River Civilizations-Seven Aspects of Civilization

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River Civilizations-Seven Aspects of Civilization by Mind Map: River Civilizations-Seven Aspects of Civilization

1. Religion

1.1. Shang/Zhou

1.1.1. Most of their beliefs come from royal tombs. From studying these tombs, they concluded that each tomb contained valuable items. For example, some tombs had items made from jade or bronze.

1.1.2. Other tombs that were studied had the remains of sacrificed prisoners from wars.

1.1.3. Shang believed in an afterlife, but in this afterlife, a king would still need his servants.

1.1.4. Shang religion was centered on the worship of their ancestors. They offered gifts to their deceased family members in order to keep them happy. The families also prepared meals with their ancestors in mind.

1.2. Sumerian

1.2.1. Sumerians practiced polytheism, which means they believed in more than one god.

1.2.2. Sumerians believed that the gods controlled things in nature, and protected cities and states.

1.2.3. They believed that the gods were like people in many ways. For example, the gods ate drank, fell in love and fought as well. The only difference was that the gods had a lot of power.

1.2.4. The Sumerians had to work hard to please the gods. They built temples and ziggurats to worship their gods.

2. Science and Technology

2.1. Shang/Zhou

2.1.1. Shang started to work with bronze and they created workshops.

2.1.2. The Shang used oracle bones to write on things suck as rocks and tortoise shells.

2.1.3. Zhou perfected the art of working with bronze.

2.1.4. Zhou also made warfare technology such as iron weapons and fortifications.

2.2. Sumerian

2.2.1. The Sumerian math system was based off of the number 60.

2.2.2. The Sumerians used geometry which helped them develop irrigation systems.

2.2.3. Sumerians used math to invent things like the wheel, pottery and a variety of vehicles.

2.2.4. Some archaeologists believed that SUmerians performed basic surgery.

3. Government and Leaders

3.1. Shang/Zhou

3.1.1. During this time period, China was ruled by a monarchy, which was surrounded by a court, which is a gathering of wealthy people who performed rituals that were meant to keep their kingdom safe.

3.1.2. The king of China had an army that fought people outside of their kingdom, in order to keep everyone else safe.

3.1.3. The army of China was used to prevent rebellions in their kingdom as well.

3.1.4. When Zhou conquered Shang, they got the idea that they were ruled by the Mandate of Heaven.

3.2. Sumerian

3.2.1. As trade started to grow, Sumerians developed a social ranking. Priests and kings were at the top. Next was wealthy merchants and landowners, and last were the slaves along with people that were caught during battle.

3.2.2. Even though kings were at the top of the social ranking, they performed ceremonies to please their gods.

3.2.3. As time passed, many of the city-state's kings formed dynasties, which is a series of rulers from one family.

4. Arts and Education

4.1. Shang/Zhou

4.1.1. The development of Chinese writing was tied to the use of oracle bones.

4.1.2. Shang used writing to draw pictures that represented objects or ideas.

4.1.3. In addition to writing, Shang also used bronze to decorate tombs.

4.1.4. Shang astronomers also created a calender that was based on the cycles of the moon.

4.2. Sumerian

4.2.1. Sumerians developed a type of writing called cuneform. They used sharp tools to write on clay tables.

4.2.2. Sumerian architecture is represented with arches,ramps and columns, which are carved out of ivory.

4.2.3. Ruins and artifacts provide us with examples of the Sumerian artistry.

4.2.4. They needed other types of people to do certain jobs some of the jobs required a learning curve.

5. Social Structure and Family

5.1. Shang/Zhou

5.1.1. The Zhou Dynasty Social Hierarchy was a system of ranking for the Zhou civilization. At the top, there were kings, next was the prince, and last were the nobles.

5.1.2. Shang also had a social pyramid. It was called the yin dynasty. It was separated into 4 categories. First was the kings and aristocracy, then was the military, third was artisans and craftsmen and finally were peasants.

5.2. Sumerian

5.2.1. The Sumerians developed a social ranking. At the top, there were kings and priests. Next came wealthy merchants and land owners. Last, there were slaves and people caught during battle.

5.2.2. The sumerians also had three social classes. First was upper class, which contained nobles, priests, government officials and warriors. Next was the middle class, which had merchants, traders and a "freeman" class.

5.2.3. When a family member dies, the Suemrians bury them within the tomb of their family. When the person is buried, they are buried with their most prized possessions.

6. Economy and Trade

6.1. Shang/Zhou

6.1.1. They may have created one of the worlds first systems of money.

6.1.2. People in the Shang Dynasty traded things such as bronze, cattle, sheep and jade.

6.1.3. During this time, sea shells were used as money.

6.1.4. The Shang community was established in 1675 BC.

6.2. Sumerian

6.2.1. Sumerians got most of their materials through trade.

6.2.2. Sumerians lacked raw materials such as wood and metals. To get these materials, the Sumerians would trade with people from Southwest Asia.

6.2.3. As trade enriched, a social ranking system developed. At the top was kings and priests. Then was wealthy merchants and landowners. Last was slaves and people who had been captured in battle.

6.2.4. Sumerian men and women developed distinct roles. Women took care of their children and their homes, while men had political power.

7. Geography and Agriculture

7.1. Shang/Zhou

7.1.1. This community was mostly an agricultural society. Most people spent their time tending to crops. Sometimes, farmers would be called into war.

7.1.2. Unlike some other places, the Shang dynasty had some free time to do other activities. Some people would hunt for sport during this time.

7.1.3. After the people did their jobs, some of the wealthier people would make things out of bronze or jade.

7.1.4. Two major rivers supplied water for Chinas earliest civilizations.

7.2. Sumerian

7.2.1. Sumeria is located in Mesopotamia, which is in the fertile crescent.

7.2.2. Their community is also located between two rivers. Those two rivers are the Tigris and Euphrates.

7.2.3. The Sumerians grew barley, chickpeas, lentils, wheat and many more things.

7.2.4. They also used animals as transportation. They mainly used oxen and donkeys.