Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. History of Education

1.1. Reform Movement

1.2. Educational Reaction and Reform and the Standards Era: 1980's-2012

1.2.1. 1. National at Risk came out in 1983.

1.2.1.1. was a report that showed low scores on the SAT's

1.2.2. 2. As a result the 5 solutions were put in place

1.2.2.1. 1. High school students completed four years of English, three years of math, science, and social studies, and a half of year of computer science

1.2.2.2. 2. high schools should expect more out of their students and colleges raise their admission requirements

1.2.2.3. 3. more teaching of the basics

1.2.2.4. 4. teachers be better prepared to teach materials

1.2.2.5. 5. elected representatives fund these reforms

1.2.3. 3. The 1980's and 1990's were a time for reforms. No Child Left Behind was implemented.

1.2.4. 4. Charter schools were formed

1.2.5. 5. The school choice movement was put into play where parents got to choose which public school their child went to.

1.3. Historical Interpretation

1.3.1. Democratic-Liberal School

1.3.1.1. 1. believed in providing equal opportunity for all

1.3.1.1.1. 2. it rejected privileged schools in order to expand educational opportunities

2. Schools as Organizations

2.1. Major Stakeholders

2.1.1. Federal Alabama/House of Rep.

2.1.1.1. Richard Shelby

2.1.1.2. Luther Strange

2.1.2. State Senator and House of Rep.

2.1.2.1. Mo Brooks

2.1.3. State Superintendent

2.1.3.1. Michael Sentance

2.1.4. Rep. On State School Board

2.1.4.1. Ella B. Bell

2.1.5. Local Superintendent

2.1.5.1. Matt Massey

2.1.6. Local School Board

2.1.6.1. Nathan Curry

2.1.6.2. Angie Bates

2.1.6.3. Mary Louise Stowe

2.1.6.4. Dave Weis

2.1.6.5. Shere Rucker

2.2. Elements of Change

2.2.1. School Processes

2.2.1.1. what we identify emotionally when we refer to a school

2.2.2. School Cultures

2.2.2.1. is everything that makes up the school like the people, values, norms, and the atmosphere

3. Philosophy of Education

3.1. World View

3.1.1. Pragmatism

3.1.1.1. Generic Notions

3.1.1.1.1. 1. education begins with the needs and interests of the child

3.1.1.1.2. 2. let the child learn what he or she wants to learn

3.1.1.1.3. 3. let children work in groups

3.1.1.1.4. 4. learn by experimenting

3.1.1.2. Key Researchers

3.1.1.2.1. George Sanders Pierce

3.1.1.2.2. William James

3.1.1.2.3. John Dewey

3.1.1.3. Goal of Education

3.1.1.3.1. 1. schools should balance the needs of society and community and the needs of others

3.1.1.3.2. 2. integrate children into a democratic society

3.1.1.3.3. 3. growth leading to more growth

3.1.1.3.4. 4. give students knowledge about social order

3.1.1.4. Role of Teacher

3.1.1.4.1. 1. offers suggestions

3.1.1.4.2. 2. offers questions

3.1.1.4.3. 3. plans course of study

3.1.1.4.4. 4. writes curriculum

3.1.1.4.5. 5. sets discipline in place in order to implement curriculum

3.1.1.5. Method of Instruction

3.1.1.5.1. 1. learned individually

3.1.1.5.2. 2. learned in groups

3.1.1.5.3. 3. children chose what they wanted to learn

3.1.1.5.4. 4. Tables and chairs were used, so that children could talk and stretch if needed

3.1.1.6. Curriculum

3.1.1.6.1. 1. integrated curriculum

3.1.1.6.2. 2. children learn about what they are interested in

4. Curriculum of Pedagogy

4.1. Developmentalist Curriculum

4.1.1. Student centered curriculum

4.1.2. Was designed to to fit the needs and interests of the individual child at each developmental stage

4.1.3. It is important to relate school to the experiences of life that the child will face

4.1.4. Teacher was a facilitator

4.2. Two Traditions of Teaching

4.2.1. 1. Mimetic Tradition

4.2.1.1. The purpose of this education is to teach specific knowledge

4.2.1.2. Lecture and Presentation are the forms of teaching

4.2.1.3. Assess what the children know

4.2.2. 2. Transformative Tradition

4.2.2.1. The purpose of this education is to change the student in a meaningful way

4.2.2.2. The teacher and student are both part of the learning process

4.2.2.3. Questioning is the form of teaching

5. Equality of Opportunity

5.1. Education Outcomes

5.1.1. 1. Class

5.1.1.1. Upper and Middle class families expect children to finish school, while working families have lower expectations.

5.1.1.2. Upper and Middle class families are more likely to speak better English than lower class families causing the teacher to favor these students more

5.1.1.3. Upper and Middle class students are more likely to go to college, while lower class students are more likely to drop out and reject school

5.1.2. 2. Race

5.1.2.1. African American and Hispanic's are more likely to drop out of school than white students

5.1.2.2. White students are able to read at the intermediate level compared to African Americans and Hispanics

5.1.2.3. Whites have better SAT scores than African Americans and Hispanics

5.1.3. 3. Gender

5.1.3.1. Females are less likely to drop out of school compared to males

5.1.3.2. Females have a higher reading level and can write better than males

5.1.3.3. Males do better in math than females

5.1.3.4. Males are more likely to score higher on the SAT's compared to males

5.1.3.5. Females are now going to college more than males

5.2. Coleman Study of 1982

5.2.1. There are differences in a public school education compared to a Catholic School education, but in terms of learning there is no major differences

5.2.2. Catholic Schools benefit low-income minority students compared to public schools.

6. Educational Inequality

6.1. Cultural Differences Theory

6.1.1. 1. Working class and nonwhite students are resisting the dominant culture of schools.

6.1.1.1. Reject the white middle-class academic of success and embrace a culture that is opposed to the culture of schooling

6.1.2. 2. African Americans do less well in school

6.1.2.1. This is due because they adapt to their place in the social ladder

6.1.2.2. Their families and the school socialize their children to deal with life chances rather than encourage them to do better

6.2. School-Centered Explanations

6.2.1. 1. Within-School Differences: Curriculum and Ability Grouping

6.2.1.1. Tracking is used to put student's in a group based on ability and it ensures that they get the best education

6.2.1.2. It is important to be fair when putting students in group and based off of ability

6.2.1.3. It is assumed that students in the lower tracks are not capable of doing the work that higher tracks can do, so they are not challenged.

6.2.1.4. Tracking is also related to race, and economic status.

6.2.2. 2. Gender and Schooling

6.2.2.1. Feminists argue that schools should change their curriculum to be more caring

6.2.2.2. Women are viewed as caring while men is viewed as more competitive, so feminists argue that schools should socialize both genders to be caring

6.2.2.3. Curriculum portrays roles in a stereotypical way

6.2.2.4. Curriculum does not talk about women's history

6.2.2.5. Through hidden curriculum traditional ideas are reinforced

6.2.2.6. Organization of schools reinforces gender roles

6.2.3. 3. Between-School Differences: Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices

6.2.3.1. Schools in working class families have authoritarian and teacher direction pedagogic practice with a social curriculum

6.2.3.2. Schools in middle class families have less authoritarian and more student centered pedagogic practices with humanistic curriculum

6.2.3.3. Upper-class students have authoritarian pedagogic practices and a classical-humanistic college curriculum

6.2.4. 4. School Financing

6.2.4.1. Public Schools are financed from the revenues from local, state, and federal sources.

6.2.4.2. States are beginning to use state funding to close the gap between rich and poor districts

6.2.4.3. The use of federal aide is a controversial issue.

7. Educational Reform

7.1. School-Based Reforms

7.1.1. 1. School-Business Partnerships

7.1.1.1. In 1991, the Committee to Support Philadelphia Public Schools offered assistance to the Philadelphia School District

7.1.1.1.1. It promised that by 1995 it would raise test scores and improve graduation rates.

7.1.1.2. Other partnerships offered scholarships for poor students to attend college and programs

7.1.1.3. There is little evidence that school-business partnerships have helped improve schools

7.1.2. 2. Privatization

7.1.2.1. Private education companies became involved in public education

7.1.2.2. The Edison Company took over the management of failing schools and districts

7.1.2.3. The state of Pennsylvania took over Philadelphia Public Schools due to low achievement

7.1.2.4. Too early to see if this helps

7.2. Community Reforms

7.2.1. 1. Full Service and Community Schools

7.2.1.1. These schools focus on meeting students and families needs through school and community services

7.2.1.2. There are things set up in neighborhoods like health clinics and adult education to help

7.2.1.3. They are designed to help improve at-risk neighborhoods and help support them

7.2.1.4. Used to try to help repair social and economic problems

7.2.2. 2. Harlem Children's Zone

7.2.2.1. Canada set this program up to help families in Harlem New York

7.2.2.2. Programs are provided for parents in Harlem to help them with what is going to happen during the birthing process and after the baby is born

7.2.2.3. Parents also learn how to have academic conversations and how to provide them a healthy environment

7.2.2.4. This has worked because middle-school students have earned an A on the school report card and evaluation

8. Sociological Perspectives

8.1. Theoretical Prespective

8.1.1. Functionalism

8.1.1.1. 1. schools place values on kids

8.1.1.1.1. 2. sort and label students by ability

8.1.2. Conflict Theory

8.1.2.1. 1. social order is based on dominant groups

8.1.2.1.1. 2. students vs. teachers

8.1.3. Interactionalism

8.1.3.1. 1. making an analysis about what the average student and teacher do each day

8.2. 5 Effects of Schooling

8.2.1. Teacher Behavior

8.2.1.1. 1. have the biggest impact on students learning and behavior

8.2.1.2. 2. boost students self-esteem and efficancy

8.2.1.3. 3. encourage students to do their best

8.2.1.4. 4. bring out the potential in each of their students

8.2.2. Inadequate Schools

8.2.2.1. 1. urban school systems has failed the poor and minorities

8.2.2.2. 2. kids who are taught in urban schools will not be prepared for life

8.2.2.3. 3. Students who attend private schools benefit educational and socially .

8.2.3. Tracking

8.2.3.1. 1. placing students in programs based on their abilities

8.2.3.2. 2. affects cognitive development

8.2.3.3. 3. students who are placed on a high track benefit than students who are placed on a lower track.

8.2.4. De Facto Segregation

8.2.4.1. 1. schools that are racially mixed seem to benefit the minorities

8.2.4.2. 2. minorities are more likely to graduate high school and college

8.2.4.3. 3. minorities who attended these schools are less likely to get arrested

8.2.5. Employment

8.2.5.1. 1. schools determine who will get high-status jobs

8.2.5.2. 2. having a college degree will get you a higher income

9. Politics of Education

9.1. Purposes of Education

9.2. Intellectual purpose:

9.2.1. 1. to teach skills like reading, writing, and mathematics,

9.2.1.1. 2. to allow students to transfer knowledge

9.2.1.1.1. 3. to help students gain thinking skills such as analysis, evaluate, and synthesis.

9.3. Political purposes:

9.3.1. 1. to establish patriotism, to prepare students to participate in politics,

9.3.1.1. 2. prepare students to participate in politics

9.3.1.1.1. 3. to teach students to laws of man kind.

9.4. Social purposes:

9.4.1. 1. to learn to work as one unit

9.4.1.1. 2. to allow for children to socialize in various roles in society.

9.5. 4. Economic purposes:

9.5.1. 1.to prepare students for whatever job that they will hold in society.

9.6. Perspective

9.7. 1. The liberal perspective

9.7.1. 1.school gives each student the same opportunity to succeed in life

9.7.1.1. 2. teaches children how to embrace diversity, so that they can learn how to ft into a diverse society

9.7.1.1.1. 3. stresses the need for education in society where they participate in a democracy.

9.8. 2. The radical perspective

9.8.1. 1. believes that students that come from low-income families begin school with unequal opportunities.

9.9. 3. The liberal perspective

9.9.1. schools limit the chances of the poor and minority children, therefore making it a critical issue.

9.9.1.1. Schools have too much authority and focus on discipline, therefore not allowing children to become their own person.

9.9.1.1.1. There are big differences when it comes to the education that kids from low incomes get than kids who come for a wealthy background