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Gramma (RV) создатель Mind Map: Gramma   (RV)

1. Articles and Preposition

1.1. English articles:

1.1.1. 1. a/an +singular nouns( +indefinite)

1.1.1.1. example: 1: There is a tree in front of my house. 2 : I am an engineer. 3. My brother is a good boy.

1.1.2. 2. The + singular/ plural noun( + definite)

1.1.2.1. example: 1: I want eat breakfast in the morning. 2: I like shampoo in the afternoon. 3: I would like to go to camp in the evening.

1.1.3. 3. Singular nouns sound plural( subjects and verb agree)

1.1.3.1. example: 1: An army needs unity. 2: The family next the door is having dinner. 3: The news of today is very briefly.

1.1.4. 4. Intangible or abstract nouns( Don't use any article)

1.1.4.1. example: 1: Life is substantial. 2: Life is short 3: Love is beautiful.

1.1.5. Why articles are useful? # Because use small connecting words in English can reduce our grammar mistakes, make our writing more polished and improve our English skills.

1.2. Preposition:

1.2.1. Definition: between objects and other words in a sentence.(also have object, a noun or pronoun)

1.2.1.1. example: 1: The little girl often sits on a chair. 2: The strong boy always Stealing food from other family. 3: The weakness kid lie on the bed.

1.2.2. Preposition phrase: preposition+ object

1.2.2.1. example: 1: After the winter, we will go to French. 2: We want to play ball on the playground. 3: He want swim in the pool.

1.2.3. Why is preposition useful? Because we need a word connect with their object and other words. So it is very important in our life.

2. Verb Tenses and Irregular Forms:

2.1. Simple tenses: an action or states of being occurs

2.1.1. example: 1. Past: He lived in the north of my house last year. 2. present: He often lives in the north of my house. 3. Future: He will live in the north of my house next year.

2.2. Perfect tenses: show the time an action or state of being begins and completed

2.2.1. Present perfect tense: situation exists up now ( has/ have+ the past participle)

2.2.1.1. 1: Example: He has participated in school competitions. (up to now)

2.2.2. Past perfect tense: was complete by the time another past event occured

2.2.2.1. 2: Example: He had participated in school competitions before he finished his first exam.

2.2.3. Future perfect tense: action are predicting in the future. ( Will have + the past participle)

2.2.3.1. 3: Example: By next month, he will have participated in ten matches.

2.2.4. Why verb tenses are useful? # Because in the future we will use many sentence in different time. So we need simple tenses and perfect tenses.

2.3. Irregular Forms: most verbs in English change to the past need add -ed/-d

2.3.1. Book Page: 264-266.

2.3.2. Why we use irregular forms? # Because in our study, there are many past tense we should change , when we don't know how to change we can use irregular forms.

2.4. Definition: Verb Tenses are a kind of time reference and reference time. Tenses are usually expressed in specific forms of verbs, especially in their combination mode.

2.5. Continuous tenses:

2.5.1. Present continue: Definition: start in past, continue in the future

2.5.1.1. Example: I am swimming now. I am listening now. I am learning now.

2.5.2. Past continue: Definition: begun in past and continue after second past.

2.5.2.1. Example: I was swimming when i was a child. 2. I was standing when i was young. 3. I was listening music when i was young.

2.5.3. Future continue: Definition: begin in the future and continue in the second future.

2.5.3.1. Example: 1.I will be swimming when you are arrive. 2. I will be listening when you heard about me. 3. i will be learning when my mother come.

2.6. Perfect continue:

2.6.1. Present perfect continue: Definition: place started in past and continues now.

2.6.1.1. Example: 1. I have been learning for three hours. 2. He has been listening for one year. 3. They have been swimming for one hour.

2.6.2. Past perfect continue: Definition: occurred when second past occurred.

2.6.2.1. Example: 1. I had been learning for one hour when my father came home. 2. I had been swimming when my brother came here. 3. I had been tasting for one hour when I have our dinner.

2.6.3. Future perfect continue: Definition: happening when another future happen.

2.6.3.1. Example: 1. I will have been swimming for two hours by the time you arrive. 2. I will have been learning for one hours by the time you begin. 3. He will have been driving for two hours by the time I arrive.

3. Adjectives and Adverbs

3.1. Definition: Adjective and adverbs are modify and change the words they are describing

3.2. Adjective

3.2.1. Describe noun and pronoun( describe person , place or thing)

3.2.2. Example: 1. I was shocked. ( "shocked " is the predicate adjective, and "was" is the non-action verb.) Other non-action verbs are "look", "sound", "feel", "taste"and "smell". 2. I was surprised. 3. I was quiet.

3.3. Adverbs

3.3.1. Describe or modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs

3.3.2. Example: 1. Dad cautiously lifted his bowl. ( "cautiously" is the adverb) other adverb in story are : often, always, sometimes, finally and still. 2. Grandpa sometimes laughed.3. Mother woke me carefully.

3.3.3. Place an adverb between a verb and its object

3.3.4. Example: Incorrect:My mother helped often her sister borrow things. Correct: My mother often helped her sister borrow things.

3.3.5. Auxiliary+ verb, adverbs should take place between two verbs.

3.3.6. Example: 1.This new dress had always been dirty by my brother. 2.My new bowl is always broken by him. 3. My clothes are always been dirtied by my sister.

3.4. Why adjectives and adverbs are very useful for us? Because adjectives and adverbs change and modify the words that they describe. And in our life there are many important words describe bu them!

4. Roots, Prefixes and Suffixes.

4.1. Roots : Based on "Latin" Borrow from : Greek, French, German, Italian and Spanish

4.2. Prefixes: always use for change meaning of words

4.3. Example: 1: dis- not 2: im, ir, in- not. 3: re-again 4: inter- between 5: multi-many

4.4. Example Additional prefixes: 1: ante- before. 2: bene- well 3: bi-two 4: co, com, col- together 5: un- not 6: trans-across

4.5. Suffixes: add to the end of a root

4.6. Example: 1.professional=profess+ nal 2. International= internation+ nal 3. sessional=session+ nal

4.7. Why are roots, prefixes and suffixes are very important for us? Because expanding vocabulary is very important part of our study, and the meaning of prefixes and suffixes are very convenience and very useful.

4.8. Definition: Prefixes and suffixes are sets of letters that are added to the beginning or end of another word. They are not words themselves and cannot exist independently in sentences: if printed separately, there are hyphens before or after them.

5. Active and Passive Voice:

5.1. Active Definition: In most English sentences with action verbs, the subject performs the action represented by a verb.

5.1.1. Example: Active 1. We hired digging crews, masons and florists. Passive1 . The digging crews, masons and florists were hired by us.

5.2. Passive Definition : passive always= verb+past participle. And subject from an active sentence.

5.2.1. Example: Active: Many people watch the TV program. Passive: The TV program is watched by many people.