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Learning Design and Technology: by Mind Map: Learning Design and Technology:
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Learning Design and Technology:

constructing schemata through mindful abstraction from the concrete experiences that are provided by the learning tasks

A History of Instructional Media

instructional design and technology

the effects media have had on instructional practices

instructional technology

physical means

School Museums

The Visual Instruction Movement and Instructional Films

The Audiovisual Instruction Movement and Instructional Radio

World War II

Post-World War II Developments and Media Research

Theories of Communication

Instructional Television

Shifting Terminology

Computers: From the 1950s to 1995

Recent Developments


A History of Instructional Design

instructional design models in the 1960s and 1970s

interest in cognitive psychology, microcomputers, performance technology, and constructivism

instructional systems design

The Origins of Instructional Design:World War II

More Early Developments: The Programmed Instruction Movement

The Popularization of Behavioral Objectives

The Criterion-Referenced Testing Movement

Robert M. Gagne:Domains of Learning, Events of Instruction, and Hierarchical Analysis

Sputnik: The Indirect Launching of Formative Evaluation

Early Instructional Design Models

The 1970s: Burgeoning of Interest in the Systems Approach


Searching for Learner-Centered,Constructivist, and Sociocultural Components of Collaborative Educational Learning Tools

instructional strategies and tools must be based on some theory of learning and cognition

The promise of multimedia learning: using the same instructional design methods across different media

students can learn more deeply from well-designed multimedia messages consisting of words and pictures than from more traditional modes of communication involving words alone.

Blueprints for Complex Learning:The 4C/ID-Model

description of the four-component instructional design system(4C/ID-Model)

instructional design enterprise

addresses at least three deficits

a European project called ADAPT-Interactive Tools

Complex Learning

Second Generation Instructional Design(ID2)

be capable of analyzing, representing, and guiding instruction to teach integrated sets of knowledge and skills. be capable of producing pedagogic prescriptions for the selection of interactive instructional strategies and the selection and sequencing of instructional transaction aets.

First Generation Instructional Design(ID1)

Component Display Theory Conditions of Learning and Component Display

an open system

able to incorporate new knowledge about teaching and learning and to apply these in the design process. integrate the phases of instructional development.

the components of ID2

a theoretical base a knowledge base a series of intelligent computer-based design tools a collection of mini-experts a library of instructional transactions an on-line intelligent advisor program.

Analyzing and Representing Knowledge for Integrated Goals

Classes of Knowledge Representations

Comparison with Other Approaches

ID1 Expert Systems

Intelligent Tutoring Systems and Micro-worlds.

Instructional Design & Learning Theory

Various learning theories and associated instructional design strategies

difficulty to differentiate between three basic theories of learning.

Investigation into the available literature on learning theories and implications

learning theory and ID; behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism, connoisseurship, semiotics and contextualism, atomic theory

theories and models

The History of Behaviorism, Cognitivism and Constructivism in Instructional Design


Instructional Transaction Theory: An Instructional Design Model based on Knowledge Objects

Merrill,Li & Jones

What is Instructional Design Theory?

Designing collaborative, constructionist and contextual applications for handheld devices

explores current applications for handheld devices and questions

facilitate learning in a pedagogically sensible manner

presents a functional framework

deserve further research and create new learning opportunities

the growth of pervasive, ubiquitous, computing will have a large impact on learning.

Related work

Functionality framework: categorising handheld educational applications in terms of both application function and pedagogical underpinning.

In summary, much of the work presented across the categories has had limited success ‘in the field’.

Collaborative, constructionist and contextual applications

the most educationally appropriate applications currently available are built on a combination of collaborative, contextual, constructionist and constructivist principles.


there are sound reasons to believe that handheld devices will have a role to play in the way we learn. the most appropriate underpinning of these categories can be found in the educational philosophies of collaboration, contextualization, constructionism and constructivism.  

Web 2.0 and Possibilities for Educational Applications

This articlc explores ideas and practices ir; relation to Wcb 2.0 a~id suggests ho\v these niiglit applv in education.

novel applications

new ways of understanding the Internet

paradigm shift

benefit, challenges and opportunities

What is Web 2.0?

Subscribing to Information

"syndication feed" or "RSS"

Social Spaces

engaging people in collective activities in a social space

The Internet as a Platform

a platform that contains tools traditionally understood as being native to desktop computers. traditionally computer-based software applications into the lnternet environment.  

Open Source

The Wide Spread of Web 2.0

A number of innovative Web 2.0 applications that have come to notice through the last couple of years have been shown to be possibly some of the most socially engaging phenomena in human history.

Education and Web 2.0

understandings and expectations of technology aligned with Web 2.0. learn from Web 2.0 to design a technology-integration strategy that leads to pedagogically more productive engagements meeting the profiles of our students, and being otherwise relevant to the world?

Blogs, Wikis, Podcasts, and Other Powerful Web Tools for Classrooms

emerging innovative applications of the Internet

the speed of adoption of innovations and the success of technology integration in education. What implications might this have on technology integration in education?

Teaching and Learning in Digital Environments: The Resurgence of Resource-Based Learning

altering fundamentally how, when, and for what purposes resources are created and used.


Resource-based learning involves the reuse of available assets to support varied learning needs

Predigital perspectives

predigital resources were constrained by their static nature. teachers used resources incrementally and linearly to “convey” specific content; learners attempted to “acquire” specified knowledge or skills

Emerging perspectives

developments in knowledge-object technology, and the creation of standards for cataloging and classifying digital media isolate various components to meet specific needs within a particular context.

Toward Resource-Based Teaching and Learning

a shift to more flexible resource-based approaches that emphasize problem solving and critical thinking.



repackage information in ways needed to assist the individual teacher and learner. The role and design of enabling contexts have not been well established. RBLEs need to work in the different settings where learning takes place, accounting for when it will occur and who will be involved. require significant electronic scaffolding of both procedural and conceptual aspects of the learning task. account for important learner differences if the framing is to be useful.

Activity Theory as a Framework for Designing Constructivist Learning Environments

Constructivist approaches to learning are clearly based on distinctly different epistemic and pedagogical assumptions

Activity theory

emphasized both the historical development of ideas as well as the active and constructive role of humans.

Activity System


Assumptions of Activity Theory

Activities are the human interactions with the objective world and the conscious activities that are a part of those interactions. the learner as subject activity and consciousness coexist, they are mutually supportive.


Constructivist Learning Environments


Teachers’ private theories and their design of technology-based learning


explores the private theories of four vocational education teachers in Singapore who have engaged in the design of technology-based learning for their own classes. aims to understand and explicate areas of private theories that impede the effective design of student-centred technology-based learning.

On the Role of Concepts in Learning and Instructional Design

Concepts represent a primary learning outcome, without necessarily considering how the concepts are used.

Similarity View of Concepts

In the classical view, a person has learned a concept when he or she can correctly isolate and apply attributes of specific objects into their correct categories.

Prototype or Probablistic View of Concepts

Concepts are represented as prototypes in memory, that is, contextual entities with common attrinutes that are most typical of category membership. Concepts that have high family resemblance will maximize similarity within categories while minimizing similarity between categories.

Exemplar View of Concepts

humans learn concepts primarily by inducing concept descriptions from examples or by combining previously existing concepts. Concepts may consist of multiple representations, and any one may be used to classify new instances. Concepts contain probabolistic and exemplar components, where instances are judged in terms of their degree of membership in a concept.

Other Views of Concepts

Implications for Assessment: Concepts-in-Use

concepts; are assessed in use; in order to assess meaning for concepts using these methods, it is necessary to use some form of discourse, protocol, or conversation analysis.

Semistructured Interviews

assessing concepts-in-use in research on conceptual change, generative questions are asked.

Think-Aloud Problem Solving

An alternative to interviews requires learners to think aloud while they are solving problems. Working in pairs

Implications for Instruction: Concepts-in-Use.

The most meaningful activity that humans engage in is problem solving. Problems provide a purpose for learning. Knowledge constructed while solving problems(knowledge-in-use) more integrated, better retained, and more transferable.


Concepts learned in isolation will lack coherence and therefore be less useful than concepts-in-use in thought construction processes. concept learning must be assessed in patterns and in use. students should learn how to use a variety of tools to build models of what they are learning and to engage in solving complex and ill-structured problems.