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Learning Design and Technology: by Mind Map: Learning Design and
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Learning Design and Technology:

constructing schemata through mindful abstraction from the concrete experiences that are provided by the learning tasks

A History of Instructional Media

instructional design and technology

the effects media have had on instructional practices

A prediction digital media will have on such practices over the next decade.

instructional technology

learning process

learning and performance in classrooms and in the workplace

a definition of field for instructional design and technology, performance problems, design, development, utilization or implementation, management, evaluation, analysis, current definition has a relation to processes and resources for learning and focuses on research and theory., extended 1994 AECT definition, performance technology, noninstructional solutions and instructional solutions to solve problems, the core of the field, the use of media for instructional purposes, the use of systematic instructional design procedures, the reason to use the term instructional design and technology

physical means

instructional medium

other than the teacher,chalkboard and textbook

School Museums

Saettler's indication of the museums

the IDT field

The Visual Instruction Movement and Instructional Films

visual instruction

visual education

the motion picture projector

The Audiovisual Instruction Movement and Instructional Radio

Hereto is the Audiovisual Instruction Movement

technological advances

AECT maintained a leadership role

Visualizing the Curriculum

In 1946 Edgar Dale, Cone of Experience, ability to present concepts in a concrete manner

World War II

audiovisual devices in military services and in industry

Post-World War II Developments and Media Research

Solve a training problem

audiovisual research, facilitate learning in given situations

media comparison studies

Theories of Communication

models of communication

communication process

Instructional Television

by the mid-1960s, interest in instructional television abated

instructional quality

Ford Foundation

public television

Shifting Terminology

educational technology and instructional technology

the Association for Educational Communications and Technology

Educational Communications and Technology Journal

minimal impact on educational practices

Computers: From the 1950s to 1995


Gordon Pask, adaptive teaching machines

Richard Atkinson

Patrick Suppes

development of CAI systems

Recent Developments

Use of Internet increased

reasons for this increased usage, performance support, a relatively low cost, job tasks, increased interactive capabilities, three types of interactions, a constructivist perspective


recently media have had a minimal impact on instructional practices in that environment

aforementioned reasons

greater changes

A History of Instructional Design

instructional design models in the 1960s and 1970s

interest in cognitive psychology, microcomputers, performance technology, and constructivism

instructional systems design

the analysis of instructional problems

The Origins of Instructional Design:World War II

instructional design procedures

based on instruction, learning, and human behavior

knowledge of evaluation and testing

Psychological Principles in System Development, edited by Gagne

More Early Developments: The Programmed Instruction Movement

The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching, Skinner, learners be positively reinforced, formative evaluation

The Popularization of Behavioral Objectives

specific objectives

Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction, Robert Mager

Ralph Tyler the father of the behavioral objectives movement

behavioral terms, the basis for evaluating

In the 1950s, cognitive domain

hierarchical relationship

The Criterion-Referenced Testing Movement

assess student entry-level behavior

determine the extent students had acquired the behaviors

a central feature

Robert M. Gagne:Domains of Learning, Events of Instruction, and Hierarchical Analysis

Five domains of learning outcomes, verbal information, intellectual skills, psychomotor skills, attitudes, cognitive strategies

nine events of instruction

hierarchical analysis had a significant impact, master subordinate skills before a superordinate one

Sputnik: The Indirect Launching of Formative Evaluation

summative evaluation

Early Instructional Design Models

processes or models

The 1970s: Burgeoning of Interest in the Systems Approach

many new models:, 1970s, the United States military adopted an instructional design model, many graduate programs in instructional design were created, Educational Technology Research and Development, 1980s, Growth and Redirection, interest burgeoned, business,industry,military and international arena, Curriculum development efforts, instructional design textbooks, a minimal impact in higher education, principles of cognitive psychology, small actual effects, use of microcomputers for instructional purposes, significance of this movement, 1990s, Changing Views and Practices, a variety of developments had a significant impact, performance technology movement, a collection of similar views of constructivism, antithetical problems, consideration for enhancement, electronic performance support systems, rapid prototyping, more efficient and quality instructional material, use of Internet, instructional features, Internet-based courses, knowledge management, current-day technologies


instructional media

instructional design

effective use of media requires models of instructional design

a positive influence on future developments

Searching for Learner-Centered,Constructivist, and Sociocultural Components of Collaborative Educational Learning Tools

instructional strategies and tools must be based on some theory of learning and cognition

collaborative education, behavioral, cognitive information processing, humanistic, and sociocultural theory, Problems, inconsistency between instructional systems and learning goals, learner-centered, constructivist, and sociocultural perspectives on collaborative technology, Cunningham's three models of mind that guide our conceptions of learning and cognition, mind as computer, learning as information processing, mind as brain, learning as experiential growth and pattern recognition, mind as rhizome, learning as a sociocultural dialogic activity, availability of tools and structures to support them, interesting times, increasingly interactive and distributed technology, World Wide Web, influence of teaching-learning process, technology choices escalates, lack of pedagogical guidance, dilemmas and confusion, importance of research, various instructional strategies, facilitating,augmenting and redefining learning environments, computer-supported collaborative learning offer major promise, Theoretical Perspectives on Collaborative Learning Tools, A Learner-Centered View on Collaborative Technology, research and theory on learning, development and motivation not so great, 12 learner-centered principles, 14 basic principles from the APA, a foundation for educational reform and transformation, learner-centered technology, technology-enhanced instructional settings, learner-centered principles, demonstrating in action, A Constructivist View on Collaborative Technology, extensive implication for collaborative learning tools, constructivist paradigm, guidelines for practitioners, Cognitive Constructivistic Teaching Practices and Principles, the importance of social constructivism for electronic learning, transformation, need for national and international leadership, the backbone for such leadership from sociocultural theory and social constructivist, Sociocultural Views on Collaborative Technology, a social context, tenet of Vygotskian psychology, Mediation, Sociocultural Theory and Principles for CSCL Environments, dynamic intelligence, Zone of Proximal Development, mediational assistance, quality of the total interactive contexts, individual learner capabilities, prompts and feedback, intellectual benefits, Some Sociocultural "Ifs", questions and issues remain, offer interesting windows which leads to student intellectual growth and new competencies, students' independent problem-solving, problem-solving or problem-finding assessments improvement, tentative answers, Ending the Search, anchor learning in real-world or authentic contexts, pedagogical progress to be made in electronic learning environments, more powerful learning environment, CSCL tools can be evaluated and discussed, a sociocultural view on collaborative tools, ongoing developments in CSCL technology

The promise of multimedia learning: using the same instructional design methods across different media

students can learn more deeply from well-designed multimedia messages consisting of words and pictures than from more traditional modes of communication involving words alone.

a multimedia effect

a coherence effect: extraneous material is excluded rather than included

a spatial contiguity effect

a personalization effect

the same instructional design methods are effective across different media

Introduction, analysis of verbal-only method of instruction, positive side, negative side, two formats: words and pictures, What is the promise of multimedia learning, What is a multimedia instructional message?, words: printed or spoken text, pictures: static graphics, meaningful learning, How does multimedia learning work?, limited capacity, A framework for a cognitive theory of multimedia learning., selecting, build verbal and visual material, organizing, build connections, integrating, active learning, meaningful internal representations, Do methods work across media?, the multimedia effect can occur across two different media environments, printed text and illustrations on a page, spoken text and animation on a screen, Coherence effect, Multimedia effect, Contiguity effect, Personalization effect, Conclusion, The principles of instructional design do not necessarily change when the learning environment changes, an understanding of how the human mind works

Blueprints for Complex Learning:The 4C/ID-Model

description of the four-component instructional design system(4C/ID-Model)

training programs for complex skills, instructional methods, four interrelated components, learning tasks, instructional methods primarily aim at induction, a sequence of learning tasks, a simple illustration of this simplifying-assumptiona approach, learner support, product-oriented support, process-oriented support, supportive information, cognitive schemata, mental models allow one to reason within the learning domain, cognitive strategies allow one to systematically approach problems, Mental Models, cognitive feedback, New node, just-in-time (JIT) information, compilation and embedding, the step-by-step knowledge, specified at the entry level of the learners, Information displays, Demonstrations and instances, corrective feedback, part-task practice, schema construction, applied for recurrent constituent skills, Practice items, a pretty straightforward process, divergent, JIT information for part-task practice, not only relevant for learning tasks, but also to part-task practice, Overtraining

instructional design enterprise

complex knowledge

one important goal, gradual evolution of design theory to accommodate complex learning.

addresses at least three deficits

on the integration and coordinated performance

specifies the performance

recommends a mixture

a European project called ADAPT-Interactive Tools

cognitive task analysis as a method

Complex Learning

integrated sets of learning goals

the whole is clearly more than the sum of its parts

skills hierarchy, a horizontal relationship

Second Generation Instructional Design(ID2)

be capable of analyzing, representing, and guiding instruction to teach integrated sets of knowledge and skills. be capable of producing pedagogic prescriptions for the selection of interactive instructional strategies and the selection and sequencing of instructional transaction aets.

First Generation Instructional Design(ID1)

Component Display Theory Conditions of Learning and Component Display

Limitations of ID1

From ID1 we retain Gagne's fundamental assumption.

an open system

able to incorporate new knowledge about teaching and learning and to apply these in the design process. integrate the phases of instructional development.

the components of ID2

a theoretical base a knowledge base a series of intelligent computer-based design tools a collection of mini-experts a library of instructional transactions an on-line intelligent advisor program.

Analyzing and Representing Knowledge for Integrated Goals

mental models, cognitive psychology

Classes of Knowledge Representations

KRr is a class of representation for the purpose of retrieving the knowledge in various formats.

KRe is the class most often used in artificial intelligence

KRi is the class of interest

Knowledge Representation for ID2, elaborated frame network, three fundamental frame types, entities, activities, processes, three types of elaborations, components, abstractions, associations, two principal means, inheritance, propagation

Knowledge analysis and acquisition system(KAAS)

Instructional Strategies and Transactions, Transactions and Transaction Classes., Instructional strategy, interaction strategy, transaction strategy, goal strategy, a transaction goal sets, course strategy, strategy Analysis, Information gathering, Prescriptions and Filters, Course Organization, Strategy Analysis System(SAS), Transaction Configuration, Transaction Configuration System(TCS) and Library, An Intelligent Advisor System(IADV), An Open System-Mini-Experts

Integration of the ID Phases- A Single Knowledge Representation

Comparison with Other Approaches

ID1 Expert Systems

Intelligent Tutoring Systems and Micro-worlds.

Instructional Design & Learning Theory

Various learning theories and associated instructional design strategies

difficulty to differentiate between three basic theories of learning.

Investigation into the available literature on learning theories and implications

learning theory and ID; behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism, connoisseurship, semiotics and contextualism, atomic theory

theories and models

The Basics of Behaviorism, "Memory" focused on associations being made between events., overt behaviors that can be observed and measured, Pavlov's Experiment, Thorndike's Connectionism, law of effect, law of exercise, law of readiness, Watson' Experiment, Skinner, difference between classical and operant conditioning, Skinner and Behavioral Shaping, Reinforcement Schedules, interval schedules, ratio schedules

The Basics of Cognitivism, Edward Tolman, Bandura and Walters, Jean Piaget's cognitivism, Key concepts of cognitive theory, schema, three-stage information processing model, sensory register, short-term memory, long-term memory and storage

The Basics of Constructivism, Bartlett as pioneer, Jonassen: Thinking Technology: Toward a Constructivist Design Model., Realistic vs. Radical Construction, The Assumptions of Constructivism- Merrill

Comparison of Atomic Theory Development to Learning Theory Development, Connection what between the three theories

The History of Behaviorism, Cognitivism and Constructivism in Instructional Design

Paul Saettler's book, six areas

Behavioral Objectives Movement, Taxonomic Analysis of Learning Behaviors, Mastery Learning, Military and Industrial Approach

Accountability Movement, Franklin Bobbitt

Teaching Machines and Programmed Instruction Movement

Early Use of Programmed Instruction

Individualized Approaches to Instruction

Computer-Assisted Instruction(CAI)

Systems Approach to Instruction

Cognitivism and Instructional Design, a shift

Cognitivism and Computer-Based Instruction, Artificial intelligence

Constructivism and Instructional Design, Jonasson

Learning Theories and the Practice of Instructional Design

Learning Theories - Some Strengths and Weaknesses

Is There One Best Learning Theory for Instructional Design?, Why bother with Theory at all?, An Eclectic Approach to Theory in Instructional Design, What Works and How Can We use It?, Ertmer and Newby's suggestion


The distinction between "training" and "education".

a thorough understanding of learning theories

Advancements in technology make branched constructivist approaches to learning possible.

Instructional Transaction Theory: An Instructional Design Model based on Knowledge Objects

Merrill,Li & Jones

What is Instructional Design Theory?

Instructional Systems Development(ISD), Instructional Design Theory, Instructional Transaction Theory, Descriptive Theory Of Knowledge, knowledge Representation and analysis, Elements of knowledge objects, Guided knowledge acquisition, Descriptive Theory of Strategy, Strategy in Instructional Transaction Theory, Algorithms vs. frame-based instruction, The computer program assumption, What is an instructional transaction, Uncoupled subject matter, Gagne conditions of learning, Merrill component display theory, Architecture for Instructional Transaction Theory, select knowledge objects, Sequence knowledge objects, Automatic objective generation, Select transactions, Component transactions, Abstraction transactions, Association transactions, Sequence transactions, Segment Strategy, Enact transactions, Adapt to individual learners

Designing collaborative, constructionist and contextual applications for handheld devices

explores current applications for handheld devices and questions

facilitate learning in a pedagogically sensible manner

presents a functional framework

Three categories: data collection, location aware and collaborative

deserve further research and create new learning opportunities

the growth of pervasive, ubiquitous, computing will have a large impact on learning.

a certain naive degree of optimism

a simply technological determinist viewpoint

have a role to play in the way we learn

Related work

The most popular applications for handhelds are referential or presentational in nature., rapid changes in the PDA and mobile phone markets, devise classifications for this emerging field.

Pedagogical underpining, educationally appropriate pedagogical considerations.

Functionality framework: categorising handheld educational applications in terms of both application function and pedagogical underpinning.

In summary, much of the work presented across the categories has had limited success ‘in the field’.




Microworld, encourage creation and exploration in learners, adopt a constructionist approach to learning., limitations on mobile devices result in a restricted version.

Data collection

Location aware


Collaborative, constructionist and contextual applications

the most educationally appropriate applications currently available are built on a combination of collaborative, contextual, constructionist and constructivist principles.


Mapping challenge:



there are sound reasons to believe that handheld devices will have a role to play in the way we learn. the most appropriate underpinning of these categories can be found in the educational philosophies of collaboration, contextualization, constructionism and constructivism.  

depend on how the technology is used



open source VLE Moodle

Web 2.0 and Possibilities for Educational Applications

This articlc explores ideas and practices ir; relation to Wcb 2.0 a~id suggests ho\v these niiglit applv in education.

novel applications

new ways of understanding the Internet

paradigm shift

benefit, challenges and opportunities

What is Web 2.0?

novel technological possibilities

Read-Write Web, A blog, Wiki

Emerging tools

flexible systems

Subscribing to Information

"syndication feed" or "RSS"

Internet-based service

Social Spaces

engaging people in collective activities in a social space

Resources sharing and referencing systems

Internet-based information retrieval methodology, access recommendations, collective perception

The Internet as a Platform

a platform that contains tools traditionally understood as being native to desktop computers. traditionally computer-based software applications into the lnternet environment.  

an example: Google Docs

Open Source


hackability and remixability

The Wide Spread of Web 2.0

A number of innovative Web 2.0 applications that have come to notice through the last couple of years have been shown to be possibly some of the most socially engaging phenomena in human history.

discover new knowledge from a pool of collective intelligence existing in these environments.


Education and Web 2.0

understandings and expectations of technology aligned with Web 2.0. learn from Web 2.0 to design a technology-integration strategy that leads to pedagogically more productive engagements meeting the profiles of our students, and being otherwise relevant to the world?

E-learning 2.0

Blogs, Wikis, Podcasts, and Other Powerful Web Tools for Classrooms

new forms of assessment such as digits portfolios

use of Internet-mediated social learning spaces

new models and methods for design of learning objects

new models for resources sharing and support for technology integration of communities of teachers

new generations of learning management systems (LMS), or possibly no LMS at all

(a) use of a blog to support teaching and learning in a graduate university course, and (b) social spaces and repositories ior teachers., serve as a novel and powerful collective intervention strategy,

emerging innovative applications of the Internet

the speed of adoption of innovations and the success of technology integration in education. What implications might this have on technology integration in education?

changing the culture o i lnternet users.

also a danger

to explore possible implications of Web 2.0

test applications of these technologies in teaching and learning.

mobile phones

Teaching and Learning in Digital Environments: The Resurgence of Resource-Based Learning

altering fundamentally how, when, and for what purposes resources are created and used.


Resource-based learning involves the reuse of available assets to support varied learning needs

Predigital perspectives

predigital resources were constrained by their static nature. teachers used resources incrementally and linearly to “convey” specific content; learners attempted to “acquire” specified knowledge or skills

static nature, visual cues, aural cues

with established curriculum objectives

physical location

pragmatic concerns


Emerging perspectives

developments in knowledge-object technology, and the creation of standards for cataloging and classifying digital media isolate various components to meet specific needs within a particular context.

A resource, by the diversity, locating potentially

Intact resources(i.e., a single resource such as a book, videotape, etc.)

Emerging systems

Contemporary systems

Toward Resource-Based Teaching and Learning

a shift to more flexible resource-based approaches that emphasize problem solving and critical thinking.

AN RBLE PRIMER, Components of RBLEs




Contexts, Externally directed, Learner generated, Negotiated, Combination

Tools, Searching tools, Processing tools, copy-paste function, construct and revise representations, Manipulating tools, test beliefs, ideas, and theories., explore relationships among motion, force, speed, energy, and mass, propose and test potential solutions., meet specific needs., Communicating tools., asynchronous communication tools, Scaffolds, Conceptual scaffolds, simplify complex concepts, Metacognitive scaffolds, Procedural scaffolds, help learners use resources


repackage information in ways needed to assist the individual teacher and learner. The role and design of enabling contexts have not been well established. RBLEs need to work in the different settings where learning takes place, accounting for when it will occur and who will be involved. require significant electronic scaffolding of both procedural and conceptual aspects of the learning task. account for important learner differences if the framing is to be useful.

Standards and conventions for creating and distributing digital resources remain inconsistent.

the software used to distribute the resources is frequently changed

Resource credibility, content validity and reliability are unregulated.

Directed approaches tend to engender compliance and reliance over independent thinking.

Contemporary school accountability standards

Generative learning goals require varied rather than singular learning strategies.

Activity Theory as a Framework for Designing Constructivist Learning Environments

Constructivist approaches to learning are clearly based on distinctly different epistemic and pedagogical assumptions

Activity theory

emphasized both the historical development of ideas as well as the active and constructive role of humans.

learning must precede activity, goals, objects

Activity System

subject, individual or group,designer



used in the transformation process

goal-directed hierarchy of actions, Activity(e.g., designing instructional materials), needs assessment

Assumptions of Activity Theory

Activities are the human interactions with the objective world and the conscious activities that are a part of those interactions. the learner as subject activity and consciousness coexist, they are mutually supportive.

Minds in Context, interactive, objective world, conscious activities

Consciousness in the World

Intentionality, individuals perceive

Object-Orientedness, learning and doing are inseparable, they are initiated by an intention., asymmetry between people (subjects) and objects.

Community: A Dialectic Context

Historical-Cultural Dimension

Tool Mediation, artifacts




Methodological Assumptions of Activity Theory, data collection

Constructivist Learning Environments

Problem-Project Space., problem context, problem presentation, simulation, problem manipulation space.

Related Cases

Information Resources, Provide information banks

Cognitive Tools

Conversation and Collaboration Tools.


Step One: Clarify purpose of activity system

Step Two: Analyze the Activity System

Step Three: Analyze the Activity Structure

Step Four: Analyze Tools and Mediators

Step Five: Analyzing the Context

Step Six: Analyzing Activity System Dynamics, Outcome

Teachers’ private theories and their design of technology-based learning


explores the private theories of four vocational education teachers in Singapore who have engaged in the design of technology-based learning for their own classes. aims to understand and explicate areas of private theories that impede the effective design of student-centred technology-based learning.

cognitive constructs,beliefs,guiding principles,theories or preconceptions

four major areas of teachers’ private theories, learning, students, teacher and technology, knowledge of curriculum and pedagogical content, learning ability, knowledge acquisition., epistemology

methodology, qualitative multicase study, shift, effective technology integration in learning, Study questions, Procedure, The orientation of the prototypes, prototypes, Changes

Results: private theories of the four cases in the study, Participant one: Tom, the final discussion, Tom's reflection, Participant two: Eleanor, Participant three: Nicole, Participant four: Jane

Discussion of results and recommendations, Areas of the participants’ private theories

Emerging area of constraints to student-centred design practice


Summary and recommendations for further studies, six broad areas:, Four of these six areas were found to be dominant:

On the Role of Concepts in Learning and Instructional Design

Concepts represent a primary learning outcome, without necessarily considering how the concepts are used.

building blocks of higher-order skills without necessarily considering how the concepts will be used.

Similarity View of Concepts

In the classical view, a person has learned a concept when he or she can correctly isolate and apply attributes of specific objects into their correct categories.

Prototype or Probablistic View of Concepts

Concepts are represented as prototypes in memory, that is, contextual entities with common attrinutes that are most typical of category membership. Concepts that have high family resemblance will maximize similarity within categories while minimizing similarity between categories.

people actually encode concepts in memory, however, they still treat concepts as isolated and unconnected entities.

Exemplar View of Concepts

humans learn concepts primarily by inducing concept descriptions from examples or by combining previously existing concepts. Concepts may consist of multiple representations, and any one may be used to classify new instances. Concepts contain probabolistic and exemplar components, where instances are judged in terms of their degree of membership in a concept.

Other Views of Concepts

Actional View of Concepts

Theory-Based Views of Concepts, concepts are organized by theories.

Concepts and Conceptual Change

Others of conceptual change are more revolutionary.

Implications for Assessment: Propositions

Eliciting Conceptual Patterns, Free word associations, Similarity ratings, Card sort

Representing Conceptual Patterns, Cognitive maps

Concept Maps

Implications for Instruction: Propositions

Implications for Assessment: Concepts-in-Use

concepts; are assessed in use; in order to assess meaning for concepts using these methods, it is necessary to use some form of discourse, protocol, or conversation analysis.

Semistructured Interviews

assessing concepts-in-use in research on conceptual change, generative questions are asked.

Think-Aloud Problem Solving

An alternative to interviews requires learners to think aloud while they are solving problems. Working in pairs

Implications for Instruction: Concepts-in-Use.

The most meaningful activity that humans engage in is problem solving. Problems provide a purpose for learning. Knowledge constructed while solving problems(knowledge-in-use) more integrated, better retained, and more transferable.


Concepts learned in isolation will lack coherence and therefore be less useful than concepts-in-use in thought construction processes. concept learning must be assessed in patterns and in use. students should learn how to use a variety of tools to build models of what they are learning and to engage in solving complex and ill-structured problems.