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THEORY by Mind Map: THEORY

1. COGNITIVE - Memory

1.1. Preception and attention strategies

1.1.1. Sensory Systems

1.1.1.1. Pace information

1.1.1.2. Mode of delivery

1.1.1.2.1. Audio

1.1.1.2.2. Visuals

1.1.1.2.3. Animations

1.1.1.2.4. Video

1.1.1.3. Avoid

1.1.1.3.1. Sensory overload

1.1.1.3.2. Non essential information

1.1.2. Advance organisers

1.1.2.1. Place important information in the centre of the screen

1.1.2.2. Learners must be able to read left to right

1.1.2.3. Highlight critical information to focus attention

1.1.2.3.1. Headings to organise details

1.1.2.3.2. Formatted information to allow learners to attend and process it

1.1.2.4. Explain why learners should take the lesson to keep them focused

1.1.2.5. Location of information on screen

1.1.2.5.1. Colours

1.1.2.5.2. Graphics

1.1.2.5.3. Text type

1.1.2.5.4. Text Size

1.1.2.6. Material difficululty must match the cognitive level of the learner

1.1.2.6.1. Give link to complicated and simpler information to accommodate different knowledge levels

1.2. Memory Overload Prevention Strategies

1.2.1. Chunking

1.2.1.1. 5-9 items on screen

1.2.1.2. Information Maps = explain the relationships for lot of content

1.2.1.2.1. Linear

1.2.1.2.2. Hierarchical

1.2.1.2.3. Spider shaped etc.

1.2.1.3. Generalized maps can be broken into sub items as the lesson progresses

1.2.1.4. Present generalized map at the end again

1.2.1.5. Deep learning is facilitated when you ask the students to generate the information map themselves = "bigger picture"

1.3. Memory Link Strategies

1.3.1. Framework for Learning

1.3.1.1. Comparative advance organiser

1.3.1.1.1. Recall prior knowledge

1.3.1.2. Expository advanced organiser

1.3.1.2.1. Lesson Details

1.4. Long Term Information Strategies

1.4.1. Learners need to

1.4.1.1. Apply

1.4.1.2. Analyse

1.4.1.3. Synthesize

1.4.1.4. Evaluate

1.5. Implications for Online Learning

1.5.1. Multimedia Learning Theory

1.5.1.1. Any a combination of 2 to promote deeper thinking: Audio, Visuals or Text

1.5.1.1.1. Visuals accompanied by audio narration versus onscreen text.

1.5.1.1.2. Minimise cognitive overload

1.5.1.1.3. Text close to graphics

1.5.1.1.4. Arrows/ circles/ highlighting & pauses in speech

1.5.1.1.5. Learner control

1.5.1.1.6. Segment into small chunks

1.5.1.1.7. No distracting music or irrelevant videos

1.5.1.1.8. Personalisation - informal tone

2. Behaviourists

2.1. Explicit Outcomes

2.2. Self assess outcomes have been achieved

2.3. Online self assessment facility

2.4. Assessment sequenced into learning

2.5. Grades and corrective feedback

3. Constructivist - Instructional Method Characteristics

3.1. Universal goals such as problem solving and critical thinking

3.2. Students generate knowledge through collaborative group work

3.3. Learning is not linear, often exploratory in nature

3.4. Prerequisite knowledge not always required or considered

3.5. Instruction emphasizes learning in experiential contexts

3.6. Learning is social

3.7. Assessment varies

4. Objectivist - Instructional Method Characteristics

4.1. Instruction is directive

4.2. New node

4.3. Instructors transmit body of knowledge/skills to learners

4.4. Assessments: multiple choice, short answer tests, or essays and projects graded by rubrics or checklists

4.5. Students require prerequisite skills for advancing through curriculum

4.6. Instruction is sequential, linear, standardized

4.7. Efficient

5. Merrill's Principles of Instruction

5.1. Problem

5.1.1. Demonstration

5.1.2. Intergration

5.1.3. Activation

5.1.4. Application

6. Reigeluth's Theory

6.1. 7 Steps in Elaboration

6.1.1. Sequence

6.1.2. Organise

6.1.3. Summarization

6.1.4. Synthesize

6.1.5. Analogy

6.1.6. Cognitive Strategy Activator

6.1.7. Learner Control

7. Objectivist

7.1. Behaviorist "What" (Facts)

7.1.1. Knowledge transmitted to learner

7.1.2. No interpretation by learner

7.1.3. No contextualization by learner

7.1.4. Reinforce learner behaviour

7.1.5. Behavioral change shows learning

7.1.6. Possible to observe and measure behaviour

7.1.7. Thorndike (1913), Pavlov (1927), Skinner (1974), Good & Brophy (1990)

7.2. Cognitivist "Why" (Processes & principles)

7.2.1. Uses memory, motivation, thinking and refelction

7.2.2. Structures and processes of the learner

7.2.3. Application of learning

7.2.4. Depends on the processing capacity of the learner, their effort/ depth of the processing and existing knowledge structure

7.2.5. Gange, Craik & Lockhart (1972), Craik & Tulving 1975), Ausubel, (1974)

8. Constructivist - "Why" (Higher order thinking, personalised meaning and situated/ contextual learning)

8.1. Learner Centered

8.1.1. Individual knowledge construction

8.1.2. Problem solving, experiential and/or social learning experiences

8.1.3. Interpret information

8.1.4. Activate prior knowledge and personal experiences

8.1.5. Observe, process and interpret learning to new experiences and knowledge

8.1.6. Personalized learning

8.1.7. John Dewy, Maria Montessori, Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner, Cooper (1993), Wlilson (1997)

9. Gagne's Theory

9.1. 9 Events of Instruction

9.1.1. Gain Attention

9.1.2. Inform Learner of Objective

9.1.3. Recall of Prior Information

9.1.4. Present Information

9.1.5. Provide Guidance

9.1.6. Elicit Performance

9.1.7. Provide Feedback

9.1.8. Access Performance

9.1.9. Enhance Retention and Transfer

10. Connectivism

10.1. Society’s connectedness within a network of digital infrastructure

10.1.1. Learner drives the learning

10.1.2. Making connections (nodes) and building knowledge with a network

10.1.3. Nodes can be resources or people

10.1.4. Stephen Downes and George Siemens

11. Connectivism Instructional Method Characteristics

11.1. Learning is primarily online, open, learners engage within network

11.2. Learning objectives are not pre-determined, emerge throughout the course, determined by learners’ needs

11.3. Variety of content sources on web, extensive, accessible

11.4. Learners are self-directed, independent, know how-to-learn

11.5. Prerequisites not required

11.6. Learning is often disorganized, chaotic

12. COGNITIVE - Individual Differences

12.1. Learner Types

12.1.1. Concrete experience learners

12.1.1.1. Group Work

12.1.1.2. Peer Feedback

12.1.1.3. Instructor = Guide

12.1.2. Reclective observation learners

12.1.2.1. Like to see all the content immediately

12.1.2.2. Observe before taking action

12.1.2.3. Instructor = Expert

12.1.3. Abstract conceptualization learners

12.1.3.1. Like to work with things and symbols

12.1.3.2. No person centred

12.1.3.3. Like theory

12.1.3.4. Ability to analyse systematically

12.1.4. Active experimentation learners

12.1.4.1. Lean by doing

12.1.4.2. Practical projects

12.1.4.3. Group discussions

12.1.4.4. Learn actively

12.1.4.5. Peers provide information and feedback

12.1.4.6. Self evaluation criteria

12.2. Instructor support

12.2.1. Assimilators

12.2.1.1. High instructor presence

12.2.2. Accommodators

12.2.2.1. Low instructor presence

12.3. Presenting Content

12.3.1. Text Information

12.3.2. Verbal Information

12.3.3. Visual Information

12.4. Motivation

12.4.1. Intrinsic

12.4.1.1. Learner driven

12.4.1.1.1. ARCS

12.4.1.1.2. Deci & Ryan

12.4.1.1.3. Csíkszentmihályi - Flow

12.4.2. Extrinsic

12.4.2.1. Instructor and performance driven

12.5. Metacognition

12.5.1. Reflection opportunity

12.5.2. Collaboration opportunity

12.5.3. Self access overall progress

12.5.4. Feedback opportunities to check knowledge progress

12.6. Transfer of Learning

12.6.1. Real life simulation

12.6.2. Real life case studies

12.6.3. Real life application in assignments and/or projects

13. Cognitive - Implications for Online Learning

13.1. Memory

13.2. Individual Differences

14. Constructivist Implications for Online Learning

14.1. Active Learning

14.1.1. Meaning full activity

14.1.2. Personalized learning

14.1.3. Application to practical situations

14.2. Knowledge construction

14.2.1. Self lead

14.2.2. Instructor facilitation

14.2.3. Student interaction and instructor

14.2.4. Student controls learning agenda

14.2.5. Student information at first hand

14.2.6. Student opportunity to contextualize information

14.2.7. Student oppertunity to personal information

14.3. Collaborative & cooperative learning

14.3.1. Group work

14.3.2. Learn from others

14.3.3. Use strength of other learners

14.3.4. Assign roles in group work based on expertise

14.4. Learner Control

14.4.1. Student control process

14.4.2. Journey of discovery

14.4.3. Instructor guidance

14.5. Opportunities for reflection

14.5.1. Time

14.5.1.1. Reflect Information

14.5.1.2. Internalize information

14.5.2. Learning Journal

14.6. Meaningful learning

14.6.1. Activities to help apply information

14.6.2. Activities to help personalize information

14.7. Interaction

14.7.1. Information

14.7.1.1. Promote higher order thinking

14.7.1.1.1. New skills

14.7.1.1.2. New knowledge

14.7.1.1.3. New attitudes

14.7.2. Environment

14.7.2.1. Social interaction

14.7.2.1.1. Sense of presence

14.7.2.1.2. Sense of community

14.7.2.2. Technology

15. Implications for Online Learning

15.1. Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions

15.1.1. Diverse opinions must be sought and reflected upon

15.2. Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources.

15.2.1. Facilitation research and connections

15.2.2. Application of that knowledge in a course

15.3. Learning may reside in non-human appliances.

15.3.1. Learning does not have be instructor led

15.3.2. Online research

15.3.3. Online social networks e.g. Twitter

15.4. Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known

15.4.1. Allow opportunity to debate

15.4.2. Supported referencing by students

15.4.3. Asking questions to peers

15.5. Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning.

15.5.1. Structure activities to support interactions

15.5.2. Weekly plans of interactions

15.6. Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill.

15.6.1. Support "big picture" thinking

15.6.2. Mind Mapping

15.7. Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities.

15.7.1. Latest new current research

15.7.2. Relevant databases

15.7.3. Networks

15.8. Decision-making is itself a learning process. Choosing what to learn and the meaning of incoming information is seen through the lens of a shifting reality.

15.8.1. Personalized learning oppertunities

15.8.2. Relevant context to that cohort

16. DEEP LEARNING

16.1. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION

16.1.1. 6. Developing as a person

16.1.2. 5. Understanding reality in different ways

16.1.3. 4. The abstraction of meaning - (Making sense)

16.2. STUDENT CENTERED

16.2.1. Learner orientated

16.2.2. Facilitating understanding

16.2.3. More knowledge gained

16.2.4. Conceptual change

16.2.5. Intellectual development

16.2.6. Relates topic and ideas to past knowledge and experiences

16.2.7. Thinks critically about newly learned material

16.2.8. Ties in information from other sources

16.2.9. Creates new arguments and understands logic based on new information

16.2.10. Recognises a structure in the content

16.2.11. Motivation from within, wants to learn

16.2.12. Aims to understand the meaning behind the material

17. SURFACE LEARNING

17.1. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION

17.1.1. 1. A qualitative increase in knowledge

17.1.2. 2. For memorization and storing

17.1.3. 3. The acquisition of facts for subsequent use

17.2. TEACHER CENTERED

17.2.1. Content orientated

17.2.2. Impart information

17.2.3. Transmitting structured knowledge

17.2.4. Less knowledge gained

17.2.5. Unreflective approach, facts no elaborated

17.2.6. No interaction with content or ideas

17.2.7. Concentrates only on memorisation

17.2.8. Underlying argument not comprehended

17.2.9. Treats the task as like a monotonous chore

17.2.10. External incentive, based on demands of a test

17.2.11. Aims to recite and regurgitate material inactively

18. COLLABORATIVE LEARNING

18.1. Online Collaborative Learning (OCL)

18.1.1. Social Course

18.1.1.1. Teacher rep of subject and facilitator

18.1.1.1.1. Idea organising (IO)

18.1.1.1.2. Idea generating (IG)

18.1.1.1.3. Intellectual convergence (IC)

18.1.2. Forums

18.1.2.1. Key component of the teaching

18.1.2.1.1. Online Discussions

18.1.3. Strengths

18.1.3.1. Scaffold learning

18.1.3.2. Recordings

18.1.3.3. Asynchronous discussion

18.1.3.3.1. Intincsic value of discussion important

18.1.3.3.2. Supports critical & analytical thinking, synthesis & evaluation

18.1.4. Weakness

18.1.4.1. Not scalable

18.2. Community of Inquiry Model (COI) (Theory)

18.2.1. COI Framework

18.2.1.1. Construct and confirm meaning through sustained reflection and discourse

18.2.1.1.1. Social Presence

18.2.1.1.2. Teaching presence

18.2.1.1.3. Cognitive presence

18.2.2. Learning theory

18.2.2.1. Good for = Higher Order thinking

18.2.2.1.1. Constructivist

18.2.2.1.2. Collaboration

18.2.2.2. Bad for = Lower Order thinking

18.2.2.2.1. Objectivist

18.2.3. Technology

18.2.3.1. Audio Feedback

18.2.3.2. Rubrics Assessing

18.2.3.2.1. Exploration

18.2.3.2.2. Intergration

18.2.3.2.3. Resolution

18.2.3.3. Documentation Creation Tools

18.2.3.4. Dynamic Rich Internet Applications

18.2.3.5. Synchronous Chat

18.2.4. Academic Diciplines

18.2.4.1. Hard

18.2.4.1.1. Linear Thinkers

18.2.4.1.2. More direct instruction than facilitation

18.2.4.1.3. Emphasis factual knowledge

18.2.4.1.4. Course design and organisation - focuses on the design and presentation of content

18.2.4.2. Soft

18.2.4.2.1. Lateral Thinkers

18.2.4.2.2. More facilitation than direct instruction

18.2.4.2.3. Course design and organisation - focus on netiquette and participation expectations

18.3. Collaborative Learning Online (COL)

18.3.1. Small groups

18.3.1.1. Active learning

18.3.1.1.1. Enhances individuals abilities to master knowledge

18.3.1.1.2. Activities to develop higher order thinking skills

18.3.1.2. Learner centered

18.3.1.2.1. Empowering learners

18.3.2. Community of Practice (COP)

18.3.2.1. Similar interest/ goals

18.3.2.1.1. "Sounding boards" for ideas

18.3.2.1.2. Varied backgrounds

18.3.2.1.3. Varied views / expereinces

18.3.2.1.4. Knowledge sharing

18.3.2.2. Computer Mediated Communicaton (CMC)

18.3.2.2.1. Synchronous

18.3.2.2.2. Asynchronous

18.3.3. Assessment

18.3.3.1. Group

18.3.3.1.1. One grade per team

18.3.3.2. Individual

18.3.3.2.1. Issues

18.3.3.3. Collaborative

18.3.3.3.1. Types

18.3.3.4. Techniques

18.3.3.4.1. Projects

18.3.3.4.2. Papers

18.3.3.4.3. Performances

18.3.3.4.4. Portfolios

18.3.3.4.5. Exhibitions

18.3.4. Technologies

19. Learning theories

19.1. 1. Source of strategies

19.2. 2. Selection is the basis of strategy

19.3. 3. Integration blends relationships of Instructional components and design instruction

19.4. 4. Prediction of sucess