a big driver for web mapping OS overcomes the cost barrier Web mapping embedded within other applications

3.10.4. MultiMap

3.10.5. 3 Stages of web mapping complexity Public Mapping sites Content controlled by provider Poor usability limited user engagement & interest to primary task Specialist apps built using web mapping servers Organisations used their own content GIS vendors web mapping tech Interaction modes derived from professional desktop GIS Geographic web services OGC standards

3.11. Beyond 2011

3.11.1. ESRI Content Think about the growth of functionality as content Differentiator will be presentation of functionality Cartographers more than techies

3.11.2. ESRI Users Things people need to do haven't really changed nor are they likely to User numbers growing from thousands to 1bn Future is in UI

4. 1996 Automobile Association of America are very early MQ customer

5. Technology Timeline

5.1. Pre 20th Century

5.1.1. 16500 BCE Star Map in caves at Lascaux, France

5.1.2. 6200 BCE Catal Hyük map, Anatolia

5.1.3. 2400 BCE Earliest known Babylonian map

5.1.4. 600 BCE Pythagoras

5.1.5. 350 BCE Aristotle

5.1.6. 250 BCE Eratosthenes

5.1.7. 140 BCE Ptolemy publishes Geographia - a Guide to Geography

5.1.8. 1440 Gutenberg invents printing press

5.1.9. 1569 Mercator publishes 1st world map

5.2. Pre 1992

5.2.1. Late 1980's - early 90's Early hacks of ArcView using CGI scripts

5.2.2. 1989 GPS rollout starts

5.2.3. Evolution of web mapping 1968 Pre web mapping, challenge is to get content to desktop through slow network Data and processing moved to desktop with PC's and ArcView type clients The data moved back to server but processing retained on desktop Simple browser apps transfer all processing and data back to the server Now browser is a smart client with javascript processing power exceeding servers of 20 years ago REST interface Driver for change = "because you can"

5.3. 1991

5.3.1. Internet?

5.4. 1992

5.4.1. 1992/4 ESRI UK Intra Active Maps

5.4.2. 1993 1st Web Map Server Palo Alto Research Centre

5.5. 1993

5.5.1. 26 June: final (24th) GPS satellite launched; GPS network becomes fully operational

5.5.2. Mosaic Web Browser

5.6. 1994

5.6.1. 1993-94 PARC MapView Limited functionality & slow cycle of click & response

5.6.2. Genasys start development of web broker

5.7. 1995

5.7.1. MIT Ortho Server used a CGI script and hacked TIFF software to serve orthophotos

5.7.2. Early OGC ideas

5.8. 1996

5.8.1. MapQuest GeoLocate Geocode Route Render Created CD Rom apps

5.8.2. 1996 1st MQ web service Built CGI web interface over GeoLocate Vector to raster in browser Connect & interconnect Data Navteq GDT AND MQ own content

5.8.3. Early offers from MapInfo & Esri were desktop products running on server

5.8.4. 1996 - MI ProServer See early research Early pricing $59,500 unlimited usage!

5.8.5. 1996 ArcView IMS extension

5.8.6. End of selective availability of GPS announced

5.9. 1997

5.9.1. Early 1997 MQ Mapware Written for Windows SDK's Java,C++, .net Vector to raster Resolution 1600dpi gif, jpg, eps, wap Own MQ intermediate format

5.9.2. 1997 PCI Geomatics Acquired Tydac Scripted SPANS 1st contract Health Canada Notifiable Diseases (still live) Subsequently Environment Canada & Natural Resources Canada

5.9.3. 1997 MapXtreme 97 MXT Windows 97 - MapXsite 99 - V2 99 Version 3.0 Java version 99

5.9.4. OGC begins work on web mapping

5.10. 1998

5.10.1. 1998 ArcIMS Built on ArcObjects Separate from all other ESRI codebase Scalable and performant

5.10.2. 98 DM Solutions formed Dave McIllHagga with Daniel Marsette Using PCU/Tydac but uncertain about future Frank Warmerdam libraries retained by PCI lead to start of GDAL open source Opportunities were customer driven

5.11. 1999

5.11.1. 1999-2000 University of Minnesota Map Server Trial

5.11.2. OGC WMS Testbed

5.12. 2000

5.12.1. 2000 - 4 components to stimulate adoption of OS web mapping in place OS Operating System OS Web Map Servers Programing Libraries GDAL OGR Uptake of internet

5.12.2. 2000 DM looked at UoM Mapserver as alternative Built 80% of Fluwatch in a day Decided to switch to OS Recruited developer to make mapserver run in windows Subsequently built support for PHP

5.12.3. End of selective availability of GPS

5.12.4. MultiMap Launch WAP, PDA services, Tele Atlas street-level maps, Travel directions, Aerial photos, tube maps

5.12.5. OGC WMS 1.0

5.13. 2002

5.13.1. 2002 MapXtreme.net 2008 version supports Vis Studio 2008 V7 supports latest VS

5.14. 2003

5.14.1. 2003-5 Google used MapQuest

5.14.2. 2003 MapServer User meeting Community Sructure

5.14.3. 2003-4 MapServer 40% of MS code written by DMS & their contractors Part funded by customer lead requirements

5.15. 2004

5.15.1. 2004/5 ArcGIS Server Full GI Functionality of desktop products Desktop on the web, all the power and complexity Didn't scale or perform

5.15.2. 2004 MapServer User Meeting hosted by DMS in Ottawa Beginnings of an Open Source geo community

5.15.3. 2004 Envinsa SOA influenced Added routing & geocoding to mapping Incorporated data

5.15.4. Oct 2004 - Google acquires where 2 technologies from Lars & Jens Rasmussen Cached tiles plus AJAX in the browser are a game changer, performance, cartography How many servers? What tools for cartography?

5.15.5. 2004 Google Acquires Keyhole 2005 launches Google Earth

5.15.6. 2004 storage costs <$0.50/GB

5.16. 2005

5.16.1. Feb 2005 1st Google Maps service launches Early local search results not geosearch Initially US July 2005 Japan Late 2005 cover extends to Canada Early 2006 UK & Japan New node

5.16.2. 2005/6 MQ Big changes Tiles Cached tiles and frozen zoom levels were a big shift Slippy maps Javascript API

5.16.3. 2005 DM losing customers to Google Opened eyes to importance of business model and value Leadership in open source did not translate to business success Increased competition as technology matured Not thinking about customer pain points and sales process

5.16.4. 2005 Autodesk approach re putting MapGuide into open source Some concerns within community re branding MapServer Enterprise for MapGuide Became the MapServer Community

5.16.5. GeoRSS

5.17. 2006

5.17.1. 2006 OSGeo formed MapServer MapGuide OS On Open Source "Pragmatic not political" Autodesk funded

5.17.2. MultiMap switch from in house platform to deCarta

5.17.3. OSGEO WMS-C, see also tilecache.org

5.18. 2007

5.18.1. 2007 Google Routing Originally Telcontar Replaced with Google own tech 1 year later

5.18.2. May 2007 Street View

5.18.3. GeoJSON

5.19. 2008

5.19.1. 2008 - Stratus Slippy maps and RIA controls Market specific solution Local Govt Insurance SaaS model

5.19.2. 2008 MQ becomes only a service not available as installable software

5.19.3. 2008 ArcGIS Server REST API Simpler range of options Easier to program Scalable

5.19.4. 2008 DM refocussed on software as a service MapSherpa.com Connecting companies with content to connect to their users

5.20. 2009

5.20.1. 2009-10 MQ converts to V6 pure web services

5.20.2. 2009 Google Tiles generated on the fly from vectors Custom styling of map base introduced

5.21. 2010

5.21.1. 2010 Vectors streamed to google maps client for Android When will Google be streaming vectors to the browser?

5.22. 2011

5.22.1. 10+ OS web mapping projects Importance of OGC specs

5.23. General Stuff

5.23.1. Google Technology

5.23.2. MapQuest

5.23.3. Is Canada a articular facture in Open Source geo? Timing and fortunate conjunction Canadian Resources wanted open standards not open source. It just happened to be the quickest way to deliver

5.24. Beyond 2011

5.24.1. Esri Future More, faster Vision to be invisible within larger enterprise systems

5.24.2. Open Source Web mapping not be a specialist domain Blurring distinction between desktop and browser Easier start for new users power user getting involved in development via scripting and plugins

5.25. The role of Standards?

5.25.1. How significant were standards in the evolution of web mapping? Intra Government Public?

6. Business Timeline

6.1. 1984

6.1.1. TeleAtlas formed in Netherlands

6.2. 1985

6.2.1. Navtech formed in Silicon Valley

6.2.2. 1st in car navigation systems ETAK and TeleAtlas

6.3. 1991

6.3.1. May: Mapquest IPO raises $69M

6.3.2. 1st web site online

6.4. 1995

6.4.1. MultiMap founded

6.4.2. Vicinity founded

6.5. 1996

6.6. 1997

6.6.1. 1997 All MQ CD Roms stopped

6.6.2. Microsoft launches Sidewalk service

6.7. 1998

6.8. 1999

6.8.1. 1999 ArcWeb Services

6.8.2. July: Microsoft sells sidewalk to Ticketmaster; is out of web mapping

6.9. 2000

6.9.1. 2000 AOL purchase MQ for £1.1Bn! Business largely based on cashflow from B2B Consumer web site losing money AOL drive advertising, then whooosh!

6.9.2. Feb: Vicinity IPO:

6.9.3. Open Source Pitch to clients Cheaper than print More flexible

6.10. 2002

6.10.1. Dot com madness

6.10.2. Most internet mapping start-ups have gone out of business

6.10.3. July: launch of Microsoft Mappoint web service

6.10.4. October: Microsoft acquires Vicinity for $96 million in cash !!

6.11. 2003

6.11.1. MultiMap serve over 1Bn maps

6.12. 2004

6.12.1. MQ Created a B2B product line Main competitor in early years was Vicinity, bought by Microsoft Portals Google Yahoo Travelocity

6.12.2. August: Steve Coast presented ideas for OpenStreetmap at EuroFOO

6.12.3. October: first draggable maps launched by search.ch

6.13. 2005

6.13.1. Making the API freely available Google needs the internet to grow More content to index More space to place adverts Brand recognition

6.13.2. 2005 O'Reilly publish "Web Mapping Illustrated" First O’Reilly Where 2.0 conference; emergence of “Maps 2.0” and beginnings of Neogeography

6.13.3. Up to 2005 Thousands of business customers paying MQ on a transaction basis

6.13.4. December: Microsoft acquires GeoTango — ” SilverEye” product allows the rapid creation of 3D urban models from one or more images

6.14. 2006

6.14.1. End 2005 - DM discussing Open Source map business Autodesk MapGuide Open Source

6.14.2. 2006 OSGeo Foundation formed Umbrella for projects

6.14.3. 2006 1st MQ Free API

6.14.4. May: Openstreetmap IOW workshop

6.14.5. June 2006 Maps Enterprise API launches

6.14.6. November: mash-up workshop at Ordnance Survey

6.15. 2007

6.15.1. 2007 3 MQ versions Free Enterprise Developer

6.15.2. MultiMap Open API launched

6.15.3. AND donates Netherlands street data to OSM

6.15.4. 1st OSM conference

6.15.5. Aug 2007 - Google surpasses Multimap in UK

6.16. 2008

6.16.1. Jan: Ordnance Survey launch OpenSpace

6.16.2. Google Base Data 2008 TA contract negotiations Maps derived from Street View Map Maker New sources Early 2009 TA replaced in US Building level content starting to appear

6.17. 2009

6.17.1. ArGIS.com

6.17.2. Google Adverts in maps

6.17.3. April 2009 Google Maps surpasses MapQuest

6.18. 2010

6.18.1. 2010 MQ Open Source & Data Start using OpenStreetMap Cost is a driver Quality, will see how good is the crowd Other open source packages Mapping is a known science, makes sense to share development Tiles re-rendered every 10 minutes Open version, open data, no key

6.18.2. Microsoft announce use of OSM

6.19. 2011

6.19.1. MQ Community/developer, free Commercial data Open, no key Key Drivers Brand recognition Developer mindshare

6.20. General

6.20.1. ESRI Business Esri Drivers Google Big driver over last 7/8 years has been need to get costs down for truly enterprise deployments Licensing Currently license on processors or users Move to not on premise as well as on premise

6.20.2. MI Business Businesses Developers Rich functionality 2 platforms Online Services Built on Envinsa and Stratus Could MapInfo have owned the market instead of Google if they had adopted a different approach In a bit of a slump on the hype curve Attractive cost model Still a need for on prem Proprietary vs Open need new pricing models to respond to pressures Issue is not Intellectual Property, it's support

6.20.3. MQ Business model is advertising based Key driver is eyeballs B2B dealer locator market is gone. Destroyed by Google

6.20.4. OpenStreetMap Data was one of the main constraints on the evolution of the geoweb, now it isn't

6.21. Beyond 2011

6.21.1. Esri Future Most to be online Move to SaaS Pay for point functionality

7. Resources

7.1. Interviewees

7.2. Slides