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1. COGNITIVE - Memory

1.1. Preception and attention strategies

1.1.1. Sensory Systems Pace information Mode of delivery Audio Visuals Animations Video Avoid Sensory overload Non essential information

1.1.2. Advance organisers Place important information in the centre of the screen Learners must be able to read left to right Highlight critical information to focus attention Headings to organise details Formatted information to allow learners to attend and process it Explain why learners should take the lesson to keep them focused Location of information on screen Colours Graphics Text type Text Size Material difficululty must match the cognitive level of the learner Give link to complicated and simpler information to accommodate different knowledge levels

1.2. Memory Overload Prevention Strategies

1.2.1. Chunking 5-9 items on screen Information Maps = explain the relationships for lot of content Linear Hierarchical Spider shaped etc. Generalized maps can be broken into sub items as the lesson progresses Present generalized map at the end again Deep learning is facilitated when you ask the students to generate the information map themselves = "bigger picture"

1.3. Memory Link Strategies

1.3.1. Framework for Learning Comparative advance organiser Recall prior knowledge Expository advanced organiser Lesson Details

1.4. Long Term Information Strategies

1.4.1. Learners need to Apply Analyse Synthesize Evaluate

1.5. Implications for Online Learning

1.5.1. Multimedia Learning Theory Any a combination of 2 to promote deeper thinking: Audio, Visuals or Text Visuals accompanied by audio narration versus onscreen text. Minimise cognitive overload Text close to graphics Arrows/ circles/ highlighting & pauses in speech Learner control Segment into small chunks No distracting music or irrelevant videos Personalisation - informal tone

2. Behaviourists

2.1. Explicit Outcomes

2.2. Self assess outcomes have been achieved

2.3. Online self assessment facility

2.4. Assessment sequenced into learning

2.5. Grades and corrective feedback

3. Constructivist - Instructional Method Characteristics

3.1. Universal goals such as problem solving and critical thinking

3.2. Students generate knowledge through collaborative group work

3.3. Learning is not linear, often exploratory in nature

3.4. Prerequisite knowledge not always required or considered

3.5. Instruction emphasizes learning in experiential contexts

3.6. Learning is social

3.7. Assessment varies

4. Objectivist - Instructional Method Characteristics

4.1. Instruction is directive

4.2. New node

4.3. Instructors transmit body of knowledge/skills to learners

4.4. Assessments: multiple choice, short answer tests, or essays and projects graded by rubrics or checklists

4.5. Students require prerequisite skills for advancing through curriculum

4.6. Instruction is sequential, linear, standardized

4.7. Efficient

5. Merrill's Principles of Instruction

5.1. Problem

5.1.1. Demonstration

5.1.2. Intergration

5.1.3. Activation

5.1.4. Application

6. Reigeluth's Theory

6.1. 7 Steps in Elaboration

6.1.1. Sequence

6.1.2. Organise

6.1.3. Summarization

6.1.4. Synthesize

6.1.5. Analogy

6.1.6. Cognitive Strategy Activator

6.1.7. Learner Control

7. Objectivist

7.1. Behaviorist "What" (Facts)

7.1.1. Knowledge transmitted to learner

7.1.2. No interpretation by learner

7.1.3. No contextualization by learner

7.1.4. Reinforce learner behaviour

7.1.5. Behavioral change shows learning

7.1.6. Possible to observe and measure behaviour

7.1.7. Thorndike (1913), Pavlov (1927), Skinner (1974), Good & Brophy (1990)

7.2. Cognitivist "Why" (Processes & principles)

7.2.1. Uses memory, motivation, thinking and refelction

7.2.2. Structures and processes of the learner

7.2.3. Application of learning

7.2.4. Depends on the processing capacity of the learner, their effort/ depth of the processing and existing knowledge structure

7.2.5. Gange, Craik & Lockhart (1972), Craik & Tulving 1975), Ausubel, (1974)

8. Constructivist - "Why" (Higher order thinking, personalised meaning and situated/ contextual learning)

8.1. Learner Centered

8.1.1. Individual knowledge construction

8.1.2. Problem solving, experiential and/or social learning experiences

8.1.3. Interpret information

8.1.4. Activate prior knowledge and personal experiences

8.1.5. Observe, process and interpret learning to new experiences and knowledge

8.1.6. Personalized learning

8.1.7. John Dewy, Maria Montessori, Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner, Cooper (1993), Wlilson (1997)

9. Gagne's Theory

9.1. 9 Events of Instruction

9.1.1. Gain Attention

9.1.2. Inform Learner of Objective

9.1.3. Recall of Prior Information

9.1.4. Present Information

9.1.5. Provide Guidance

9.1.6. Elicit Performance

9.1.7. Provide Feedback

9.1.8. Access Performance

9.1.9. Enhance Retention and Transfer

10. Connectivism

10.1. Society’s connectedness within a network of digital infrastructure

10.1.1. Learner drives the learning

10.1.2. Making connections (nodes) and building knowledge with a network

10.1.3. Nodes can be resources or people

10.1.4. Stephen Downes and George Siemens

11. Connectivism Instructional Method Characteristics

11.1. Learning is primarily online, open, learners engage within network

11.2. Learning objectives are not pre-determined, emerge throughout the course, determined by learners’ needs

11.3. Variety of content sources on web, extensive, accessible

11.4. Learners are self-directed, independent, know how-to-learn

11.5. Prerequisites not required

11.6. Learning is often disorganized, chaotic

12. COGNITIVE - Individual Differences

12.1. Learner Types

12.1.1. Concrete experience learners Group Work Peer Feedback Instructor = Guide

12.1.2. Reclective observation learners Like to see all the content immediately Observe before taking action Instructor = Expert

12.1.3. Abstract conceptualization learners Like to work with things and symbols No person centred Like theory Ability to analyse systematically

12.1.4. Active experimentation learners Lean by doing Practical projects Group discussions Learn actively Peers provide information and feedback Self evaluation criteria

12.2. Instructor support

12.2.1. Assimilators High instructor presence

12.2.2. Accommodators Low instructor presence

12.3. Presenting Content

12.3.1. Text Information

12.3.2. Verbal Information

12.3.3. Visual Information

12.4. Motivation

12.4.1. Intrinsic Learner driven ARCS Deci & Ryan Csíkszentmihályi - Flow

12.4.2. Extrinsic Instructor and performance driven

12.5. Metacognition

12.5.1. Reflection opportunity

12.5.2. Collaboration opportunity

12.5.3. Self access overall progress

12.5.4. Feedback opportunities to check knowledge progress

12.6. Transfer of Learning

12.6.1. Real life simulation

12.6.2. Real life case studies

12.6.3. Real life application in assignments and/or projects

13. Cognitive - Implications for Online Learning

13.1. Memory

13.2. Individual Differences

14. Constructivist Implications for Online Learning

14.1. Active Learning

14.1.1. Meaning full activity

14.1.2. Personalized learning

14.1.3. Application to practical situations

14.2. Knowledge construction

14.2.1. Self lead

14.2.2. Instructor facilitation

14.2.3. Student interaction and instructor

14.2.4. Student controls learning agenda

14.2.5. Student information at first hand

14.2.6. Student opportunity to contextualize information

14.2.7. Student oppertunity to personal information

14.3. Collaborative & cooperative learning

14.3.1. Group work

14.3.2. Learn from others

14.3.3. Use strength of other learners

14.3.4. Assign roles in group work based on expertise

14.4. Learner Control

14.4.1. Student control process

14.4.2. Journey of discovery

14.4.3. Instructor guidance

14.5. Opportunities for reflection

14.5.1. Time Reflect Information Internalize information

14.5.2. Learning Journal

14.6. Meaningful learning

14.6.1. Activities to help apply information

14.6.2. Activities to help personalize information

14.7. Interaction

14.7.1. Information Promote higher order thinking New skills New knowledge New attitudes

14.7.2. Environment Social interaction Sense of presence Sense of community Technology

15. Implications for Online Learning

15.1. Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions

15.1.1. Diverse opinions must be sought and reflected upon

15.2. Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources.

15.2.1. Facilitation research and connections

15.2.2. Application of that knowledge in a course

15.3. Learning may reside in non-human appliances.

15.3.1. Learning does not have be instructor led

15.3.2. Online research

15.3.3. Online social networks e.g. Twitter

15.4. Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known

15.4.1. Allow opportunity to debate

15.4.2. Supported referencing by students

15.4.3. Asking questions to peers

15.5. Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning.

15.5.1. Structure activities to support interactions

15.5.2. Weekly plans of interactions

15.6. Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill.

15.6.1. Support "big picture" thinking

15.6.2. Mind Mapping

15.7. Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities.

15.7.1. Latest new current research

15.7.2. Relevant databases

15.7.3. Networks

15.8. Decision-making is itself a learning process. Choosing what to learn and the meaning of incoming information is seen through the lens of a shifting reality.

15.8.1. Personalized learning oppertunities

15.8.2. Relevant context to that cohort



16.1.1. 6. Developing as a person

16.1.2. 5. Understanding reality in different ways

16.1.3. 4. The abstraction of meaning - (Making sense)


16.2.1. Learner orientated

16.2.2. Facilitating understanding

16.2.3. More knowledge gained

16.2.4. Conceptual change

16.2.5. Intellectual development

16.2.6. Relates topic and ideas to past knowledge and experiences

16.2.7. Thinks critically about newly learned material

16.2.8. Ties in information from other sources

16.2.9. Creates new arguments and understands logic based on new information

16.2.10. Recognises a structure in the content

16.2.11. Motivation from within, wants to learn

16.2.12. Aims to understand the meaning behind the material



17.1.1. 1. A qualitative increase in knowledge

17.1.2. 2. For memorization and storing

17.1.3. 3. The acquisition of facts for subsequent use


17.2.1. Content orientated

17.2.2. Impart information

17.2.3. Transmitting structured knowledge

17.2.4. Less knowledge gained

17.2.5. Unreflective approach, facts no elaborated

17.2.6. No interaction with content or ideas

17.2.7. Concentrates only on memorisation

17.2.8. Underlying argument not comprehended

17.2.9. Treats the task as like a monotonous chore

17.2.10. External incentive, based on demands of a test

17.2.11. Aims to recite and regurgitate material inactively


18.1. Online Collaborative Learning (OCL)

18.1.1. Social Course Teacher rep of subject and facilitator Idea organising (IO) Idea generating (IG) Intellectual convergence (IC)

18.1.2. Forums Key component of the teaching Online Discussions

18.1.3. Strengths Scaffold learning Recordings Asynchronous discussion Intincsic value of discussion important Supports critical & analytical thinking, synthesis & evaluation

18.1.4. Weakness Not scalable

18.2. Community of Inquiry Model (COI) (Theory)

18.2.1. COI Framework Construct and confirm meaning through sustained reflection and discourse Social Presence Teaching presence Cognitive presence

18.2.2. Learning theory Good for = Higher Order thinking Constructivist Collaboration Bad for = Lower Order thinking Objectivist

18.2.3. Technology Audio Feedback Rubrics Assessing Exploration Intergration Resolution Documentation Creation Tools Dynamic Rich Internet Applications Synchronous Chat

18.2.4. Academic Diciplines Hard Linear Thinkers More direct instruction than facilitation Emphasis factual knowledge Course design and organisation - focuses on the design and presentation of content Soft Lateral Thinkers More facilitation than direct instruction Course design and organisation - focus on netiquette and participation expectations

18.3. Collaborative Learning Online (COL)

18.3.1. Small groups Active learning Enhances individuals abilities to master knowledge Activities to develop higher order thinking skills Learner centered Empowering learners

18.3.2. Community of Practice (COP) Similar interest/ goals "Sounding boards" for ideas Varied backgrounds Varied views / expereinces Knowledge sharing Computer Mediated Communicaton (CMC) Synchronous Asynchronous

18.3.3. Assessment Group One grade per team Individual Issues Collaborative Types Techniques Projects Papers Performances Portfolios Exhibitions

18.3.4. Technologies

19. Learning theories

19.1. 1. Source of strategies

19.2. 2. Selection is the basis of strategy

19.3. 3. Integration blends relationships of Instructional components and design instruction

19.4. 4. Prediction of sucess