Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education Chapter 2

1.1. Purposes of Education

1.1.1. 1. Intellectual teaches basic thinking skills in reading, writing, and mathematics.

1.1.2. 2. Political teaches the foundations of basic laws in society

1.1.3. 3. Social teaches how to appropriately handle different situations in a positive manner.

1.1.4. 4. Economic prepares students the foundations of labor in society. Perspective The liberal perspective of the role of the school , addresses that all children no matter background has a fair education to succeed. Explanations of unequal performance Conservatives suggest children reach achievement based on their intelligence. Liberals argue children come form different socioeconomic backgrounds; therefore, have an advantage on other children. On the other hand, radicals believe the unequal opportunities lay in the economic structure.

2. History of Education Chapter 3

2.1. Reform Movement

2.1.1. Education reform movement bought to surface by Horace Mann was the greatest reform movement. The Education reform movement gave rise to public schools where all children could have an education, no matter background. Historical interpretation Horace Mann believed that education should be paid for and controlled by the public. The best education is where schools are embracing children from all backgrounds. Horace believed only well trained teachers could provide such education of equity.

3. The Sociology of Education Chapter 4

3.1. Theoretical Perspectives

3.2. 1. The functionalism theory suggests both school and society intergrate with each other to make society work through share values.

3.3. 2. The conflict theory suggests that "social order is not based on same collective agreement, but on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups through force, coopertion, and manipulation."

3.4. 3. The Interactionalism is the "attempt to make the commonplace strange by turning on their heads everyday taken-for-granted behaviors and interactions between students and students and students and teachers."

3.4.1. Effects of Schooling

3.4.2. 1. Knowledge and Attitudes- suggest " the higher the social class background of the students, the higher his/her achievement level." Every school's academic programs makes a difference in a child's learning.

3.4.3. 2. Employment- It is clear by having a degree, that one makes more money; however, the degree does not teach you how to do your job. The degree is a foundation which to build upon.

3.4.4. 3. Inside the School- The structure of school plays a big impact on student success. For example, large schools have more resources to offer quality of education to students. Students can rise or fall, depending on the contexts taught in each school.

3.4.5. 4. Teacher Behavior- Persell "found when teachers demanded more from their students and praised them more, students learned more and felt better about themselves". A teacher's attitude toward his/her student "may have a significant influence on student achievement".

3.4.6. 5. Student Peer Groups and Alienation suggest that students' "culture plays an important role in shaping students' educational experiences".

4. The Philosophy of Education Chapter 5

4.1. Pragmatism Philosophy

4.2. Pragmatism can be described as a chance to reflect on your thought and processes to different situations to be better effective in the classroom. In part to John Dewey, George Sanders Peirce and William James described pragmatism “through the biblical phrase “by their fruits ye shall know them”. Each of them believe that pragmatism “encourages people to find processes that work to achieve their desired ends”. John Dewey’s generic notions that the schools should be thought of as an “embryonic community” where the children could learn from experiments and from books. He proposed teachers should teach based on the needs and interest of the children; yet, given the children freedom to choose what they would want to learn about. Dewey believed by letting children aid in their education, education “would continually reconstruct and reorganize society”. Dewey’s goals of education are to give the children the “knowledge to improve social order, balance the needs of society and community on one hand and the needs of the individual on the other, integrate children into not just any type of society, but a democratic one, and growth”. In the pragmatism setting, a teacher’s role is not to be looked at as an authoritarian figure, but as a facilitator. Teachers should “encourage, offer suggestions, questions, and help plan and implement courses of study”. Through Dewey’s method of instructions, children should learn through working independent, and as a group. He wants children to learn based on what they want to know. In the pragmatism setting, children can talk quietly with their peers and purse “independent study or group work”. Dewey believed the curriculum should be integrated. He believes the integrated curriculum is the most effective. This means, the curriculum is not fixed, it changes based on the needs and interest of the students.

5. Schools as Organizations Chapter 6

5.1. Major Stakeholders

5.2. Federal Alabama senators are Jeff Sessions, and Richard C. Shelby.

5.3. Federal House of Representative are Bradley Byrne, Martha Roby, Mike Rogers, Robert Aderholt, Mo Brooks, Gary Palmer, and Terri A. Sewell

5.4. State senator is Arthur Orr.

5.5. State House of Representatives are Ken Johnson, Terri Collins, Ed Henry, Randall Shedd, and Micky Hammon.

5.6. State Superintendent is Ed Richardson.

5.7. Representatives on state school board are Kay Ivey, Jackie Ziegler, Betty Peters, Stephanie W. Bell, Ed Richardson, Yvette M. Richardson, Ella B. Bell, and Cynthia Sanders.

5.8. Local superintendent is Bill W. Hopkins.

5.9. Local school board members are Billy Rhodes, Adam Glenn, Mike Tarpley, Tpaul Holmes, Jimmy Dobbs, Tom Earwood, John Holley.

5.9.1. Elements of change

5.9.2. School processes evolve around a strong culture climate. Change takes place through population, a defined structure of the characteristics of the school, and social relationships. In order to change a school, it requires "time, intelligence, and good will."

6. Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Transmission of Knowledge Chapter 7

6.1. Curriculum Theory

6.1.1. The developmentalist curriculum is the theory to which I advocate for. The curriculum is made up of the individual needs and interest of each students. This type of curriculum is student centered and not teacher driving. The developmentalist curriculum allows children to learn through life experiences. This type of theory gives children the true meaning of what is learned. The text states, “this perspective, was not a transmitter of knowledge but rather a facilitator of student growth.” The mimetic tradition purpose is to educate to transmit specific knowledge to students. This method for teaching is centered around “clear statements of learning goals, and a clear means to assess whether the students have acquired them.” This view creates a sciene of teaching. The transformative tradition purpose “is to change the student in some meaningful way, including intellectually, creatively, spiritually, and emotionally.” This t Dominant Tradition

7. Equality of Opportunity and Educational Outcomes Chapter 8

7.1. Educational Inequality

7.2. Class impacts outcomes through the way each class is labeled. Upper and middle class students have a higher academic achievement record because the parents expect it. The lower class has a low academic achievement because parents have low expectations. Also, upper and middle class students speak "standard" English and most lower class students are not able to speak English.

7.3. Race impacts educational outcomes because minorities are not awarded the same educational opportunities as whites.

7.4. Gender impacts educational outcomes based on what is believed that females are more reading proficiency and males are more math proficiency. The text suggest that the reason of the impact is due to teachers assuming that females nor males can have equal proficiency in subject areas.

7.4.1. Educational Inequality

7.4.2. Responces suggest that the differences between public and private schools are statistically significant. It is said that private schools are better at teaching low-income students.

7.4.3. Race and class are predictors of academic success. The text state that "where and individual goes to school is often related to her race and socioeconomic background... has a greater effect on student achievement..." (369).

8. Explanations of Educational Inequality Chapter 9

8.1. Cultural Differences

8.2. The first theory of John Ogby suggests that school attribute to cultural differences. John’s theory explains that African American students do poorly in school because they have to adapt to a different culture. John believes that for African Americans to do well in another culture, they would have to deny their own culture and accept the culture of white people. The second cultural differences theory comes from Willis. His theory suggest that cultural differences come from how different cultures perceive schools. He suggests that non-white students reject the culture of schooling. Thus, leaves academic gaps between the cultures.

8.2.1. School Centered Explanations

8.2.2. School Financing • Public schools in affluent suburbs get more money than poor inner cities schools. • Funding for the schools comes from local, state, and federal sources. • Majority of funding comes from property taxes therefore, leaving poor area with less funding. Effective School Research • Effective schools have high expectations for students. They have strong leadership, accountability processes, monitored learning, a lot of instructional time, and flexibility. • Ineffective schools do not share the same characteristics. Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices • Working class neighborhood schools have authoritarian and teacher- directed pedagogic practices, and have a social efficiency curriculum. • Middle class neighborhoods schools have less authoritarian and more student centered pedagogic practices, and have a humanistic curriculum. • Upper class neighborhoods have authoritarian pedagogic practices and classical humanistic college curriculum. Curriculum and Ability grouping • Elementary level students are grouped based on teacher recommendations, test scores, and sometimes race, class, or gender. • Secondary level students are grouped based on their ability and curriculum.

9. Educational Reform and School Improvement Chapter 10

9.1. School-to-work

9.2. The school to work program was signed into act in 1994 by President Bill Clinton. The purpose of this reform was to help to prepare students for careers in today’s global economy. The reform would allow experiences for students to see the different skills needed in each career of their choosing. After the best intentions was placed on this reform, it has still failed.

9.2.1. Teacher Quality Teacher quality is defined as one with all required assignments based on the NCLB. However, what education is seeing, is that teachers are teaching out of their field which is leading to higher drop out rates. To resolve this, Ingersoll had suggested that schools hire teachers from other programs such as Teach for America…. Washington D.C is still working to address these issues. Reforms that have impacted education State intervention is a school takeover of school when problems have occurred and was declared to be beyond local control. State intervention is an ultimate accountability measure. The state intervention is usually for underperforming schools. With this reform, it has many pros and cons. Mayoral control is similar to the state intervention. The mayoral control gives centralizing governance into the school system. Mayoral control is seen to “eliminate corruption, lead to effective and efficient management and budgets, increases student achievement, and reduces the political battles endemic to elected school boards.”