The European Revolutions in 1848

Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address
Rocket clouds
The European Revolutions in 1848 by Mind Map: The European Revolutions in 1848

1. Revolution in France

1.1. Prior to Revolution

1.1.1. Bourbon Dynasty restored to throne Louis XVIII Usurped in 1830 by Louis Phillipe

1.2. Causes

1.2.1. Bad weather 1845-6 Rising food prices Decline in economy Widespread Unemployment

1.2.2. Liberalism Desire for equality in Suffrage (right to vote) Wealth

1.2.3. Socialism Wanted Work opportunities Work benefits

1.3. January 4, 1848

1.3.1. Government banned liberal banquet Led to protests Wanted

1.4. Protesting spread

1.4.1. (February 22-23)

1.4.2. To stop it, solider fires upon crowd February 23, 1848 Several fatalities and injuries Public responds with outrage Put up barricades and destroy property Much of National Guard sides with them

1.5. Public and National Guardsmen overthrow monarchy

1.5.1. Creation of provisional government Formed by reformers Moderate Liberal Middle class Ex: Lamartine Second Republic of France Changes Central government considers input from people Capital punishment abolished for political offences Freedom of Commission of Labor reduces working day Creates universal (male) suffrage "Right to work" Generally more conservative

1.5.2. February 26, 1848 Announce French monarchy has ceased

1.6. Tensions rise

1.6.1. July 23, 1848 June Days Uprising Violent protest against conservative turn Unsucessful

1.7. Atfermath

1.7.1. December 2, 1848 Louis Napolean Bonaparte voted President of Second Republic Quickly suspends elected assembly

1.7.2. Unsuccessful Results in the second French Empire Some reforms of Second Republic remain

2. Revolution in Italy

2.1. Italy was broken up into various states (countries)

2.1.1. The majority of Italy was ruled by Austria (the Hapsburgs) Revolutionaries aspired to unite Italy as its own State

2.2. Causes

2.2.1. Poor economy Agricultural State Could not compete with industrialized countries post Industrial Revolution Lead to food riots prior to revolution Formation of radical groups in Rome

2.2.2. Nationalism and Liberalism Pope Pius XI Elected in June 1846 Believed to have liberalist views

2.3. January 12, 1848

2.3.1. Sicily Citizens started to demand Provisional Government King Ferdinand II tries to resist changes

2.4. Charles Albert

2.4.1. Leader of the main revolution

2.4.2. Ruled the Italian state of Sardinina 1831-1849

2.4.3. Declared war on Austria Quickly defeated by Austrians Battle of Custoza

2.5. Aftermath

2.5.1. Revolutions are crushed

2.5.2. Some liberal constitutions are created Quickly abolished under Austrian rule

3. Revolution in Germany

3.1. Causes

3.1.1. Liberalism Hambacher Fest 1832 Desire for Inspired by revolutions in France

3.1.2. Nationalism German-Patriotistm

3.1.3. Industrial Revolution Extremely poor working conditions

3.2. A.k.a.

3.2.1. March Revolution Demonstrated discontent with autocratic Austria Sought to unify German-speaking states (Pan-Germanism) Wanted ability to tax themselves (Zolverein Movement) Lower class wanted better working condiditons Wanted certain rights

3.3. Aftermath

3.3.1. Conservative Austrians defeated liberals Liberals were exiled Became "Forty-Eighters"

3.3.2. Failed to unify Germanic states Assembly could not unify their interests Ended up being their downfall

4. Widespread international social chaos

4.1. Resulted in rise in governmental power

4.2. All revolutions eventually fail