Biology: Tissues, Organs, and Systems of Living Things

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Biology: Tissues, Organs, and Systems of Living Things by Mind Map: Biology: Tissues, Organs, and Systems of Living Things

1. Cells - The Basic Unit of Life

1.1. Cell Membrane - Forms a protective barrier around the cell and allows different substances to move though it.

1.2. Cytoplasm - Jelly-like substance that fills the cell and surrounds the organelles, contains nutrients required by the cell to carry on its life process, and allows the nutrients and organelles to move within the cell.

1.3. Nucleus - The control centre organelle of the cell, contains nearly all of the cell's DNA, and controls activity in a cell (including growth and reproduction.)

1.4. Vacuoles - Membrane-bound organelles that store nutrients, waste, and other substances used by the cell and in plant cells (stores water)

1.5. Vesicles - Membrane-bound organelles that store nutrients, waste, and other substances used by the cell and transports substances throughout the cell.

1.6. Mitochondria - Supplies needed energy to cells and reactions occur in these organelles to convert the chemical energy in sugar into energy that the cell can use.

1.7. Lysosomes - Where digestion takes place and breaks down invading bacteria and damaged cell organelles.

1.8. Golgi Apparatus - Receives proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum and modifies, sorts, and packages these proteins for delivery throughout the cell or outside of the cell.

1.9. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum - Associated with making proteins.

1.10. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum - Associated with the production of fats and oils.

1.11. Ribosomes - The sites where proteins are assembled.

1.12. Cytoskeleton - Made up of proteins and filaments and helps maintain the cell's shape.

1.13. Cell Wall - A rigid frame around the cell that provides strength, protection, and support.

1.14. Chloroplast - Converts light energy from the sun into sugars that can be used by the cell and contains a green substance called chlorophyll.

1.15. Thylakoids - Contains integral membrane proteins which is an important role in light collecting.

1.16. Granum - Increases surface area of the thylakoids, resulting in more light being absorbed into the chlorophyll.

1.17. Animal Organelles - Rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, nucleolus, nucleus, chromatin, cell membrane, ribosomes, golgi apparatus, cytoplasm, lysosome, mitochondrion, vacuole, and cytoskeleton.

1.18. Plant Organelles - Nucleolus, rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, central vacuole, cytoskeleton, cytoplasm, chloroplast, wall of adjacent cell, cell wall, cell membrane, mitochondrion, golgi apparatus, and chromatin.

1.19. GRASP

1.19.1. Given

1.19.2. Require

1.19.3. Analysis

1.19.4. Solution

1.19.5. Paraprase

1.20. Every cell has a cell membrane - this membrane forms a protective barrier around the cell and is designed to carry out a very important cellular mechanism - the process of allowing different substances to move through the cell membrane to enter, or exit the cell.

1.21. One such process for moving substances across the cell membrane is called diffusion.

1.22. Diffusion depends on the concentration of the substance on both sides of the cell membrane.

1.23. Concentration: The amount of dissolved particles of a substance, called solutes, in a solution is the concentration.

1.24. When a substance is present in different concentrations on either side of the cell membrane, the particles will diffuse, or move, from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration.

2. From Single Cells to Specialized Cells and Tissues

2.1. Cell division is essential for all life. Everyone started out as a single cell. By adulthood, you will be made of approximately 100 trillion cells (10^14 cells).

2.2. Cells accomplish this remarkable growth rate through the “CELL CYCLE”, which involves cell growth and preparation for division. The growth and preparation phase is called “INTERPHASE”, and the process of division itself is called “MITOSIS”.

2.3. The Importance of Cell Division - Cell Growth and Repair Multicellular organisms, like plants and animals, are made up of many different cells. These different cells undergo cell growth and cell division at different rates.

2.3.1. In a growing organism, there is a rapid mitosis of cells in those areas of growth.

2.3.2. Cell division provides new cells to replace cells that wear out or break down.

2.3.3. Cells that are likely to be damaged or injured as they function, have high rates of mitosis.

2.4. Cell division is essential for cell growth and cell repair and replacement, and the cells of multicellular organisms all undergo cell growth and cell division at different, yet “controlled” rates.

2.5. However when cells divide “uncontrollably” they are called cancer cells.

2.5.1. Cancer cells develop when a change occurs in the cell that affects how the cell divides.

2.5.2. When a cell’s DNA is changed, it is known as a mutation.

2.5.3. Some viruses and environmental agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, or cigarette smoke, can cause cell mutations.

2.5.4. Normal cells usually live for about 50 to 60 cell divisions, cancer cells can seem to be “immortal”, because they do no stop dividing.

2.5.5. A normal cell will undergo apoptosis it is damaged genetically, whereas a cancer cell will continue to divide.

2.6. Normal Cells

2.6.1. Make exact copies of themselves through mitosis

2.6.2. Reproduce for about 50-60 cell divisions

2.6.3. Stick together to form masses of cells as appropriate

2.6.4. Self destruct when too old or too damaged

2.7. Cancer Cells

2.7.1. Make exact copies of themselves through mitosis

2.7.2. Do not stop reproducing

2.7.3. Do not stick to other cells

2.7.4. Behave independently

2.7.5. May move to another location of the body

2.8. Although all cells have the same DNA information, they are not all alike. Cells develop in different ways, meaning hey undergo DIFFERENTIATION to perform particular functions in a process called CELL SPECIALIZATION.

2.9. Every cell in your body originally came from a small group of stem cells. A stem cell is initially an unspecialized cell. However, these stem cells are capable of becoming any cell - including nerve cells, blood cells, or muscle cells - in the human body.

2.10. There are two types of animal stem cells: Embryonic Stem Cells and Adult Stem Cells

2.11. Meristematic Stem Cells

2.11.1. Plant stem cells are called MERISTEMATIC CELLS.

2.11.2. They are found in the growing tips of roots and stems.

2.11.3. Also found in a layer of the stem known as the cambium.

2.11.4. Are active throughout the life of the plant - they continually produce new cells of various types.

2.12. Cell Cycle Terms

2.12.1. Cell Cycle - Repeating cycle of events in the life of a cell in which it grows and prepares for division.

2.12.2. Interphase - Stage in the cell cycle in which the cell grows and prepares for cell division.

2.12.3. Mitosis - Stage of the cell cycle in which the cell divides into two new daughter cells.

2.12.4. Chromosomes - Long piece of coiled DNA and proteins; only visible during mitosis.

2.12.5. Sister Chromatids - One of two identical copies of a chromosome.

2.12.6. First Growth Phase (G1) - This phase is a period of growth for a cell. During this phase, the cell also produces new proteins and organelles. If the cell is healthy and conditions are favourable, the cell moves into the next phase.

2.12.7. Synthesis Phase (S) - During this phase, the cell makes (synthesis) an entire copy of the DNA of the cell. Key proteins that are associated with chromosomes are also produced during this phase.

2.12.8. Second Growth Phase (G2) - Once the DNA has been copied, the cell moves into the second growth phase. During this phase, the cell produces the organelles and structures needed for cell division. This phase is the shortest of the phase is interphase.

2.12.9. Cytokinesis - Division of the cytoplasm during mitosis.

2.12.10. Apoptosis - Controlled death of a cell that is no longer useful.

2.13. The Phases of Mitosis for a 3 Chromosome Cell

2.13.1. 1. Interphase

2.13.2. 2. Early Prophase

2.13.3. 3. Late Prophase

2.13.4. 4. Metaphase

2.13.5. 5. Anaphase

2.13.6. 6. Telophase and Cytokinesis

2.14. Animal Tissues and Their Functions

2.14.1. Epithelial Tissue Line body cavities and other surface of body Protects structures Forms glands that produce hormones, enzymes, and sweat.

2.14.2. Connective Tisuue Supports and protects structures Forms blood Stores fat Fills empty space

2.14.3. Muscle Tissue Allows for movement

2.14.4. Nervous Tissue Responds to stimuli Transmit and stores information

2.15. Plant Tissues and Their Functions

2.15.1. Meristematic Tissue Unspecialized tissue capable of dividing by mitosis Found in several locations in the plant Responsible for growing new parts of the plant

2.15.2. Epidermal Tissue Forms the protective outer covering Allows the exchange of materials and gases into and out of the plant.

2.15.3. Ground Tissue In the stem: provides strength and support In the roots: stores food and water In the leaves: where photosynthesis occurs

2.15.4. Vascular Tissue Moves substances from the roots to the leaves Transports sugars from the leaves to other parts of the plant

3. From Tissues to Organs and Organ Systems

3.1. An ORGAN is an organized group of tissues that perform a specific function.

3.2. Organs must carry out their individual functions in harmony with other organs - different organs work together to accomplish the many varied tasks needed for survival

3.2.1. Organs that function together form Organ Systems, such as the circulatory, respiratory, digestive, and nervous systems.

3.3. The Four Main Plant Organs

3.3.1. Roots

3.3.2. Leaves

3.3.3. Stem

3.3.4. Flower or Fruit

3.4. The Two Main Plant Organ Systems

3.4.1. Shoot System

3.4.2. Root System

3.5. The Four Human Animal Organs

3.5.1. Skin The skin protects the inner cells from damage, acts as a defence against disease organisms, insulates, releases heat, and excretes bodily wastes.

3.5.2. Lung Lungs allow you to breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide.

3.5.3. Heart The heart is a muscular pump that supplies blood to all part of the body.

3.5.4. Organs of Digestion Mouth Physical digestion through action of teeth, tongue, and saliva. Chemical digestion of sugars using salivary enzymes. Esophagus Movement of food in rhythmic waves known as peristalsis. Stomach Physical digestion through churning action and mixing with digestive juices (acids and enzymes) Chemical digestion of protein through the action of enzymes. Liver Secretes bile, which breaks up fat to acid absorption, into the intestine. Pancreas Secretes pancreatic juice, insulin, and enzymes into the intestine. Intestines Completes chemical digestion of food using enzymes Reabsorbs water Absorption of nutrients through large surface area. Rectum and Anus Storage of waste material until elimination occurs.

3.6. The Four Human Animal Organ Systems

3.6.1. Digestive System Mouth, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, gall bladder, liver, intestines, rectum. Ingestion, digestion, absorption of nutrients, elimination of solid wastes.

3.6.2. Respiratory System Nose, mouth, trachea, lungs, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, diaphragm. Exchange of gases

3.6.3. Circulatory System Heart, blood vessels, blood. Transportation of materials (such as oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and wastes) with in the body.

3.6.4. Nervous System Brain, nerves, spinal cord Controls body functions, coordinates responses and activities.

4. Advances in Biological Technologies

4.1. Medical Imaging Technologies

4.1.1. X-Ray Can easily penetrate materials such as skin and tissue but cannot easily penetrate metals and bone. Can be used to check for cancer and to diagnose problems in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Used by dentists to check for cavities in your teeth. Mammographs uses x-rays to check breast tissue for the presence of cancer.

4.1.2. X-Ray Fluoroscopy Uses a continuous beam of x-rays to produce images that show the movements of organs, such s the stomach, intestine, and colon, in the body. Used to study the blood vessels of the heart and the brain.

4.1.3. X-Ray Radiotherapy During radiotherapy, a beam of x-rays is directed at a tumour so that there is minimal damage to healthy normal cells. Damage the DNA snd either kill the cancer cells or prevent them from multiplying

4.1.4. Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of body tissues and organs. Used to study soft tissues and major organs in the body. Cannot penetrate bone

4.1.5. Computed Assisted Tomography CAT involves using x-ray equipment to form a three-dimensional image from a series of images taken at different angles Frequently used t diagnose cancer, abnormalities of the skeletal system, and vascular diseases.

4.1.6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI uses powerful magnets and radiowaves to produce detailed images of the body. Useful for imaging the structure and function of the brain, heart and liver, soft tissues, and the inside of bones.

4.2. Medical imaging allows doctors to see within the human body so that they can diagnose and treat diseases. Doctors can see a broken bone or changes within internal organs and blood vessels. Doctors can even explore the whole human body. There are several important medical imaging technologies including X-ray, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and biophotonics.

4.3. The most common form of medical imaging is the X-ray. An X-ray is high-energy radiation that can easily penetrate materials such as skin and tissues but cannot easily penetrate metals and bone.

4.4. The transducer is placed on the skin. Sound waves enter the body and are reflected back — much like an echo — to the transducer by internal body structures. This reflection makes an image of the body structure, which is recorded on a screen and viewed by a technician.