My Foundations of Education-Rebecca Scott

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My Foundations of Education-Rebecca Scott by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education-Rebecca Scott

1. 1. Identify and describe the four purposes of education.

1.1. 1. Intellectual-to teach basic skills, to transmit specific knowledge, and to help students learn how to analyze, evaluate and acquire high-order thinking skills.

1.2. 2. Political-To instill the current ways of the existing political order into the next generation.

1.3. 3.Social-To teach children the correct roles in which they play in everyday life such as at home, church and family

1.4. 4.Economic-to train children in their future occupation.

2. Politics of Education Chapter 2

2.1. 2. Choose and describe a perspective for the following: 1) the role of the school; 2) explanations of unequal performance; and 3) definition of educational problems.

2.2. The role of the school:The role of the school has a different definintion for different groups and ideals. Conservatives feel like school is a stepping stone for those who want to succeed to be able to do so. Liberals feel like the schools should be a place of equal opportunity for all to be able to fulfill their Amierica dream. Radicals believe that school is a place to keep a person down and is leaning toward capitalism.

2.3. Explanations of unequal performance: Conservatives believe that if a person works hard then they will be successful. If they do not work hard, they won't. They also believe that if a person works hard and still is not successful, they must be of a deficient group. Liberals believe that students all start school from different backgrounds and different playing fields. Therefore, it is the schools job to offer equal opportunities for all. Radicals believe that students start an different playing fields and that if a student is not successful, it's not the educational systems fault, but rather the economic system

2.4. Definition of educational problems: Conservatives- Decline of standards,Decline of Cultural literacy, Decline of values or of civilization, and Decline of Authority ---Liberals-The people in the schools that don't have much money don't have as many opportunities. The curriculum is not diverse enough and does not include many of the cultures that make up society.---Radicals-The schools have stifled the problems with American culture with curriculum. The school system is sexist, homophobic, racist, and classist.

3. History of US Education Chapter 3

3.1. Choose and describe a reform movement that you think has had the most influence on education.

3.1.1. The rise of the common school-prior to 1837, an education was not readily available to all. In face, very few were educated. In 1837, Horace Mann lobbied and won idea of free education for all. There were things that needed to be tweaked, but this movement began the idea that all deserve a free education and as a result of everyone becoming educated, the rest of the world would benefit. Not all groups agreed with Mann's schooling ideas, however, they did feel a need for education. Therefore, they went off and started their own schools.

3.2. Choose and describe one historical interpretation of U.S. Education.

3.2.1. Conservative Perspectives: Conservatives seem to believe that the US Education system has gotten worse over the years. They believe that the curriculum have become watered down and that teachers/law makers don't teach the students so they can learn. The students are taught so they can test well and look good on paper.

4. Curriculum and Pedagogy Chapter 7

4.1. one historical curriculum theory that you would advocate

4.1.1. developmental curriculum-focused more on the needs of the individual student rather than the needs of the society The specific needs of the student at their developmental level is what the focus of developmental curriculum leans toward. There was great flexibility in what and how information was taught based on individual needs of the student. Developmental curriculum made education come alive in a meaningful manner by teaching things that related students to real life.

4.2. one sociological curriculum theory that you would advocate

4.2.1. Modern Functionalist Theory-This theory says that students should be learning how to prepare for life after school and it teaches the students how to learn. This theory allows for students to be rewarded based on their individual achievements rather than group efforts.

5. Sociological Perspectives Chapter 4

5.1. 1. Define the theoretical perspective concerning the relationship between school and society: functionalism, conflict theory, and interactionalism.

5.1.1. Functionalism: Functionalists believe that conflict represents a breakdown of shared values. They also believe that it is the schools responsibility to socialize students into the appropriate values and sort and select students according to their abilities.

5.1.2. Conflict Theory:-conflict sociologists emphasize struggle-Schools are similar to social battlefields,where students struggle against teachers, teachers against administrators, and so on.

5.1.3. Interactionalism: Interactional theories attempt to make commonplace strange by turning on their heads everyday taken-for-granted behaviors and interactions between students and students and between students and teachers.

5.2. 2. Identify and describe 5 effects of schooling on individuals that you think have the greatest impact on students as explained in the book (there are 10 between pages 121-128).

5.2.1. a.Knowledge and Attitudes: The more time a person spends in school, the more they learn. In return, they have a larger impact on society. They also have a higher self-esteem.

5.2.2. b..Employment: possession of a college degree is significantly related to higher income: In 2011, high school graduates earned on average 32,552; College graduates earned 53,976.

5.2.3. c.Teacher Behavior: teachers' expectations play a major role in encouraging or discouraging students to work to their full potential.

5.2.4. d. Inadequate schools: When schools do not prepare students properly, it reflects in their future jobs.

5.2.5. e. Gender: Schools often times unintentionally give the boys more teacher attention time than girls. Subliminally it may be possible that looking at the roles in the schools where as the women are the teachers and the men are the administrators, the young girls see this as being inferior to men.

6. Philosophy of Education Chapter 5

6.1. Describe the particular world view of one of student-centered philosophy of education (pragmatism or existentialism). Include the following information: generic notions, key researchers, goal of education, role of teacher, method of instruction, and curriculum- Pragmatism-a philosophy that encourages people to find processes that work in order to achieve their desired ends. key researchers--George Sanders Pierce, William James, John Dewey, Frances Bacon, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Generic notion---the attainment of a better society through education. Goal of Education----balance the social role of the school with its effects on the social, intellectual, and personal development of individuals. Role of Teacher---encourages, offers questions, suggestions, and helps plan and implement courses of study. Method of instruction---Each child has a different way of learning. The teacher's job is to find out what works best for the student and help them to learn in their way. The teacher also continues learn from day to day. It is up to her to attempt to learn when opportunities present themselves. Curriculum---generally follow Dewey's notion of core curriculum, or an integrated curriculum.

7. Schools as Organizations Chapter 6

7.1. Identify major stakeholders in YOUR district by name (state senators, House of Representatives, state superintendent, representative on state school board, local superintendent, and local school board) State Senator***McClendon, Jim-Shelby County, Alabama ***House of Representatives-Corley Ellis-Shelby County, Alabama ***State Superintendent-Michael Sentance-*****Stephanie Bell-Shelby County, Alabama***Local Superintendant-Wayne Vickers-Alabaster, Alabama-Local School Board Representatives-President-Adam Moseley, Vice President-Derek Henderson, Board Members-Linda Church, John Myrick, Ty Quarles JD

7.1.1. Identify and describe the elements of change within school processes and school cultures. 1. Conflict is necessary to allow issues to surface and be dealt with. 2. New behaviors must be learned. The change process must include new ways of understanding and communicating. 3. Team building must extend to the entire school. No one can be left out in the decision making process or the ones who feel left out will not cooperate and will feel inferior to those taking part in the decision making process. 4. Process and content are interrelated. The process of making change happen is just as important as the content. The process needs good content and in order to execute the content, the process in which it happens must be well managed,

8. Chapter 8: Equality of Opportunity and Educational Outcomes

8.1. Describe how class, race, and gender each impact educational outcomes.

8.1.1. Class-The odds of a student from a middle or upper middle class family are more likely to attend college than that of a working class or lower class family.

8.1.2. Race-White students seem to have more educational opportunities than minority groups. Less white students drop out of school, next is black students, then Hispanic-American students. The educational rewards that minority students receive are less than those of white students.

8.1.3. Gender- Women are generally better readers and writers than men. Men tend to do better in math than women do. Men also tend to score higher on SAT's. Women are attending more post-secondary schools in today's society than men do, however, the schools that they are attending are not as elite as the ones the men are. Some say that women are doing better in school because the curriculum has been adjusted to benefit all. Others argue that men are not doing as well as they used to because of "feminizing" the classroom.

8.2.  What were the two responses to the Coleman Study from 1982?

8.2.1. Response #1-Private schools provided students with a better education than public schools did based on test scores in every subject. One major reason for this is because private schools were able to require more discipline than a public school could.

8.2.2. Response #2-When comparing Catholic Schools and public schools, Catholic Schools are superior in many areas. The area of education is not one of those. The difference in the educational outcomes between the two types of school is minimal.

9. Chapter 9: Explanations of Educational Inequality

9.1. Explain the two types of cultural deprivation theory.

9.1.1. One type of cultural deprivation theory suggested that the unequal performance by working-class and not white class was that they lacked the materials and access to the materials necessary to allow them to achieve academic success.

9.1.2. The other type of cultural diversity suggests that the reason the working-class and non white class did poorly academically is because they lacked the desire to do hard work in an effort to reap the reward of doing so. This was a result of their culture and what it instilled in them. They did not see getting an education as a way of getting ahead.

9.2.  Describe at least four school-centered explanations for educational inequality.

9.2.1. School Financing- Schools generally have a certain amount of money to spend per student. The funding comes from different taxes. One in particular is property tax, In an area that has a higher property value, the taxes allowed per student is higher than in an area where property value is lower and therefore taxes are lower and amount of money per student is lower.

9.2.2. Effective School Research-The research done on school suggests that the students in lower SES schools are deprived of a good education because they do not have the intelligence to comprehend the material. Other research suggests that students in lower SES do poorly in school because of inadequate materials and teachers. The different research that has been done to determine the quality of education is based on mostly test scores of standardized tests and do not provide enough evidence in the areas of nontraditional forms of education such as the creative and artistic areas. In light of that, the research reported is not completely accurate and needs more attention to those areas to determine how students in lower as well as higher SES perform.

9.2.3. Between School Differences- Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices-There are obvious differences in schools that are in higher and lower SES. Parents of students who attend schools in higher SES typically pay more per student and that supports higher paid faculty as well as atmosphere. Students in lower SES typically are not surrounded by the best settings or encouraged to dream as big as a student in a higher SES.

9.2.4. Within School Differences-Within the schools students are separated into groups that learn like they do. Students who need more challenging work are in one class where as students who need less challenging work are placed in a different class. The argument with such separation is that students who are placed in the more challenging situations are taught better than those in classrooms that have lower expectations. Another argument is that students should all have a bit of a challenging curriculum, because they are smarter than some teachers give them credit for and if the teacher expects it, the student can achieve it. Yet another aspect of the argument of class separation indicates that students in the working-class and non white SES are placed in lower task classrooms where students in higher SES and white are placed in the higher task classroom settings. The reason for that is ultimately, unclear. Research is still being done to understand how to teach all children and give everyone a strong education.

10. Chapter 10-Educational Reform and School Improvement

10.1. Describe two school-based reforms (school-based, school-business partnerships, privatization, school-to-work programs, teacher education or teacher quality)-

10.1.1. School-Business partnerships-This is where a local business contributes financially to a school in an effort to improve the student's education. The idea is that these current students will one day be employees and these businesses are, in essence, investing in their own future employees.

10.1.2. Teacher Quality-Teachers who are working in schools are very qualified to teach. The issue is that they are often assigned to classes that they are not specialized in teaching. Therefore, their efforts are not as good as if they were in their familiar subject area. This tends to happen in lower SES school systems. As a result, teachers are leaving schools at a high rate. This fact is unfortunate because it takes years of teaching to become a master at it. The teachers are not giving it a chance due to frustration. Another problem in placing quality teachers is that teachers who are less than adequate at their jobs are tenured and are waiting on retirement, which makes it more difficult to replace them.

10.2.  Describe at least two societal, economic, community, or political reforms.

10.2.1. SFRA( School Funding Reform Act)-a funding formula that supplies funding to all of the states districts to help the students in that area in need. Prior to this funding was the Abbott funding that allowed funding for students in need to those only in the urban setting.

10.2.2. CFE-(Campaign for Fiscal Equity)- a group of educators and parents formed this group in an effort to provide a "sound basic" education to all students. This education would also prepare students to be able to obtain and hold competitive jobs after graduation.