Musculoskeletal Pathology

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Musculoskeletal Pathology by Mind Map: Musculoskeletal Pathology

1. Osetomyelitis: Staph. aureus (normal), salmonella (Sickle cell), Brodie abscess, sequestrum involecrum

1.1. Achondroplasia: Autosomal Dominant, FGFr, Champagne-glass appearance

2. Hyperthyroidism: benign adenoma, Brown tumors, Salt & Pepper skin, inc. serum calcium

3. Developmental

3.1. Osteoporosis: dec. bone mass, primary, post menopausal

3.2. Osteopetrosis: Osteoclast dysfunction, thick brittle bones, anemia, leukopenia

3.3. Osteogenesis Imperfecta: Type I collagen, blue sclera, malformed teeth, inc. bone fracture in infants

4. Infectious

4.1. Paget's Disease: Paramyxo virus, mosaic laminal bone, cotton wool appearance

5. Neoplastic (Benign)

5.1. Osteoid Osteoma: small benign <2cm, metaphysis & diaphysis, bone pain at night relieved by aspirin

5.2. Osteoblastoma: benign, >2cm, metaphysis & diaphysis

5.3. Osteochondroma: benign, cartilage, exostosis, cauliflower, coat-hanger

5.4. Osteoma: endostosis, bone surface, skull/facial, bone island

5.5. Multiple Enchondroma: Oiler's Disease, hand, Mafffucci's Syndrome

5.6. Vertebral Hemaangioma: most common benign bone tumor of the spine, sand-dollar appearance

5.7. Aneurysmal Bone Cyst: Eccentric, benign, metaphysis, can travel into epiphyseal plate, soap bubble

5.8. Chondroblastoma: benign epiphysis, most common in males, lytic lesions

5.9. Giant Cell Tumor: benign, epiphysis to metaphysis, soap bubble appearance

5.10. Chondroma: benign, cartilage, single/multiple spotty calcifications, epiphysis

6. Metabolic

6.1. Rickets: Vit D dec. in children, rachitic rosary

6.2. Secondary Osteoporosis: Cushing's, dec. vitamin C/D

7. Neoplastic (Malignant)

7.1. Multiple Myeloma: Most common malignant bone tumor, rain drop appearance (skull), reverse AG ratio

7.2. Osteomalacia: Looser's zones, low calcium serum, dec. vitamin D in adults

7.3. Osteosarcoma: #1 in children & teens, sunburst appearance, Codman's Triangle

7.4. Chondrosarcoma: cartilaginous, P53 oncogene on Chromosome 17, pain worse at night, speckled calcification

7.5. Ewing's sarcoma: 2nd m/c in children, onion skin appearance

7.6. Skeletal metastases: breast 70%, lung 25%, prostate 60%

8. Joint Diseases

8.1. Degenerative Joint Disease: primary- age related (Heberden & Bouchard nodes) secondary- previous joint trauma

8.2. Rheumatoid Arthritis: HLA DR4 marker, small joints, swan neck deformity, Bouchard & Haygarth nodes

8.3. Enteropathic Arthritis: bowel disease, large joints

8.4. Ankylosing Spondylitis: males, SI joint tenderness, Bamboo spine, dagger sign

8.5. Gout: high purine tophi, podagra

8.6. Reiter's Syndrome: males, chlamydia or shigella

8.7. Pseudo-gout: knee, chondrocalcinosis

8.8. Myasthenia gravis: autoimmune, bilateral ptosis & diplopia

8.9. Lambert- Eaton Syndrome: paraneoplastic, bilateral ptosis, neg. Tensilon test

8.10. Polymyositis: autoimmune, skeletal muscle destroyed

8.11. Dermatomyositis: autoimmune, Gottron's papules

8.12. Psoriatic Arthritis: HLA B27, small joints, pitted nails, sausage fingers

9. Miscellaneous

9.1. Muscle Tumors: leiomyoma & leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyoma & rhabdomyosarcoma

9.2. Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis: possible Salter- Harris type 1, disruption of Klein's line

9.3. Salter-Harris Fractures (1-5)

9.4. Legg- Calve' Perthes Disease: avascular necrosis, head of femur