constructing schemata through mindful abstraction from the concrete experiences that are provided by the learning tasks
A prediction digital media will have on such practices over the next decade.
learning and performance in classrooms and in the workplace
a definition of field for instructional design and technology, performance problems, design, development, utilization or implementation, management, evaluation, analysis, current definition has a relation to processes and resources for learning and focuses on research and theory., extended 1994 AECT definition, performance technology, noninstructional solutions and instructional solutions to solve problems, the core of the field, the use of media for instructional purposes, the use of systematic instructional design procedures, the reason to use the term instructional design and technology
other than the teacher,chalkboard and textbook
Saettler's indication of the museums
the IDT field
the motion picture projector
Hereto is the Audiovisual Instruction Movement
AECT maintained a leadership role
Visualizing the Curriculum
In 1946 Edgar Dale, Cone of Experience, ability to present concepts in a concrete manner
audiovisual devices in military services and in industry
Solve a training problem
audiovisual research, facilitate learning in given situations
media comparison studies
models of communication
by the mid-1960s, interest in instructional television abated
educational technology and instructional technology
the Association for Educational Communications and Technology
Educational Communications and Technology Journal
minimal impact on educational practices
CAI at IBM
Gordon Pask, adaptive teaching machines
development of CAI systems
Use of Internet increased
reasons for this increased usage, performance support, a relatively low cost, job tasks, increased interactive capabilities, three types of interactions, a constructivist perspective
recently media have had a minimal impact on instructional practices in that environment
the analysis of instructional problems
instructional design procedures
based on instruction, learning, and human behavior
knowledge of evaluation and testing
Psychological Principles in System Development, edited by Gagne
The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching, Skinner, learners be positively reinforced, formative evaluation
Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction, Robert Mager
Ralph Tyler the father of the behavioral objectives movement
behavioral terms, the basis for evaluating
In the 1950s, cognitive domain
assess student entry-level behavior
determine the extent students had acquired the behaviors
a central feature
Five domains of learning outcomes, verbal information, intellectual skills, psychomotor skills, attitudes, cognitive strategies
nine events of instruction
hierarchical analysis had a significant impact, master subordinate skills before a superordinate one
processes or models
many new models:, 1970s, the United States military adopted an instructional design model, many graduate programs in instructional design were created, Educational Technology Research and Development, 1980s, Growth and Redirection, interest burgeoned, business,industry,military and international arena, Curriculum development efforts, instructional design textbooks, a minimal impact in higher education, principles of cognitive psychology, small actual effects, use of microcomputers for instructional purposes, significance of this movement, 1990s, Changing Views and Practices, a variety of developments had a significant impact, performance technology movement, a collection of similar views of constructivism, antithetical problems, consideration for enhancement, electronic performance support systems, rapid prototyping, more efficient and quality instructional material, use of Internet, instructional features, Internet-based courses, knowledge management, current-day technologies
effective use of media requires models of instructional design
a positive influence on future developments
collaborative education, behavioral, cognitive information processing, humanistic, and sociocultural theory, Problems, inconsistency between instructional systems and learning goals, learner-centered, constructivist, and sociocultural perspectives on collaborative technology, Cunningham's three models of mind that guide our conceptions of learning and cognition, mind as computer, learning as information processing, mind as brain, learning as experiential growth and pattern recognition, mind as rhizome, learning as a sociocultural dialogic activity, availability of tools and structures to support them, interesting times, increasingly interactive and distributed technology, World Wide Web, influence of teaching-learning process, technology choices escalates, lack of pedagogical guidance, dilemmas and confusion, importance of research, various instructional strategies, facilitating,augmenting and redefining learning environments, computer-supported collaborative learning offer major promise, Theoretical Perspectives on Collaborative Learning Tools, A Learner-Centered View on Collaborative Technology, research and theory on learning, development and motivation not so great, 12 learner-centered principles, 14 basic principles from the APA, a foundation for educational reform and transformation, learner-centered technology, technology-enhanced instructional settings, learner-centered principles, demonstrating in action, A Constructivist View on Collaborative Technology, extensive implication for collaborative learning tools, constructivist paradigm, guidelines for practitioners, Cognitive Constructivistic Teaching Practices and Principles, the importance of social constructivism for electronic learning, transformation, need for national and international leadership, the backbone for such leadership from sociocultural theory and social constructivist, Sociocultural Views on Collaborative Technology, a social context, tenet of Vygotskian psychology, Mediation, Sociocultural Theory and Principles for CSCL Environments, dynamic intelligence, Zone of Proximal Development, mediational assistance, quality of the total interactive contexts, individual learner capabilities, prompts and feedback, intellectual benefits, Some Sociocultural "Ifs", questions and issues remain, offer interesting windows which leads to student intellectual growth and new competencies, students' independent problem-solving, problem-solving or problem-finding assessments improvement, tentative answers, Ending the Search, anchor learning in real-world or authentic contexts, pedagogical progress to be made in electronic learning environments, more powerful learning environment, CSCL tools can be evaluated and discussed, a sociocultural view on collaborative tools, ongoing developments in CSCL technology
a multimedia effect
a coherence effect: extraneous material is excluded rather than included
a spatial contiguity effect
a personalization effect
the same instructional design methods are effective across different media
Introduction, analysis of verbal-only method of instruction, positive side, negative side, two formats: words and pictures, What is the promise of multimedia learning, What is a multimedia instructional message?, words: printed or spoken text, pictures: static graphics, meaningful learning, How does multimedia learning work?, limited capacity, A framework for a cognitive theory of multimedia learning., selecting, build verbal and visual material, organizing, build connections, integrating, active learning, meaningful internal representations, Do methods work across media?, the multimedia effect can occur across two different media environments, printed text and illustrations on a page, spoken text and animation on a screen, Coherence effect, Multimedia effect, Contiguity effect, Personalization effect, Conclusion, The principles of instructional design do not necessarily change when the learning environment changes, an understanding of how the human mind works
training programs for complex skills, instructional methods, four interrelated components, learning tasks, instructional methods primarily aim at induction, a sequence of learning tasks, a simple illustration of this simplifying-assumptiona approach, learner support, product-oriented support, process-oriented support, supportive information, cognitive schemata, mental models allow one to reason within the learning domain, cognitive strategies allow one to systematically approach problems, Mental Models, cognitive feedback, New node, just-in-time (JIT) information, compilation and embedding, the step-by-step knowledge, specified at the entry level of the learners, Information displays, Demonstrations and instances, corrective feedback, part-task practice, schema construction, applied for recurrent constituent skills, Practice items, a pretty straightforward process, divergent, JIT information for part-task practice, not only relevant for learning tasks, but also to part-task practice, Overtraining
one important goal, gradual evolution of design theory to accommodate complex learning.
on the integration and coordinated performance
specifies the performance
recommends a mixture
cognitive task analysis as a method
integrated sets of learning goals
the whole is clearly more than the sum of its parts
skills hierarchy, a horizontal relationship
be capable of analyzing, representing, and guiding instruction to teach integrated sets of knowledge and skills. be capable of producing pedagogic prescriptions for the selection of interactive instructional strategies and the selection and sequencing of instructional transaction aets.
Component Display Theory Conditions of Learning and Component Display
Limitations of ID1
From ID1 we retain Gagne's fundamental assumption.
able to incorporate new knowledge about teaching and learning and to apply these in the design process. integrate the phases of instructional development.
a theoretical base a knowledge base a series of intelligent computer-based design tools a collection of mini-experts a library of instructional transactions an on-line intelligent advisor program.
mental models, cognitive psychology
KRr is a class of representation for the purpose of retrieving the knowledge in various formats.
KRe is the class most often used in artificial intelligence
KRi is the class of interest
Knowledge Representation for ID2, elaborated frame network, three fundamental frame types, entities, activities, processes, three types of elaborations, components, abstractions, associations, two principal means, inheritance, propagation
Knowledge analysis and acquisition system(KAAS)
Instructional Strategies and Transactions, Transactions and Transaction Classes., Instructional strategy, interaction strategy, transaction strategy, goal strategy, a transaction goal sets, course strategy, strategy Analysis, Information gathering, Prescriptions and Filters, Course Organization, Strategy Analysis System(SAS), Transaction Configuration, Transaction Configuration System(TCS) and Library, An Intelligent Advisor System(IADV), An Open System-Mini-Experts
Integration of the ID Phases- A Single Knowledge Representation
ID1 Expert Systems
learning theory and ID; behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism, connoisseurship, semiotics and contextualism, atomic theory
The Basics of Behaviorism, "Memory" focused on associations being made between events., overt behaviors that can be observed and measured, Pavlov's Experiment, Thorndike's Connectionism, law of effect, law of exercise, law of readiness, Watson' Experiment, Skinner, difference between classical and operant conditioning, Skinner and Behavioral Shaping, Reinforcement Schedules, interval schedules, ratio schedules
The Basics of Cognitivism, Edward Tolman, Bandura and Walters, Jean Piaget's cognitivism, Key concepts of cognitive theory, schema, three-stage information processing model, sensory register, short-term memory, long-term memory and storage
The Basics of Constructivism, Bartlett as pioneer, Jonassen: Thinking Technology: Toward a Constructivist Design Model., Realistic vs. Radical Construction, The Assumptions of Constructivism- Merrill
Comparison of Atomic Theory Development to Learning Theory Development, Connection what between the three theories
Paul Saettler's book, six areas
Behavioral Objectives Movement, Taxonomic Analysis of Learning Behaviors, Mastery Learning, Military and Industrial Approach
Accountability Movement, Franklin Bobbitt
Teaching Machines and Programmed Instruction Movement
Early Use of Programmed Instruction
Individualized Approaches to Instruction
Systems Approach to Instruction
Cognitivism and Instructional Design, a shift
Cognitivism and Computer-Based Instruction, Artificial intelligence
Constructivism and Instructional Design, Jonasson
Learning Theories and the Practice of Instructional Design
Learning Theories - Some Strengths and Weaknesses
Is There One Best Learning Theory for Instructional Design?, Why bother with Theory at all?, An Eclectic Approach to Theory in Instructional Design, What Works and How Can We use It?, Ertmer and Newby's suggestion
The distinction between "training" and "education".
a thorough understanding of learning theories
Advancements in technology make branched constructivist approaches to learning possible.
Instructional Systems Development(ISD), Instructional Design Theory, Instructional Transaction Theory, Descriptive Theory Of Knowledge, knowledge Representation and analysis, Elements of knowledge objects, Guided knowledge acquisition, Descriptive Theory of Strategy, Strategy in Instructional Transaction Theory, Algorithms vs. frame-based instruction, The computer program assumption, What is an instructional transaction, Uncoupled subject matter, Gagne conditions of learning, Merrill component display theory, Architecture for Instructional Transaction Theory, select knowledge objects, Sequence knowledge objects, Automatic objective generation, Select transactions, Component transactions, Abstraction transactions, Association transactions, Sequence transactions, Segment Strategy, Enact transactions, Adapt to individual learners
Three categories: data collection, location aware and collaborative
a certain naive degree of optimism
a simply technological determinist viewpoint
have a role to play in the way we learn
The most popular applications for handhelds are referential or presentational in nature., rapid changes in the PDA and mobile phone markets, devise classifications for this emerging field.
Pedagogical underpining, educationally appropriate pedagogical considerations.
In summary, much of the work presented across the categories has had limited success ‘in the field’.
Microworld, encourage creation and exploration in learners, adopt a constructionist approach to learning., limitations on mobile devices result in a restricted version.
the most educationally appropriate applications currently available are built on a combination of collaborative, contextual, constructionist and constructivist principles.
there are sound reasons to believe that handheld devices will have a role to play in the way we learn. the most appropriate underpinning of these categories can be found in the educational philosophies of collaboration, contextualization, constructionism and constructivism.
depend on how the technology is used
open source VLE Moodle
This articlc explores ideas and practices ir; relation to Wcb 2.0 a~id suggests ho\v these niiglit applv in education.
novel technological possibilities
Read-Write Web, A blog, Wiki
"syndication feed" or "RSS"
engaging people in collective activities in a social space
Resources sharing and referencing systems
Internet-based information retrieval methodology, access recommendations, collective perception
a platform that contains tools traditionally understood as being native to desktop computers. traditionally computer-based software applications into the lnternet environment.
an example: Google Docs
hackability and remixability
A number of innovative Web 2.0 applications that have come to notice through the last couple of years have been shown to be possibly some of the most socially engaging phenomena in human history.
discover new knowledge from a pool of collective intelligence existing in these environments.
understandings and expectations of technology aligned with Web 2.0. learn from Web 2.0 to design a technology-integration strategy that leads to pedagogically more productive engagements meeting the profiles of our students, and being otherwise relevant to the world?
new forms of assessment such as digits portfolios
use of Internet-mediated social learning spaces
new models and methods for design of learning objects
new models for resources sharing and support for technology integration of communities of teachers
new generations of learning management systems (LMS), or possibly no LMS at all
(a) use of a blog to support teaching and learning in a graduate university course, and (b) social spaces and repositories ior teachers., serve as a novel and powerful collective intervention strategy,
the speed of adoption of innovations and the success of technology integration in education. What implications might this have on technology integration in education?
changing the culture o i lnternet users.
also a danger
to explore possible implications of Web 2.0
test applications of these technologies in teaching and learning.
altering fundamentally how, when, and for what purposes resources are created and used.
Resource-based learning involves the reuse of available assets to support varied learning needs
predigital resources were constrained by their static nature. teachers used resources incrementally and linearly to “convey” specific content; learners attempted to “acquire” specified knowledge or skills
static nature, visual cues, aural cues
with established curriculum objectives
developments in knowledge-object technology, and the creation of standards for cataloging and classifying digital media isolate various components to meet specific needs within a particular context.
A resource, by the diversity, locating potentially
Intact resources(i.e., a single resource such as a book, videotape, etc.)
a shift to more flexible resource-based approaches that emphasize problem solving and critical thinking.
AN RBLE PRIMER, Components of RBLEs
Contexts, Externally directed, Learner generated, Negotiated, Combination
Tools, Searching tools, Processing tools, copy-paste function, construct and revise representations, Manipulating tools, test beliefs, ideas, and theories., explore relationships among motion, force, speed, energy, and mass, propose and test potential solutions., meet specific needs., Communicating tools., asynchronous communication tools, Scaffolds, Conceptual scaffolds, simplify complex concepts, Metacognitive scaffolds, Procedural scaffolds, help learners use resources
repackage information in ways needed to assist the individual teacher and learner. The role and design of enabling contexts have not been well established. RBLEs need to work in the different settings where learning takes place, accounting for when it will occur and who will be involved. require significant electronic scaffolding of both procedural and conceptual aspects of the learning task. account for important learner differences if the framing is to be useful.
Standards and conventions for creating and distributing digital resources remain inconsistent.
the software used to distribute the resources is frequently changed
Resource credibility, content validity and reliability are unregulated.
Directed approaches tend to engender compliance and reliance over independent thinking.
Contemporary school accountability standards
Generative learning goals require varied rather than singular learning strategies.
emphasized both the historical development of ideas as well as the active and constructive role of humans.
learning must precede activity, goals, objects
subject, individual or group,designer
used in the transformation process
goal-directed hierarchy of actions, Activity(e.g., designing instructional materials), needs assessment
Activities are the human interactions with the objective world and the conscious activities that are a part of those interactions. the learner as subject activity and consciousness coexist, they are mutually supportive.
Minds in Context, interactive, objective world, conscious activities
Consciousness in the World
Intentionality, individuals perceive
Object-Orientedness, learning and doing are inseparable, they are initiated by an intention., asymmetry between people (subjects) and objects.
Community: A Dialectic Context
Tool Mediation, artifacts
Methodological Assumptions of Activity Theory, data collection
Problem-Project Space., problem context, problem presentation, simulation, problem manipulation space.
Information Resources, Provide information banks
Conversation and Collaboration Tools.
Step One: Clarify purpose of activity system
Step Two: Analyze the Activity System
Step Three: Analyze the Activity Structure
Step Four: Analyze Tools and Mediators
Step Five: Analyzing the Context
Step Six: Analyzing Activity System Dynamics, Outcome
explores the private theories of four vocational education teachers in Singapore who have engaged in the design of technology-based learning for their own classes. aims to understand and explicate areas of private theories that impede the effective design of student-centred technology-based learning.
cognitive constructs,beliefs,guiding principles,theories or preconceptions
four major areas of teachers’ private theories, learning, students, teacher and technology, knowledge of curriculum and pedagogical content, learning ability, knowledge acquisition., epistemology
methodology, qualitative multicase study, shift, effective technology integration in learning, Study questions, Procedure, The orientation of the prototypes, prototypes, Changes
Results: private theories of the four cases in the study, Participant one: Tom, the final discussion, Tom's reflection, Participant two: Eleanor, Participant three: Nicole, Participant four: Jane
Discussion of results and recommendations, Areas of the participants’ private theories
Emerging area of constraints to student-centred design practice
Summary and recommendations for further studies, six broad areas:, Four of these six areas were found to be dominant:
building blocks of higher-order skills without necessarily considering how the concepts will be used.
In the classical view, a person has learned a concept when he or she can correctly isolate and apply attributes of specific objects into their correct categories.
Concepts are represented as prototypes in memory, that is, contextual entities with common attrinutes that are most typical of category membership. Concepts that have high family resemblance will maximize similarity within categories while minimizing similarity between categories.
people actually encode concepts in memory, however, they still treat concepts as isolated and unconnected entities.
humans learn concepts primarily by inducing concept descriptions from examples or by combining previously existing concepts. Concepts may consist of multiple representations, and any one may be used to classify new instances. Concepts contain probabolistic and exemplar components, where instances are judged in terms of their degree of membership in a concept.
Actional View of Concepts
Theory-Based Views of Concepts, concepts are organized by theories.
Concepts and Conceptual Change
Others of conceptual change are more revolutionary.
Implications for Assessment: Propositions
Eliciting Conceptual Patterns, Free word associations, Similarity ratings, Card sort
Representing Conceptual Patterns, Cognitive maps
Implications for Instruction: Propositions
concepts; are assessed in use; in order to assess meaning for concepts using these methods, it is necessary to use some form of discourse, protocol, or conversation analysis.
assessing concepts-in-use in research on conceptual change, generative questions are asked.
An alternative to interviews requires learners to think aloud while they are solving problems. Working in pairs
The most meaningful activity that humans engage in is problem solving. Problems provide a purpose for learning. Knowledge constructed while solving problems(knowledge-in-use) more integrated, better retained, and more transferable.
Concepts learned in isolation will lack coherence and therefore be less useful than concepts-in-use in thought construction processes. concept learning must be assessed in patterns and in use. students should learn how to use a variety of tools to build models of what they are learning and to engage in solving complex and ill-structured problems.