RELATIVE CLAUSES : DEFINING vs NON-DEFINING

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RELATIVE CLAUSES : DEFINING vs NON-DEFINING by Mind Map: RELATIVE CLAUSES : DEFINING vs  NON-DEFINING

1. The girl WHO lives next door is from Poland .

2. people (after preposition)

2.1. The people for WHOM I work do not like dogs.

3. A. DEFINING

3.1. 1. WHAT IS IT ?

3.1.1. GIVES ESSENTIAL INFORMATION : IT TELLS US WHICH PERSON / THING WE ARE TALKING ABOUT

3.2. 2. EXAMPLE

3.2.1. 'The man who is downstairs is my brother.'

3.2.1.1. Which man is your brother? The man who is downstairs .

3.3. 3. CHARACTERISTICS

3.3.1. CAN OMIT RELATIVE PRONOUN UNLESS THE SUBJECT OF THE VERB

3.3.1.1. EXCEPTION : WHOSE and WHERE cannot be omitted.

3.3.1.2. e.g.

3.3.1.2.1. CAN OMIT

3.3.1.2.2. CANNOT OMIT

3.3.2. CAN USE 'that' instead of WHO or WHICH

3.3.3. NO COMMAS

4. B. NON-DEFINING

4.1. 1. WHAT IS IT ?

4.1.1. NON-ESSENTIAL EXTRA INFORMATION

4.2. 2. EXAMPLE

4.2.1. 'My brother , who lives in Paris , is a great teacher '

4.2.1.1. 'who lives in Paris' is extra information : I could omit it .

4.3. 3. CHARACTERISTICS

4.3.1. CANNOT OMIT RELATIVE PRONOUN e.g. who

4.3.2. CANNOT USE 'that'

4.3.3. MUST USE 2 COMMAS e.g. , who lives in Paris ,

5. C. RELATIVE PRONOUNS & ADVERBS

5.1. WHO

5.1.1. people

5.2. WHOM

5.3. WHOSE

5.3.1. possession or belonging

5.3.1.1. The students WHOSE marks are above 75% can skip the final exam.

5.4. WHICH

5.4.1. things OR the idea of a whole sentence

5.4.1.1. thing

5.4.1.1.1. Our house , WHICH stands on an old burial site , is said to be haunted.

5.4.1.2. idea

5.4.1.2.1. The local government decided to introduce a new law forbidding plastic bags , WHICH should help keep the area more pollution-free.

5.5. THAT

5.5.1. people or things but ONLY in DEFINING CLAUSES when a complement .

5.5.1.1. This is the house THAT Jack built .

5.6. WHEN

5.6.1. time

5.6.1.1. That was the day WHEN my sister was born.

5.7. WHERE

5.7.1. place

5.7.1.1. The place WHERE we stayed was excellent .

5.8. WHY

5.8.1. cause

5.8.1.1. That's the reason WHY she didn't come .

6. TYPICAL ERRORS

6.1. 1

6.1.1. The man sitting next to me he had a brown jacket .

6.1.1.1. ERROR : REPITITION OF SUBJECT

6.1.1.2. CORRECTED : The man sitting next to me had a brown jacket.

6.2. 2

6.2.1. He lent me the book , which I found it very useful.

6.2.1.1. ERROR : REPITITION OF COMPLEMENT

6.3. 3

6.3.1. The winner , that was 25 , will receive 5000 euros.

6.3.1.1. ERROR : USE OF THAT IN NON-DEFINING