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Earth by Mind Map: Earth

1. measuring time

1.1. Ice cores = extracted from glaciers shows long term climate reconstruction

1.2. Dendrochonology = looking at tree rings Light rings= growth, dark rings = dorment

1.3. Geochronolgy = sediment deposits ex volcanic ash

1.4. Carbon 14 = uses the 1/2 life and soil remains

1.5. Paleosis = fossil soils, evidence of sedimentation

1.6. Urban Context

1.6.1. Industrial histories, Natures of cities

2. Atmosphere

2.1. Environmental Lapse rate = 6.4 F degree decrease with every 1000 feet

2.2. Ozone Depletion-

2.2.1. 1985, 40% reduction in UV radiation

2.2.2. Montreal Protocal- 1987 called for the reduction in CFC's, total elimination of CFC by 2000

2.3. Greenhouse gases- amplify heat, needed for survival as it keeps the planet livable,

2.4. Carbon Sequestration- Organic Matter, Oil, Oceans build up carbon.

2.4.1. Reducing Emissions Deforestation Degradation (REDD)-gives market incentives. Issues: not paying attention to rights of locals, faulty carbon markets.

3. Geography

3.1. Human Environment Geography

3.1.1. Humans and the environment is a mutual relationship

3.1.2. Declensionist = HEG relationship marked by environmental damage

3.1.3. Environmental History Alfred Crosbey- "The Columbian Exchange" - influenced generations of geographers and historians Portmanteau biota- biological baggage that colonizers bring to new environments Reconstructing past environments Anthropecene - experiences in documents Direct sources- first hand witnesses Archival- documents of most common tools used in environmental history

4. Axis 23.5 degree tilt makes sun intensity vary place to place

4.1. Solstices= 12 hours of sunlight

5. Bio geography = study of patterns + relationships in biotic environments

6. Hazard

6.1. Cultural hazards- air, water, soil, food

6.2. Physical Hazards - drought, fire, tornadoes, hurricanes

6.2.1. West African Sahel - drought, first plant different types crops in dispersed fields, village counteracted high localized nature of convective rainstorm in the region.

6.3. Bio Hazards- bacteria, viruses, pollen

6.4. Early Hazards Geography

6.4.1. Gilbert F White- focused on flooding in the U.S., argued structural approaches to managing floods(dams)

6.4.2. Evolving Conceptions of Human Geography - any event needs a trigger Individual Choice- position in society + structure of Trigger a Disaster- technological disaster, human created

6.5. Risk Perception- shaped by value and power based constructions of individual and communities

6.5.1. Vulernability- short and long term effect of risk by soical, physical and economic factors.

6.6. Way people and communities recover short term, survive-normal

6.6.1. Adaptation longer term, extreme environments

6.6.2. Colonization- small scale = commodities, disruption of adaptive systems, economic, social, culture and political upheaval.

6.6.3. Decolinization- capitalist economic policies, Neolibralism- environmental justice, "fair treatment of meaningful involvements

6.6.4. Climate Change Global warming Increase in Greenhouse gases Depletion in freshwater Rise in Sea level

7. Biodiversity

7.1. Genetic, Species and Habitat

7.1.1. Animals are becoming part of the human environment Ties into human confict

7.2. Conservation

7.2.1. Endangered Species Act

7.2.2. Transboundary Conservation. Africa

8. Population

8.1. Population will peak around 2050

8.2. Malthusian + Neo Perspectives: human pop grew at exponential rate while agriculture grew at a fixed rate per year, starvation and famine were natural check that brought the population back

8.3. Structuralist + Neo Perspectives: each person has a benefit of society , value of labor exceeded cost of substance.

8.4. Famine Food Access and Security

8.4.1. Famine does not equal growing more food.

8.4.2. Distribution of food is not equal

9. Environmental damage

10. Hydrosphere

10.1. Dew point = saturated air

10.1.1. Condensation

10.2. Water cycle Precipitation, runoff, infiltration, evaporation

10.2.1. Influenced by Human factors, pollution, irrigation systems, cities

10.3. 96.5% oceans, freshwater 2.5%, .9% other

10.3.1. Acesss to Water is uneven, clean water is more available in the global north rather than global south Privatization of Water by companies makes water access more difficult. Tragedy of the commons, water has been misused Global North uses more water than Global south Physical and Economic

11. Lithosphere

12. Biosphere

12.1. Human Activity

12.1.1. 17th Century Colonization Exploitation Portmanteau bitoa = biological baggage that colonizers bring to new environments God, Gold, and Glory 1800-1st Billion population count

12.1.2. Early 1900's Urbanization Romantacizing the wilderness Masculinity

12.1.3. 1960's & 70's Pollution Issues Middle class support Cultural practices and behaviors Environmentalism Rapid change in thinking about the environment Rachel Carson wrote "Silver Spring" an activist on pesticides Paul Ehrlich Donella Meadows First Earth Day April 22nd ( 1970) Green Revolution: hybrid seeds, started urban ag, mixed ag systems

12.1.4. 1980's & 90's International Union for Conservation on Nature Earth Summit Rio 1992 Convention on Biodiversity

12.1.5. 2000's and beyond Food, Agriculture, and energy efficiency are popular. Idea of eating organic comes into place World environmental agreements Paris Climate accord 2016, 97' Kyoto Protocol, 2009 Copenhagen Green imperialism Environmental Justice local and urban, Dams Pros: power Cons: Damages local environment, water quality, fish popultion

12.1.6. Farming Extensive ag system: limited labor Intensive ag system Low inputs: labor, organic fertilizers High inputs: inorganic fertilizers, pesticides, mechanization Agroforestry Traditional Agriculture: high yields and inputs, nomadic herding Dike, Aqueduct, Canal irrigation, Shaduf, Industrial Ag: Global north, commercial, monocropping Genetically modified seeds

12.2. Albedo Effect

12.2.1. Low albedo= most energy is absorbed into ground

12.2.2. High albedo = more energy is reflected + heating is slow