7 Aspects of Civilizations

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7 Aspects of Civilizations by Mind Map: 7 Aspects of Civilizations

1. Government and Leaders

1.1. Sumerians

1.1.1. The first king of the Sumerian civilization was a man called Etana of Kish and was described as "he who stabilized all the lands".

1.1.2. The Sumerian city of Uruk is thought to be the first true city in the world.

1.1.3. The code of Hammurabi of Babylon, which was invented and written by the Sumerians, was their first legal code.

1.1.4. The third dynasty of UR established new technology and concepts that made the civilization so important in history.

1.2. Shang/Zhou

1.2.1. King ruled civilization and was above everybody else

1.2.2. The Sumerian King List was a list made in 2100 BCE that recorded all the kings of the reigns.

1.2.3. Expanded territory by sharing wealth with family across China

1.2.4. The Zhao king: King Nam was killed in battle

2. Science and Technology

2.1. Sumerians

2.1.1. The wheel and sail boats were invented by the Sumerians by 3600 BCE along with irrigation systems.

2.1.2. The Sumerian civilization invented a time system using 60-seconds to a minute and 60-minutes to a hour, the time system we use today.

2.1.3. The Sumerians divided the day and night to 12 hours each. Creating the 24 hour day.

2.1.4. The Sumerians created a 155 mile long wall to protect their cities and to keep barbarians and invaders out.

2.1.5. The Sumerian calendar.

2.2. Shang/Zhou

2.2.1. The Shang/Zhou used copper and tin mixtures, called bronze, to make weapons and chariot parts.

2.2.2. The method of piece-mold-casting was used to make bronze by the Shang/Zhou civilization.

2.2.3. The Shang/Zhou civilization domesticated horses and were one of the first to use horse drawn carriages.

2.2.4. The way the Shang/Zhou civilization cast their bronze made it easy to put designs and increase the sharpness of the bronze weapons.

2.2.5. A bronze weapon made by the Shang/Zhou

3. Arts and Education

3.1. Sumerians

3.1.1. The Sumerian language took part in a log evolution from 3500 BCE, where it was an early script consisting of pictographs, to 25000 BCE, where it took a cone-shaped, or "cuneiform" variation.

3.1.2. Cuneiform writing was complex, and only the very well educated were literate. Cuneiform evolved with the different spoken languages that came to the Mesopotamian region.

3.1.3. Most remaining pieces of art from the Sumerians are statues or figures carved from clay or stone, as most paintings didn't survive the time betwen creation and excavation.

3.1.4. Cylinder seals were intricately carved and used to create beautiful artistic patterns.

3.1.5. Art Tablet Depicting Babylonian Goddess (unadded)

3.2. Shang/Zhou

3.2.1. Art in the Shang era usually had a ritual or practical purpose, often found in tombs, shrines, or other important locations. This continued in the Zhou Dynasty.

3.2.2. The Shang were skilled workers of bone, jade, ceramics, stone, wood, shells, and bronze, which can be concluded from the shops found on the edges of excavated palaces.

3.2.3. Many schools of thought popped up during the Zhou Dynasty, mainly including Confucianism, Legalism, and Daoism, which have shaped China today.

3.2.4. Bronze was associated with royalty, and many bronze works of art could be found in tombs and/or palaces. Jade was also used for art, but not for things like battle axes or chariots.

3.2.5. Bronze Sculpture of Man with Gold Leaf (unadded)

4. Geography and Agricultire

4.1. Sumerians

4.1.1. The Sumerians were found in Mesopotamia, at the corner of the Persian Gulf, alongside the Tigris and Euphrates rivers

4.1.2. Agriculture, involving the farming of barley, wheat, onions, turnips, grapes, apples and dates, was really only possible in the Mesopotamia area by means of irrigation.

4.1.3. Grains were "given" to a patron goddess and stored in a temple for later refinement

4.1.4. In terms of livestock, the Sumerians raised cattle, goat, and caught fish.

4.2. Shang/Zhou

4.2.1. These civilizations were found near the Huang He, or Yellow River, in China.

4.2.2. In the Shang dynasty, crops like millet, wheat, rice, and barley were farmed with complex irrigation and flood control systems, though hunting was not unheard of.

4.2.3. Animals were domesticated the Shang people for their food and other goods, among them pigs, dogs, sheep, oxen, and even silkworms for China's famous silk.

4.2.4. The Zhou began in an agricultural basin in the westernmost reaches of China, the lower Wei River valley, and took up Shang agricultural practices as they built their cities.

5. Religion

5.1. Sumerians

5.1.1. a The Sumerians were polytheistic and had many different gods and goddesses for different areas of life, for example cities had their won god or goddess, as well as occupations.

5.1.2. b Sumerians created statues of themselves in prayer, and placed them in temples to show their respect for the gods.

5.1.3. c there were more important gods that controlled more important life laws.

5.1.4. d Some Sumerian gods included Anu, the sun god, Enlil the god of air, Utu the sun god and Ninhursag the earth god.

5.2. Shang/Zhou

5.2.1. a Early folk religion in the Shang dynasty was polytheistic.

5.2.2. b Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism were philosophies that later formed into religions for the Shang and Zhou.

5.2.3. c An important god to the Shang was Shang ti. He was thought to be a guide to the afterlife, a link to heavenly beings. He was thought to rule over all other gods.

5.2.4. d Ancestor worship was a popular belief. They believed that the happiness of dead relatives had an effect on their lives.

6. Economy and Trade

6.1. Sumerians

6.1.1. a The early Sumerian city was mostly self sufficient.

6.1.2. b Temples had a strong economic influence.

6.1.3. c Traders were servants of the temple, and long distance trade caravans were also organized by the temple.

6.1.4. d Over time power shifted to one ruler, who slowly obtained economic power over Mesopotamia.

6.2. Shang/Zhou

6.2.1. a The Shang and Zhou used the silk road to trade with civilizations as far as present day Afghanistan.

6.2.2. b Were the first to create a currency system.

6.2.3. c They had a problem with overpopulation.

6.2.4. d Most of the population was farmers, and although they were at the bottom of the social pyramid, they had great economic control.

7. Social Structure and Family

7.1. Sumerians

7.1.1. Fathers have complete control over their children until the marry

7.1.2. believed in a social pyramid with a king on top and farmers at the bottom.

7.1.3. Women are very respected in their society

7.1.4. Weddings and marriages were fairly frequent in their society

7.2. Zhou/Shang

7.2.1. The Shang were skilled workers in bone, jade, ceramics, stone, wood, shells, and bronze

7.2.2. Had a social pyramid with a king on top and farmers/citizens at the bottom.

7.2.3. Burials were a good representation of social class, and they way they showed off how your burial was.

7.2.4. Had shops in their village for goods

7.2.5. The Shang were skilled workers in bone, jade, ceramics, stone, wood, shells, and bronze

8. A Shang/Zhou River Civilization

9. Sumerian Civilization map