Cancer Cytogenetics

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Cancer Cytogenetics by Mind Map: Cancer Cytogenetics

1. If chromo del- likely del TS or miRNA that targets oncogene transcripts

2. Solid Tumors

2.1. Lymphoma. 90% are B cell

2.1.1. Nonhodgkins Lymphoma

2.1.1.1. Mature Peripheral B cell CA

2.1.1.1.1. Follicular Lymphoma

2.1.1.1.2. Burkitts Lymphoma

2.1.1.1.3. MALT

2.1.1.1.4. ALK+ Lg B cell Lymphoma

2.1.1.1.5. Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma, aka - CLL

2.1.1.1.6. Mantle Cell

2.1.1.1.7. MM

2.1.1.1.8. MGUS

2.1.1.2. Precursor B cell

2.1.1.2.1. B-ALL

2.1.2. HodgkinsLymphoma= Reed Sternberg Cells

3. Blood CA

3.1. Leukemia - (11q23 rearrangements are prominent - MLL gene)

3.1.1. Acute

3.1.1.1. ALL

3.1.1.1.1. Poor Px: t(9;22), 11q23, Hyperdiploidy. Good Px: 12;21, & hyperdiploidy. t(1;19) is another subtype

3.1.1.2. AML

3.1.1.2.1. Good Px w/ t(15;17), inv 16, t(8;21),

3.1.1.2.2. Poor Px = Inv 3, t(6;9), t(9;11)

3.1.2. 5 q abnlty

3.1.2.1. MDS

3.1.2.1.1. 50% w/ cytogeneitc chnages

3.1.2.1.2. BM blasts @ < 20%, but somewhat hypercellular

3.1.2.1.3. Good Px = nl karyotype, Y-, 5q del, 20q del. Don't always have 5q-

3.1.2.1.4. Childhood MDS-Monosomy 7 worse Px then +8 or nl karyotype

3.1.2.2. 5q Syndrome

3.1.2.2.1. del of 5q as only abnlty

3.1.2.2.2. Females have good Px, hypo or nl marrow cellularity

3.1.2.2.3. blasts <5%

3.1.3. Chronic

3.1.3.1. CLL

3.1.3.1.1. -6, -11, -13 (inc freq), -17 (p53 on this chromo - worst Px)

3.1.3.2. CML

3.1.3.2.1. Philidelphia Chromosome t(9;22)- ABL/BCR

3.1.3.2.2. Gleevec

4. Solid Tumors

4.1. Small Round Cell tumors

4.1.1. Lymphoma

4.1.2. Neuroblastoma

4.1.3. PNET/Ewing Sarcoma

4.1.3.1. Sarcoma = CA arising from Muscle, bone, fat, fibrous tissue, PNS, & Vessels

4.1.3.2. 85% of Ewing tunors w/ t(11;22)--> oncogenic chimera...

4.1.4. Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)

4.1.4.1. Mesechymal tumor, varying degrees of striated muscle differentiation

4.1.4.1.1. E-RMS = Embryonal

4.1.4.1.2. A-RMS= Alveolar

4.1.5. Synovial Sarcoma

4.1.5.1. t(X;18)& SSX1, SS18, SSX2, SSX4

4.1.6. Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor

4.1.6.1. t(11;22)

4.1.7. Clear Cell Sarcoma

4.1.7.1. t(12;22)

4.2. Liposarcoma

4.2.1. Mixoid Round Cell Liposarcoma

4.2.1.1. t(12;16)

4.3. Low Grade Fibromixoid Sarcoma

4.3.1. t(7;16)

4.4. ExtraSkeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma

4.4.1. t(9;22)NR4A3 / EWSR1