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Name: LI WAI-SANG/ Subject: Learning Design Technology, MITE by Mind Map: Name: LI WAI-SANG/
Subject: Learning Design
Technology, MITE
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Name: LI WAI-SANG/ Subject: Learning Design Technology, MITE

Learning Technology Project

Tools: flowchart, storyboard, prototype

Storyboard Development, Storyboard Evaluator, Design Specification

Prototype Development, Interface Design, User Interface (UI), Presentation Design, Interaction Design, Prototype Evaluation

Learning outcome

Able explain more in sub-outcome

ADDIE process

  Analyze – analyze learner characteristics, task to be learned, etc. Indentify Instructional Goals, Conduct Instructional Analysis, Analye Learners and Contexts Design – develop learning objectives, choose an instructional approach. Write Performance Objectives, Develop Assessment Instruments, Develop Instructional Strategy Develop – create instructional or training materials Design and selection of materials appropriate for learning activity, Design and Conduct Formative Evaluation Implement – deliver or distribute the instructional materials Evaluate – make sure the materials achieved the desired goals  

stage1: analysis, Conduct analysis, Environmental Analysis, System Analysis, Audience Analysis, Content Analysis, Feasibility Analysis, Risk Assessment

stage2: design, Define Goal, Conduct Instructional Analysis, Task Analysis, Analysis Learner and Context, Learning Objective, Assessment, Develop Instructional Strategy, Arrange Instructional Event, Develop Flowchart and Storyboard

stage3: development, Outsourcing, In-house, Existing product enhancement, solution can buy resource or use opensource

stage4: implementation, Define software development life cycle (SDLC), Define system development life cycle (SDLC also), SDLC process, Pseudo code, IF...THEN... ELSE, Looping: WHILE...DO/ REPEAT...UNTIL/ FOR...NEXT/ SWITCH/SELECT...CASE, Variable Definition: Independent/ Dependent variable, Class definition: Public/ Private/ Protected, Class Diagram, Object Definition: E-R diagram, call-flow, Identify product criteria is web-based, mobile-based or OS-based, Web-based platform runs on IIS/ Apache/ Tomcat web server engine plus which server platform: Unix/Linux-like, Windows?, Mobile-based platform runs on which mobile platform?, OS-based platform includes the application runs over operating system directly, such like a single application, e.g. the 'EXE', 'SISX' or 'Java apps', Define coding tools based on above product criteria: C/C++, Visual Basic, C#, Java, PHP, ... etc, Define Data such as database structure, data storage, data reuse, data mining and data warehouse, Object-oriented programming design (OO approach)

stage5: evaluation, Questionnaire, Survey, Comments/ feedback/ response, By marking or ranking, Usage feeling, Social feedback, Statistical tools

LT (Learning Technology) Product

Educational Institute, Purpose: specific on education need, class ICT/ e-learning/ m-learning/ flexible learning/ blended learning/ distance learning ... etc

Commercial Environment, Purpose: specific on business training need, sales training/ e-training/ user manual/ client solution report ... etc

Four Component/ Instructional Design (4C/ID) model

M-learning, APPS development, Difficulties need make different APPS run on different platform, Platform: Android, Apple IOS, Blackberry, Samsung Bada, Symbian, HP WebOS, Winphone7, Different platform makes different market: androidmarket, appstore, ovi, winmarketplace, computer-supported collaborative learning, Limitation, Small-screen display, Bad for reading. Always need screen adjustment, Not enough space for people's handwriting if someone has 'big fingers', Bandwidth bottleneck limit network speed, Multiple platform needs developer design different APPS to fit the platform, Chinese/ Japanese/ Korean handwriting may difficult recognize, Anytime and anywhere can doing 'learning' activity via mobile device

E-learning, Educational website, multimedia learning platform, Digital Profolio, Learning Management System (LMS)

IEEE LT Technical Issue

Open Source/ Freeware, Free-of-charge, Free OS: Linux (debian, centos, fedora... etc)/ BSD/ Darwin, Free LMS: moodle ... etc, Many opensource can download and modify by the programmer or developer to get enhancement and improvement

Cloud computing, Network-based, Via internet/web, Anytime and anywhere can access via web browser, Free-of-charge, Data or object storage on server-side, Reduce client-side resource, Cut Software cost, license fee, Reduce Hardware cost, Reusable objects, Able to use through mobile-device or any computer system, only need network access plus web browsing, Shortage

Instruction Design and Event

Instructional Event organize a set of communication to students, Communication channel make up a instruction set to aid learning process

Event makes an action of Learning process, 1.Attention 2.Selective perception 3.Rehearsal 4.Semantic encoding 5.Retrieval 6.Response organization 7.Feedback 8.Executive control process, Stimulation: learning through practice into memory by learning process, Learning process contains no enough event to let the learning into short-term memory, Clear event causes response and feedback to let the learning into long-term memory

First Generation Instructional Design (ID1), Limitation of ID1 occurs, thus it needs 'Second Generation Instructional Design (ID2)', Second Generation Instructional Design (ID2)

Knowledge representation, KR, Knowledge analysis and acquisition system.(KAAS), Knowledge Objects, Component Transaction, Abstraction Transaction, Associate Transaction, Sequence Transaction, Knowledge Interrelationships, Knowledge Object Linkup by: Component/ Abstraction Relationship

Instructional Design Theory, Algorithms vs. frame-based instruction, Computer program assumption

Reusable Learning Object (RLO, sometimes called a Shareable Content Object), CISCO RIO Strategy, Learning Objects, Metadata, XML schema, RSS feed, Digital Audio Learning Object (DALO)

Learning Theories

are about how learning occurs help us understand the process of learning are based on our philosophy about nature of knowledge or epistemology two main philosophical orientations in relation to knowledge: objectivism and idealism rientations result in learning theories across a continuum: behaviorism, cognition and constructivism translate into concrete actions in teaching and learning (pedagogical models, approaches, strategies, etc)


Bartlett (1932) pioneered what became the constructivist approach (Good & Brophy, 1990). Constructivists believe that "learners construct their own reality or at least interpret it based upon their perceptions of experiences, so an individual's knowledge is a function of one's prior experiences, mental structures, and beliefs that are used to interpret objects and events." "What someone knows is grounded in perception of the physical and social experiences which are comprehended by the mind." (Jonasson, 1991).

web 2.0 maybe useful for information sharing, web2.0 technology: blog/ podcast/ social networking/ interactive game/ audio-video AV, learning tools

web searching maybe needed by learner, social networking/bookmarking: facebook, twitter, delicious, msn

Learner is active in the learning processes

Multimedia design in a constructivist framework


Cognitive theorists recognize that much learning involves associations established through contiguity and repetition. They also acknowledge the importance of reinforcement, although they stress its role in providing feedback about the correctness of responses over its role as a motivator. However, even while accepting such behavioristic concepts, cognitive theorists view learning as involving the acquisition or reorganization of the cognitive structures through which humans process and store information. (Good and Brophy, 1990, pp. 187).

memorization always needed

a traditional way of teaching in HK

Presenter is the knowledge transferer

learners are passive in getting information


Behaviorism, as a learning theory, can be traced back to Aristotle, whose essay "Memory" focused on associations being made between events such as lightning and thunder. Other philosophers that followed Aristotle's thoughts are Hobbs (1650), Hume (1740), Brown (1820), Bain (1855) and Ebbinghause (1885) (Black, 1995). The theory of behaviorism concentrates on the study of overt behaviors that can be observed and measured (Good & Brophy, 1990). It views the mind as a "black box" in the sense that response to stimulus can be observed quantitatively, totally ignoring the possibility of thought processes occurring in the mind. Some key players in the development of the behaviorist theory were Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike and Skinner.

Larger room is needed for activities

more suitable for active students

Experimental base learning

Project assessment based

more interactive between teacher and students

Learning Model

Learning-By-Doing Model, Kolb Learning Cycle Model

Jonassen’s Constructivist Learning Model, Jonassen's Learning Environment

Multimedia Learning Model

Active Learning

Rich Environment for Active Learning (REAL)