Operating System Structure

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Operating System Structure by Mind Map: Operating System Structure

1. User Interface

1.1. Graphical User Interface

1.2. Menu Driven Interface

1.3. Command Line Interface

2. Program Execution

2.1. System must be able to

2.1.1. Load a program into memory

2.1.2. Run a program

2.1.3. End execution either normally or abnormally

3. I/O Operation

3.1. Operating system provide some means to perform I/O

4. File-system manipulation

4.1. Processor able to

4.1.1. Read and Write files and directories

4.1.2. Create and delete them

4.1.3. Search them

4.1.4. List file information

4.1.5. Manage permission

5. Communication

5.1. Processor may exchange information on the same computer or computer in the same network

5.2. Via

5.2.1. Communication models

5.2.1.1. Shared Memory

5.2.1.2. Message Passing

6. Error Detection

6.1. Ensure correct computing by detecting error in

6.1.1. CPU

6.1.2. Memory hardware

6.1.3. I/O devices

6.1.4. User program

7. Additional Function

7.1. Resource allocation

7.1.1. Allocate resources to multiple users or multiple jobs running concurrently

7.2. Accounting

7.2.1. Keep track of and record which used resources

7.2.2. Accumulate usage statistics

7.3. Protection and security

7.3.1. Owner information stored in a multiuser or networked computer system may want to control use of that information

7.3.2. Ensure the concurrent process would not interfere with each other

8. System call

8.1. Provide the interface between running program and operating system

8.2. by

8.2.1. Pass parameters in registers

8.2.2. Parameter stored in a block, or table, or memory and address of block passed as a parameter in register

8.2.3. Parameters placed, or pushed, onto stack by the program and popped off the stack by the operating system

8.3. Type

8.3.1. - Process control - File management - Device management - Information Maintenance - Communication - Protection

9. Approach

9.1. Layered Approach

9.1.1. Operating system dvided intoa number of layer

9.1.1.1. Layer 0 : Hardware

9.1.1.2. Layer N : User Interface

9.1.2. Layers are selected such that each uses function and services of only lower-level layer

9.1.3. Advantage

9.1.3.1. Simplicity of construction and debugging

9.1.4. Disadvantage

9.1.4.1. Careful definition and interaction of the layers

9.1.4.2. Less efficient

9.2. Microkernel

9.2.1. Small operating system core

9.2.1.1. Contain only essential core oeprating system functions

9.2.1.2. Services

9.2.1.2.1. Device drivers

9.2.1.2.2. File systems

9.2.1.2.3. Virtual memory manager

9.2.1.2.4. Windowing system

9.2.1.2.5. Security services

9.2.2. Advantage

9.2.2.1. Extensibility

9.2.2.1.1. Allow the addition of new services

9.2.2.2. Flexibility

9.2.2.2.1. New feature replace existing feature

9.2.2.3. Reliability

9.2.2.3.1. Modular design

9.2.2.3.2. Small microkernel can be rigorously tested

9.2.2.4. Portability

9.2.2.4.1. Changes needed to port the system to a new processor is changed in the microkernel only

10. Operating System Design

10.1. Start by defining goals and specifications

10.2. Affected by

10.2.1. - Batch - Time shared - Single user - Multiuser - Distributed - Real time - General purpose

10.3. User goals

10.3.1. Operating system should be convenient to use, easy to learn, reliable, safe, and fast

10.4. System goals

10.4.1. Operating system should be easy to design, implement, and maintain, as well as flexible, reliable, error-free, and efficient