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Earth by Mind Map: Earth

1. measuring time

1.1. Ice cores = extracted from glaciers shows long term climate reconstruction

1.2. Dendrochonology = looking at tree rings Light rings= growth, dark rings = dorment

1.3. Geochronolgy = sediment deposits ex volcanic ash

1.4. Carbon 14 = uses the 1/2 life and soil remains

1.5. Paleosis = fossil soils, evidence of sedimentation

1.6. Urban Context

1.6.1. Industrial histories, Natures of cities

2. Population

2.1. Population will peak around 2050

2.2. Malthusian + Neo Perspectives: human pop grew at exponential rate while agriculture grew at a fixed rate per year, starvation and famine were natural check that brought the population back

2.3. Structuralist + Neo Perspectives: each person has a benefit of society , value of labor exceeded cost of substance.

2.4. Famine Food Access and Security

2.4.1. Famine does not equal growing more food.

2.4.2. Distribution of food is not equal

3. Environmental damage

4. Atmosphere

4.1. Environmental Lapse rate = 6.4 F degree decrease with every 1000 feet

4.2. Ozone Depletion-

4.2.1. 1985, 40% reduction in UV radiation

4.2.2. Montreal Protocal- 1987 called for the reduction in CFC's, total elimination of CFC by 2000

4.3. Greenhouse gases- amplify heat, needed for survival as it keeps the planet livable,

4.4. Carbon Sequestration- Organic Matter, Oil, Oceans build up carbon.

4.4.1. Reducing Emissions Deforestation Degradation (REDD)-gives market incentives. Issues: not paying attention to rights of locals, faulty carbon markets.

5. Hydrosphere

5.1. Dew point = saturated air

5.1.1. Condensation

5.2. Water cycle Precipitation, runoff, infiltration, evaporation

5.2.1. Influenced by Human factors, pollution, irrigation systems, cities

5.3. 96.5% oceans, freshwater 2.5%, .9% other

5.3.1. Acesss to Water is uneven, clean water is more available in the global north rather than global south

5.3.1.1. Privatization of Water by companies makes water access more difficult.

5.3.1.1.1. Tragedy of the commons, water has been misused

5.3.1.2. Global North uses more water than Global south

5.3.1.3. Physical and Economic

6. Lithosphere

7. Biosphere

7.1. Human Activity

7.1.1. 17th Century

7.1.1.1. Colonization

7.1.1.1.1. Exploitation

7.1.1.1.2. Portmanteau bitoa = biological baggage that colonizers bring to new environments

7.1.1.2. God, Gold, and Glory

7.1.1.3. 1800-1st Billion population count

7.1.2. Early 1900's

7.1.2.1. Urbanization

7.1.2.1.1. Romantacizing the wilderness

7.1.2.1.2. Masculinity

7.1.3. 1960's & 70's

7.1.3.1. Pollution Issues

7.1.3.1.1. Middle class support

7.1.3.2. Cultural practices and behaviors

7.1.3.3. Environmentalism Rapid change in thinking about the environment

7.1.3.3.1. Rachel Carson wrote "Silver Spring" an activist on pesticides

7.1.3.3.2. Paul Ehrlich

7.1.3.3.3. Donella Meadows

7.1.3.4. First Earth Day April 22nd ( 1970)

7.1.3.5. Green Revolution: hybrid seeds, started urban ag, mixed ag systems

7.1.4. 1980's & 90's

7.1.4.1. International Union for Conservation on Nature

7.1.4.2. Earth Summit Rio 1992

7.1.4.2.1. Convention on Biodiversity

7.1.5. 2000's and beyond

7.1.5.1. Food, Agriculture, and energy efficiency are popular.

7.1.5.1.1. Idea of eating organic comes into place

7.1.5.2. World environmental agreements Paris Climate accord 2016, 97' Kyoto Protocol, 2009 Copenhagen

7.1.5.2.1. Green imperialism

7.1.5.3. Environmental Justice

7.1.5.3.1. local and urban,

7.1.5.4. Dams

7.1.5.4.1. Pros: power Cons: Damages local environment, water quality, fish popultion

7.1.6. Farming

7.1.6.1. Extensive ag system: limited labor

7.1.6.2. Intensive ag system Low inputs: labor, organic fertilizers High inputs: inorganic fertilizers, pesticides, mechanization

7.1.6.3. Agroforestry

7.1.6.4. Traditional Agriculture: high yields and inputs, nomadic herding

7.1.6.4.1. Dike, Aqueduct, Canal irrigation, Shaduf,

7.1.6.5. Industrial Ag: Global north, commercial, monocropping

7.1.6.5.1. Genetically modified seeds

7.2. Albedo Effect

7.2.1. Low albedo= most energy is absorbed into ground

7.2.2. High albedo = more energy is reflected + heating is slow

8. Geography

8.1. Human Environment Geography

8.1.1. Humans and the environment is a mutual relationship

8.1.2. Declensionist = HEG relationship marked by environmental damage

8.1.3. Environmental History

8.1.3.1. Alfred Crosbey- "The Columbian Exchange" - influenced generations of geographers and historians

8.1.3.2. Portmanteau biota- biological baggage that colonizers bring to new environments

8.1.3.3. Reconstructing past environments

8.1.3.3.1. Anthropecene - experiences in documents

8.1.3.3.2. Direct sources- first hand witnesses

8.1.3.3.3. Archival- documents of most common tools used in environmental history

9. Axis 23.5 degree tilt makes sun intensity vary place to place

9.1. Solstices= 12 hours of sunlight

10. Bio geography = study of patterns + relationships in biotic environments

11. Hazard

11.1. Cultural hazards- air, water, soil, food

11.2. Physical Hazards - drought, fire, tornadoes, hurricanes

11.2.1. West African Sahel - drought, first plant different types crops in dispersed fields, village counteracted high localized nature of convective rainstorm in the region.

11.3. Bio Hazards- bacteria, viruses, pollen

11.4. Early Hazards Geography

11.4.1. Gilbert F White- focused on flooding in the U.S., argued structural approaches to managing floods(dams)

11.4.2. Evolving Conceptions of Human Geography - any event needs a trigger

11.4.2.1. Individual Choice- position in society + structure of

11.4.2.2. Trigger a Disaster- technological disaster, human created

11.5. Risk Perception- shaped by value and power based constructions of individual and communities

11.5.1. Vulernability- short and long term effect of risk by soical, physical and economic factors.

11.6. Way people and communities recover short term, survive-normal

11.6.1. Adaptation longer term, extreme environments

11.6.2. Colonization- small scale = commodities, disruption of adaptive systems, economic, social, culture and political upheaval.

11.6.3. Decolinization- capitalist economic policies,

11.6.3.1. Neolibralism- environmental justice, "fair treatment of meaningful involvements

11.6.4. Climate Change

11.6.4.1. Global warming

11.6.4.1.1. Increase in Greenhouse gases

11.6.4.1.2. Depletion in freshwater

11.6.4.2. Rise in Sea level

12. Biodiversity

12.1. Genetic, Species and Habitat

12.1.1. Animals are becoming part of the human environment

12.1.1.1. Ties into human confict

12.2. Conservation

12.2.1. Endangered Species Act

12.2.2. Transboundary Conservation.

12.2.2.1. Africa