Teaching, Learning, and Development

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Teaching, Learning, and Development by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning, and Development

1. End of School Year: Standardized Achievement Tests

1.1. Purpose

1.1.1. Based on Curriculum learning objectives that are common in all classrooms

1.1.2. Determines teacher's effectiveness in conveying core concepts and knowledge.

1.1.3. Determine student performance

1.1.4. Monitor achievement trends

1.1.5. Identify or modify instructional methods that best produce student progress

1.1.6. Evaluate educational programs

1.1.7. Hold districts, schools, and teachers accountable

1.2. Ontario Standardized Testing

1.2.1. EQAO Conducted in Grade 3, 6 and 9 in the subjects of reading, writing, and math

1.2.2. Literacy Test Grade 10 - tests students knowledge of the English language, comprehension, and writing skills

1.3. Achievement vs. Aptitude

1.3.1. Aptitude tests a students specific cognitive, social, and behavioural skills; answers the question what is a student able to do. Norm-referenced tests - reflective of how they scored in comparison to other students

1.3.2. Achievement tests a students specific ability in a subject area such as math, reading, and writing. Criterion-referenced tests - reflective of how students to how students performed relative to standards or criteria

2. Early February: Socio-cultural Considerations

2.1. Diverse Learners

2.1.1. Incorporate different cultures and religions into teaching practice to encourage tolerance as well as academic achievement for all

2.2. Multicultural Education

2.2.1. Banks Model Content Integration Equity Pedagogy Knowledge Construction Process Prejudice Reduction Empowering School Culture and Social Structure

2.3. Aboriginal Education

2.3.1. Positive Aboriginal Role Models

2.3.2. Positive Self Image

2.3.3. Community Involvement

2.4. Socioeconomic Status

2.4.1. Has the highest impact on scholastic achievement than any other social or cultural attribute

2.5. Stereotype Threat

2.5.1. The fear that your behaviour will confirm an existing negative stereotype about your identity group. This fear results in impaired performance and often becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy

2.6. Critical Consciousness of Teachers and their Disposition

2.6.1. Accept your political values and beliefs and reflect on how they influence your teaching practice

2.6.2. Have an awareness of the cultural capital that students bring to the classroom and how to take advantage of their rich array of cultural resources at their disposal

2.6.3. Realization that other peoples ways of thinking are significantly influenced by race, class, gender, and language in which they are located now or previously

2.6.4. Once you figure out your own biases, you can learn from them and tailor your teaching to ensure that you can address them

2.7. Parenting Styles

2.7.1. Permissive openly tolerant and accepting of nearly all actions. Rarely invoking restrictions.

2.7.2. Authoritative Balancing act between expectations and encouraging success. Being disciplinary as well as encouraging child's independence.

2.7.3. Authoritarian Shape, control, and measure child's behaviour against rigid standards. Strong emphasis on respect for authority. Discourages open discussion.

3. Early December: Individual Differences - Intellectual Abilities and Challenges

3.1. Intelligence

3.1.1. Theory of Multiple Intelligences Linguistic Logical-Mathematical Spatial Musical Bodily-Kinesthetic Intrapersonal Naturalistic

3.1.2. Intelligence Processes - Sternberg Analytic/Componential Creative/Experiential Practical/Contextual

3.1.3. General Intelligence Fluid Crystallized General Memory and Learning Broad Visual Perception Broad Auditory Perception Broad Cognitive Speediness Broad Retrival Capacity

3.2. IEPs

3.2.1. Identification

3.2.2. Diagnostic Instruction

3.2.3. Referral

3.2.4. Assessment/IEP

3.2.5. Educational Intervention

3.2.6. Evaluation of Progress

3.3. ASD

3.3.1. "Neurodevelopmental disorder that incorporates several previously separate diagnoses"

3.3.2. Wide spectrum of abilities and disabilities

3.3.3. High functioning vs low functioning Level 1: Requires Support Social: noticeable impairments when support not in place. Difficulty initiating social interactions Behaviours: Inflexible behaviour causing interference in functioning in different contexts. Organizational and planning problems Level 2: Requiring Substantial Support Social: Marked deficits in verbal and nonverbal skills. Even with supports in place, limited interactions and reduced responses Behaviour: Difficulty coping with change. Repetitive behaviours apparent to observers. Level 3: Requiring Very Substantial Support Social: Severe verbal and non-verbal deficits. Very limited social interaction and responses. Behaviour: Inflexible behaviour. Extreme difficulty coping with change and repetitive behaviours markedly interfere with functioning.

3.3.4. Qualitative impairments in social and communication as well as restricted, repetitive, and patterned behaviours

3.4. Special Education

3.4.1. High-Incidence Exceptionalities

3.4.2. Low-Incidence Exceptionalities

3.5. Inclusive Practices

3.5.1. Differentiated Learning Varied instructional strategies to accommodate different learning styles

3.5.2. All students can learn!

3.6. ADHD

3.6.1. Cannot properly regulate their thinking and behaviour

3.6.2. Chemical imbalance in various regions of the brain

3.6.3. Able to explain what is appropriate and inappropriate behaviour and remorseful, but often unable to control impulses

3.7. Gifted Students

3.7.1. Outstanding performance in one or several areas of education.

3.7.2. May still have learning deficits in other areas, referred to as twice-exceptional learners

3.8. Specific Learning Disorders

3.8.1. Mild Intelectual Disability

3.8.2. Writing

3.8.3. Reading

3.8.4. Math

3.8.5. Oral Language

3.8.6. Social Interactions

3.8.7. Inattention

3.8.8. Poor Cognitive Strategies

3.9. Basic Temperaments

3.9.1. Positive Highly adaptive without a lot of fuss, and easily fall into systematic routines

3.9.2. Negative reluctantly adaptive, aggressive tendencies, and poor self-control

3.9.3. Slow-to-Warm-up somewhat negative , apathetic, and need a lot of coaxing to make changes

4. Late September: Assessing Student Progress

4.1. Approaches to Assessments

4.2. Testing Issues

4.2.1. Frequency of Testing

4.2.2. Appropriate Questions

4.3. Purpose of Assessment

4.3.1. Diagnostic Prior to learning - What do they already know?

4.3.2. Formative During the learning

4.3.3. Summative At the end of a unit/term

4.4. Assessment Design

4.4.1. Authentic Assessment Mimic real world problems that students may encounter outside of school By using authentic assessments and designing tasks that are aplicable outside of school, it is much easier for students to learn when they have a practical use for the knowledge

4.4.2. Portfolios Collection of student work demonstrating diversity of tasks and strengths/weaknesses

4.4.3. Tests Multiple Choice True/False Matching Short Answer Long Answer Essay

5. Mid-September: Making Instructional Decisions

5.1. Diagnostic Assessments

5.1.1. Assesses where students lie in regards to the curricula and in relation to other students in same grade level - determines starting point for teaching

5.2. Backwards Design

5.2.1. Plan with the end in mind

5.2.2. 4 Steps Instructional goal/learning objective Assessment question Topical units/lessons Instructional Method: Best way to teach to achieve objective

5.3. Bloom's Taxonomy

5.3.1. Knowledge

5.3.2. Comprehension

5.3.3. Application

5.3.4. Analysis

5.3.5. Synthesis

5.3.6. Evaluation

5.4. Stiggin's Taxonomy of Achievement Targets

5.4.1. Knowledge

5.4.2. Reasoning

5.4.3. Skills

5.4.4. Products

5.4.5. Attitudes and Dispositions

5.5. Cognitive Instructional Strategies

5.5.1. Actively promotes the understanding and retention of knowledge

5.5.2. Metacognition

5.6. Select - Organize - Integrate

5.6.1. Instruction Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-Term Memory

5.7. Motivational Underpinnings

5.7.1. Tasks

5.7.2. Instructional Practices

5.7.3. Classroom Management Intrinsic Extrinsic

5.7.4. Every child with behaviour issues has some motivation for it. If you can redirect their motivation, it becomes much easier to correct their behaviour

5.8. How People Learn

5.8.1. Learner Centered

5.8.2. Assessment Centered

5.8.3. Knowledge Centered

5.9. Effective Instruction

5.10. Direct Instruction

5.10.1. Explicit teaching

5.11. Student Problem-Solving

5.11.1. verbal protocol analysis

5.11.2. Problem-, Project-, Inquiry-based learning

6. First Week of School: Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

6.1. Classroom Management

6.1.1. Dynamic Classroom Management Motivational Underpinnings Caring and supportive relationships Organize and implement instruction to optimize learning Encourage student engagement Promote development of social skills and self-regulation Appropriate interventions to assist behaviour problems

6.1.2. Positive behaviour support

6.1.3. Classroom discourse

6.1.4. Classroom expectations clearly outlined with students

6.1.5. Positive rewards and negative consequences

6.2. Dealing with Behaviour

6.2.1. Self-Monitoring Checklist

6.2.2. Positive feedback

6.2.3. Supportive to students

6.2.4. Efficient Time Management

6.2.5. Keep off-task time to a minimum

6.3. The Resilient Student

6.3.1. Self-esteem

6.3.2. Sense of Competence

6.3.3. Reinforce strengths

6.3.4. A students ability to bounce back after or during a hardship is astounding. They are stronger than we could ever know.

6.4. Fundamental Student Needs

6.4.1. Connectedness

6.4.2. Autonomous and Self-determination

6.4.3. Sense of competency, success, and accomplishment

7. Late August: Considering Child and Adolescent Development

7.1. Principles of Development

7.1.1. Orderly and Logical Progression i.e. walk before running, talk before reading.

7.1.2. Periods of Rapid and Slow Growth

7.1.3. Quantitative and Qualitative Changes i.e. walk more steps as well as with greater balance

7.1.4. Different Rates of Development depending on the Individual Not everyone hits the same milestones at the same time

7.1.5. Genetics play large role limits the developmental potential

7.1.6. Environmental influences determines how much potential is realized

7.2. Types of Development

7.2.1. Physical Development not typically influenced by outer forces follows a predetermined path

7.2.2. Cognitive Development Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor: 0-2 Preoperational: 2-6/7 Concrete Operations: 6/7-11/12 Formal Operations: 11/12-adulthood early cognitive development is critical for later acheivements Innate Curiosity

7.2.3. Language Development develops alongside cognitive development language acquisition device Function, Structure, Infinite generativity

7.2.4. Personal and Social Development most powerful memories of school are generally social and emotional experiences rather than academic successes basic human need that must be met self-worth self-determination relatedness Erikson's Eight stages of Psychosocial Development

7.2.5. Moral Development Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Reasoning Punishment and Obedience Orientation Instrumental Relativist Orientation Good Boy - Good Girl Orientation Law and Order Orientation Social Contract Orientation Universal Ethical Principle Orientation theory of mind Heteronomous and Autonomous Morality

7.3. Psychological Structures of Learning

7.3.1. desire to organize

7.3.2. desire to adjust or adapt

7.4. Disequilibrium to Equilibrium

7.4.1. process of assimilating new information into pre-existing ideas and readjusting thinking

7.5. Domain-Specific Learning

7.6. Enhancing Learning

7.6.1. scaffolding

7.6.2. Vygotsky zone of proximal development large focus on social/collaborative learning

7.6.3. I will implement Vygotsky's method of teaching as I feel that it is the most effective way to broaden a students knowledge while building on their independence and problem solving skills

7.7. Societal Influences

7.7.1. Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory Microsystem Mesosystem Exosystem Macrosystem Chronosystem

8. Early August: Planning for the Upcoming School Year

8.1. Schwab's Commonplaces of Education

8.1.1. Teacher

8.1.2. Student

8.1.3. Environment

8.1.4. Curriculum

8.2. Applying Theory to Practice

8.3. Foundations of Educational Psych

8.3.1. Berliner's Nine Foundational Topics

8.3.2. Dewey

8.4. Curricular Planning

8.4.1. Top-Down approach I will use this approach to plan my year, then my units, followed by daily lesson plans; 'end in mind'

8.5. Instructional Planning

8.5.1. Teacher-centered approach

8.5.2. Student-centerer approach

8.6. Educational Research

8.6.1. Quantitative Research

8.6.2. Qualitative Research

8.6.3. Research Process 5-Step Process 1. Observation of Phenomena 2. Formation of Questions 3. Application of Research Methods 4. Development of Guiding Principles 5. Development of Theories

8.7. Reflective Practice

8.7.1. Open-minded and open to change

8.7.2. Self-inquiry

8.7.3. I will analyze and reflect on the effectiveness of my practice to improve it and enable higher student acheivement in my class