Media and Information Literacy

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Media and Information Literacy создатель Mind Map: Media and Information Literacy

1. Film + Internet = Youtube

2. TV + Internet = Streaming Media

2.1. Advertising + Social Media = Social Media Influencers

3. Lesson 1: Media in the Context of MIL

3.1. What to Expect in Your MIL Course

3.1.1. MIL Thematic Coverage Differentiation of Media Literacy and Information Literacy Media and Information Sources Media and Information Languages Literacies of 21st century

3.1.2. UNESCO Five Laws of Media Literacy Law 1: Information, communication libraries, media, technology, the Internet as well as other forms of information providers are for use in critical civic engagement and sustainable development. They are equal in stature and none is more relevant than the other. Law 2: Every citizen is a creator of information/knowledge and has a message. They must be empowered to access new information/knowledge and to express themselves. MIL is for all- Women and men equally- and a nexus of human rights. Law 3: Information, knowledge, and messages are not always value neutralor always independant of biases. Any conceptualization, use, and application of MIL should make this truth transparent and understandable to all citizens Law 4: Every citizen wants to know and understand new information, knowledge and messages as well as to communicate, even if she/he is not aware, admits or expresses that he/she does. Her/his rights must however never be compromised. Law 5: Media and information literacy is not acquired at once. It is a lived and dynamic experience and process.It is complete when it includes knowledge, skills, and attitudes, when it covers access, evaluation/assessment, use,production and communication of information, media, and technology content.

3.1.3. The Path to Becoming a Media Information literate Individual Having an Improved quality of life Having greater political participation Having better economic opportunities Creating an improved learning environment Developing more cohesive social units

3.2. Deconstructing Media

3.2.1. From Information to Communication When one gets an idea, either they wite it or immediately tell everybody your idea, That idea becomes information and if that idea was told to your friends, classmates, etc. it becomes a information spread or/ and communication process. The Communication Process From a sender, a message is delivered using a channel to reach the reciever The Feedback Mechanism a reaction or a response to a particular process or activity

3.2.2. Mass Media and Mass Communication Mass media- a media outlet is used to disseminate a piece of information to a large audience Mass communication- The process of spreading information in wide manner. Spreading one-way type of information toward a huge audience Media as an Information Industry Media is a channel, the concern of being a channel is to primarily disseminate information to a wide audience. Even the information from the farthest part of the world can be heard and seen if one uses media. Media as a Culture of Entertainment Media is not only a channel of information but also of entertainment. Using different cultures from all around the globe, Some parts of the culture became popular amongst not only from the countrymen of that country but also foreigners as well.

3.3. Types of Media

3.3.1. Traditional Media It covers the kinds of media that were introduced to the market prior to the invention of the internet

3.3.2. New Media Refers to media that developed when the use of computer technology. It also refers to a different or a newer way of creating, processing, and transmitting information that is also similar to traditional media. Also known as the "Digital media"

3.4. Current and Future Trends of Media and Information

3.4.1. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) They are courses designed for large number of participant that can be accesed by anyone, anywhere as long as they have Internet connection, are open ton everyone without entry,and offer full/complete courses expertise online for free.

3.4.2. Wearable Technology Mobile Technology that can be worn.

3.4.3. 3-D Environment Focuses on rendering flat two-dimensional things into a fuller real-world dimensional shape.

3.4.4. Ubiquitous Learning Defined as learning with its use of mobile and wireless technologies.

3.4.5. Other Related and Emerging Technologies of Media Convergence Gaming Technologies Virtual Reality Augmented Reality 360-degree Photo/ Video Mixed Reality

3.5. The Evolution of Traditional Media to New Media

3.5.1. Prehistoric Age Oral Traditions are the basic ancestor of information and communication flow. Early human beings were able to communicate through writing symbols or drawing crude pictures. Tribal cultures used materials they found in nature to record their existence. Formal-looking recordings could be found in Ancient Mesapotamia. Those were the clay and stone tablets that has some form of symbolic impressions. An example would be the "Code of Hammurabi" that was dated back in 1772 BCE that contains written laws and codes of the Babylonian King named Hammurabi, who ruled during those ancient times. Papyrus and other forms of writing tools was discovered by ancient Egyptians. this eventually led to invention of paper. Paper led to invention of handwritten books that were developed and marketed into consumer items. Woodblock printing was developed around 200 CE in East Asia when Chinese and Koreans "wrote" letters by using and pressing it on the paper like a stamp. In 1040, Movable type is invented replacing the woodblocks. In 1453, German goldsmith Johann Gutenberg created a better version of the movable type of printing press. It was the most important contribution on revolutionizing the printing press.

3.5.2. Industrial Age Newspapers were developed soon after the mass-producing priter press. A lot of events affected due to the invention of newspapers The first newspaper was printed in the late 1590's in Western Europe. In 1690, the form of media reached America The first newspaper advertisement appeared in 1704. Magazines were invented in 1741 The American Constitution was enshrined on paper in 1790 The precursor of newspaper is the proliferation of politically ripe printed pamphlets in Europe during 1500s Frenchman Louise Daguerre invented a daguerreotype system of capturing images in flat copper plate sheets in 1839. This was the precursor of the Polaroid. George Eastman invented the first easy-to-use handheld camera called the Kodak camera in 1888. In 1844, telegraph was invented by Samuel Morse. In 1876, the telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell The phonograph was invented by Thomas Edison in 1877 but was unsuccessful. The person who managed to create a music and sound recording system was Emile Berliner with the invention of gramophone. Gramophone was improved when Elridge Johnson invented the motor system Thomas Edison invented the incandescent light bulb that was a huge contribution to film. He also invented the kinetoscope single-viewer film system. The french brothers Auguste and Louise Lumiere made the first public commercial screening of a film "L'Arivee d'un Train en Gare dela Ciotat (Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat Station)" in a Paris cafe in 1895. They used their invention cinematographe. The following year,they opened the first cinema theatre. All of the innovation of radio were improved by Guglielmo Marconi in America in 1894 for he recognized the commercial viability of the radio system. From the combined inventions of the telegraph and telephone, they worked on the precursor of the modern-day radio. Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell xperimented with radio waves in1873. German physicist Heinrich Hertz demonstrated the first transmission of radio waves in 1887. Individually, Frenchman Edourd Branly and English physicist Oliver Lodge worked on improving radio wave frequency transmissions of both the transmitter and receiver technologies It was first used in maritime industry until it was used for communication and information in WW1. After, it became commercial Its entertainment value was explored at the beginning of 1920s American Philo Farnsworth created the first television transmittal of a picture in 1927. He got a patent in 1930. And then in 1934, he publicly demonstrated the early prototype of the television. It became a huge part of WW2

3.5.3. Electronic Age The development of fax machine and celphone made the telegraph die out Mass media took its full effect with the development of the broadcast industry. It developed vinyl records, track players and cassette tapes then developed in compact disks (CDs) Sony Walkman and Sony Discman was also created. VHS and VCDs and DVDs were invented during this age.

3.5.4. New Information or Digital Age It refers to our current age wherein information is still seen as a commodity, yet it is mode of recording, storage, delivery, and playback relies heavily on digital technology. In 1900s, computer system was created. Due to efforts of the American government, Internet was invented. Steve Jobs and and Steve Wozniak of Apple frame, the IBM company and lastly Bill Gates of Windows were introducing hardwares and softwares during 1970s and 1980s This age turned chemical-based single lens reflex (SLR) into DSLR making it digital. This age Ipod was also created making Audio digital and can be brought anywhere. Journalism also went digital.

3.6. Brief History of Philippine Media

3.6.1. Precolonial Traces The ancestors of the Philippines created an ancient alphabet called baybayin The closest to having a broadcast system of information during this period is umalohokan or the town crier. The umalokhan's major role was to announce important information to different barangays that concern them. It was also said that the umalokhan are the peacemaker since they were people used to settle arguments within the barangay.

3.6.2. The Print Industry and Filipino Freedom Spanish Colonialism The Spaniards brought books, magazines, and newspapers into the Philippines, printed in a language that not everybody can understand. This created a social class divide which divided the educated and the "ignorant" class. They also withheld the access of early forms of media, keeping the Filipinoes in the dark about their ruling. Del Superior Govierno- first newspaper in the country that was created for spaniards only that was established in 1811 La Solidaridad- one of the first newspapers in the country and was published by Filipino authors. Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo- novels created by Dr. Jose Rizal that criticizes the Spanish rule which created a spark for revolutions American Colonialism Created newspaper known today, "The Manila Times" (1898) and the "Manila Bulletin" (1900) Instead of doing what the spaniards did, the Americans taught Filipinos how to read, speak, and understand English Japanese Colonalism The Filipinos had a media censorship when selected newspapers were allowed to run under tight content control. Underground media operated until the country was liberated from Japanese Post- Imperialism Ever since,Filipinoes now have a watchdog function of media to know what happens in the government. But it all changed during Martial Law Ferdinand Marcos suppressed press freedom and allowed newspapers that are only pro-dictatorship and pro-government Other journalists went undergroand and on the run constantly but still informs the people of the information needed by the Filipinos As a way of informing the public without getting attention, a lifestyle magazine, Mr. and Mrs. published articles related to the assasination of Sen. Benigno Aquino Sr. Entertainment Liwayway Magazines- 1st Filipino-language magazine. Published in early 1900's Jingle Songhits- a Magazine in 1970s and 80s which feature music lyrics and chords. It was a trend to buy a foreign magazine franchise from another country then coming out a local version of it. Cosmopolitan was one of them. The publisher of Cosmopolitan, Summit Media started eliminating print versions of magazines to go digital Jose Rizal was even the first comic published cartoonist of the Philippines. His cartoon was a "Matsing at Pagong" comic strip.

3.6.3. The European Film Import The cinematic film camera and projector invention of the Lumiere Brothers reached the Philippines by importation of a Spanish soldier "Dalagang Bukid" is the very 1st Filipino-produced film(1919). It actually came from a musical staged play created by Hermogenes Ilagan Jose Nepumoceno who made the "Dalagang Bukid" film, got the title of "Father of Philippine Cinema During the Japanese Invation, the Japanese made propaganda films and tapped Filipino directors and actors to make them. One of the films is the "Dawn of Freedom" (1944) which highlighted the World War 2 aim of the Japanese of "Asia for Asians". The Golden Age of Philippine Cinema started right after the invasion of Japanese. Manuel Conde, one of the film pioneers, was the 1st to bring an asian film to the prestigious international film festivals, with his film "Ghengis Khan". The Big 4 Film Productions in local are LVN Studios, Premiere Productions, Lebran, and Sampaguita Pictures. During the time of Marcos, Film was one of the most heavily-censored media, going so far as to even change the names of their films if the President or First Lady found them offensive. Now, the most famous film productions would be Star Cinema and GMA Films.

3.6.4. The Broadcast Industry During the cllonial Spanish period of the late 1800s, the British company Eastern Extension was granted permission to place submarine telegraph cables from Hong Kong to Manila via the province of Bolinao, Pangasinan. In 1890, the 1st telephone system of the country began its operations. When the Americans took over colonial rule, they also tookover the operations of these telephone and telegraph systems until they handed it to the local colonial governments during the early 1900's Early Radio Broadcasts experiments began in the 1920s Henry Herman is the first person to operate a radio stationin 1922 which became KZKZ and created the "Radio Corporation of the Philippines". The oldest radio is DZRH which was first named KZRH in 1939. During Japanese Invasion, the radio was used for propaganda purposes The Philippine Broadcast System (PBS) was created by the government during the post-war to educate Filipino farmers. Francisco "Koko" Trinidad is the "Father of Philippine Radio", oversaw and developed this type of distance learning system of instructional programs to benefit the listening-learning Television came into the picture when an American engineer, James Lindenberg, established Bolinao Electronics Corporation(BEC) in 1946. Hoping to get a license for his percieved television station, the Philippine Congress granted it in 1950. But he was hampered by various cast and other import rulings that he ended up abandoning his television dream. Judge Antonio Quirino has also dreamed of having a television corporation but Congress denied him of television license since they feared that he will use the new medium to promote his brother's reelection bid that was President Elpidio Quirino. Judge Quirino bought majority of stocks from Lindenberg and became the CEO of BEC station. He renamed BEC to "Alto Broadcasting System" (ABS). The Radio Corporation of America (RCA), the leading broadcast company in the US, eventually helped Judge Quirino in establishing DZAQ-TV Channel 3 which aired the very first television broadcast in the Philippines in 1953. RCA also trained the very first television practitioners of the country. The Roces Family of "The Manila Times" established DZTM-TV Channel 5 in 1962. Former war correspondent and radio entrepreneur established DZBB AM radio station in 1950. Then 11 years later, he established DZBB-TV Channel owned by his Republic Broadcasting System, renamed as Greater Manila Area Television Arts (GMA-7) during marcos dictatorship. Television was a halt during Martial Law. Cardinal Sin went live on Radio Veritas to support military officials that are going against martial law. It became to be the People Power Revolution. The networks are still in business and still broadcasting even till now.

3.6.5. Local Online Media The Philippines got Internet Connectionon March 1994 through the efforts of PHNET or Philippine Network Foundation, a consortium of various academic institutions, private companies, and government agencies. A few commercial companies also belonged in the consortium. In August 1994, the first commercial Internet service provider was launched by Mosaic Communication or MosCom, making it possible for Filipinos to go online. The first Philippine-based precursor of the local online forum called the Bulletin Board System (BBS) was established in 1986. In early 1990s, e-mail communication was introduced in the Philippines. Philippines was named "Social Media Capital of the Philippines" in 2011

4. Lesson 2: Understanding Media: Aesthetics of the Image, Text, and Audio

4.1. Framing and Reading

4.1.1. Newspapers and Journalism News is defined as "the communication of information on current events via print, broadcast, Internet, or word of mouth to a third party or mass audience." Since its root word is "new", it is obvious that the kind of information one needs to communicate in this context should have this element of freshness or newness. we read this news items in a newspaper, defined as "a regularly scheduled publication containing news, information and advertising, usually printed on relatively inexpensive, low-grade paper such as newsprint." Journalism is defined as "the collecting, writing, editing, and presenting of news in newspapers, magazines, radio and television broadcasts, or the Internet" and concerns the discipline as well as the business of news creation.

4.1.2. Books, Comics, Magazines, and the Publishing Industry Literature covers books that usually involve fictional or true-to-life stories of the human condition like novels, novelletes, a collection or anthology of short stories, essays, memoirs, and the like. Trade books are the more expensive books usuallyprinted on the glossier type of paper with hardbound covers.There are also picture books, children's books, art books, and many others. Sometimes, language is a major determinant of what kinds kinds of books are bought by specific types of readers The comics format is usually designed into panels, where the visual drawings are similar to how you would see scenes of movies, or TV shows. They are cheap, acessible, colorful, and high entertaining that is part of Filipino pop culture The magazine is also a format popular among adults and teens alike. Somewhat an intersection of the newspaper, book, and comics, a typical magazine contains printed stories or essays, illustrations and photographs, and pages of advertising content.

4.1.3. Photography and Timeless Image Concepts Photograpy, as originally defined, is "the process of recording images through a chemical interaction caused by light rays hitting a sensitized surface" referring to the celluloid film known before as the negative. In the age of digital photography, however, this process of recording imageshappens when the image is captured or encoded as electronic signals, stored in the camera system's memory storage unit, and later decoded as digital computer image files.

4.1.4. Framing means to construct, compose, or imagine something, meaning to create with a solid plan to follow using a specific structure in mind.

4.2. Framing and Listening

4.2.1. Radio and Evoking Imagination Radio became one of most popular form of media because it can reach even the most remote parts of the world and very cheap so that in any social classes can use it. Another advantage is that you can listen to the radio whilst doing something else. It has become a "background" of ur daily lives. Because of that reason, radio writers and producers strive to catch attention of people. Nowadays, Radio tend to use bradcasters that have exagerrated manners of speaking and delivering a message. Because radio tries and succeeds in capturing people's attention by making the listener imagine.

5. Lesson 3: Understanding Media: Aesthetics of Film and TV

5.1. The Film Form

5.1.1. Modes of Film Production Preproduction This is where all the planning stages of a film are made before actually making the film. This involves developing the concept of the film until it becomes a full-blown film script or screen play. Producing concerns, Casting, the other workers of film, the visualization of the film, are also planned and hired in this mode. Production This concerns actual shooting of the film and is also called the "Principal Photography Phase" (refering to the origins of film in photography). Postproduction This is where everything will be put together: the images shot will be edited together; the music will be composed, recorded, and laid out with edited images; and the special effects or other graphics requirements will be put in the film.

5.1.2. Film Formats Narrative It is fictional in nature, meaning the characters and situations were made upby the film's scriptwriter The closer a story's reality is to viewer's reality, the more universal a film would appear, making it more endearing to film viewers anywhere. Documentary It is non-fictional or factual characters and situations in the film. Usually a documentary film is made to present a specific issue or societal concern to its viewers. Sometimes, the documentary film carries some form ofadvocacy wherein specific problems associated with social justice issue presented, elaborated, or exposed. The filmmakers hope that by capturing these realities in film, they will be ableto elicit support for the issues they are advocating or the cause they are trying to put forth. Animated Any nonmoving thing, object, or even person could be animated or shot to later appear to move. Animation encompasses the frame-by-frame shooting and projection of fictional films using puppets, clay figures, drawings or sketches, shadows, and now cmputer-generated images or characters. Experimental It tries to play around with the physicality of the film form, the shooting styles, the production process, and the concept.

5.1.3. Film Image Compositions It is also called "film language" when a film uses audio or visual cues to alert viewers of certain things, especially symbolism. Visual symbolisms and cues are still most effective way of delivering the message to an audience. in film, this is communicated through the elements of composition. The Elements The relationship of objects and people The play of light and dark The colors and their patterns The position of camera and the angles used to frame the subjects

5.1.4. Motion Framing Concepts When a camera moves, It may produce a variety of emotional effects that could impact the way we are watching the scene. An examle of this is a follow shot (it gives us impression that we are stalking that person), a pan shot (camera swivels horizontally, left to right or vice versa), and a tilt shot (camera swivels vertically in place, up to down or vice versa)

5.1.5. Film was earlier called "moving pictures" since its precursor, Photography, carried with it still (non-moving) pictures. Later this was shortened into "movies." Cinema refers to specific bodies of work in film that carry specific thematic topics.

5.1.6. When It comes to length, film usually comes in two formats: the short film and the feature-length or full-length film. A short film is a film with a total running time of less than one hour. If it exceeds one hour and lasts up to two or three hours (sometimes even longer), then that is already considered as a full-length film.

5.2. The TV Broadcast

5.2.1. Kinds of TV Shows Informative Programming Entertainment Programming

5.2.2. TV Show Anatomy and Advertising In any kind of programming format, a key element of how a TV show is designed centers on the way the show's content could be subdivided into segments. An example wuuld be breaking down a one-hour drama series to give way to advertisements that sponsored the show, giving us the terms "commercial gap" or "commercial break."

5.2.3. The difference pf film and TV is that TV is more stable and unending supply of conent.

5.2.4. TV Stations should have an endless supply of TV shows to include in their regular programing. From the moment they start the broadcast day (usually 5 a.m.) until they signed off (usually after midnight), there should be a daily line-up of shows which people would tune in to watch. This is the reality for the so-called free TV stations (free-to-air) or those stations which broadcast from a signal frequency which any regular antenna could capture.

5.2.5. The same is true for the UHF stations' programming or those stations which require a slightly higher frequency to broadcast, therefore needing more powerful antennas to capture

5.2.6. Since TV programs are widely accessible to all kinds of audiences at any given time, the quality of shows need to be suitable for a general audience.

5.3. Crafting Audiovisual Media Messages

5.3.1. Creating Meaning in Audio Production The Audio of background sound as well as the dialogue between the characters enhances the reality presented in the story. The importance of audio is not only for the entertainment but also for the informative side to give the important news a more convincing and friendly tone so that people can take it seriously but not be frightened by the reporter,

5.3.2. Creating Meaning in Image Production People are generally visual-minded, so to catch attention the crew should give attention to the color combinations, lighting, balance, framing, and the expressions of the character.

5.3.3. Creating Meaning in Audiovisual Production In audiovisual production, the first logic is the audio makes us see the believability of the show. The second logic is that visual makes us react to what we see or watch. Combining the both correctly can lead to a positively viewed movie (if the plot is great) while if incorrectly, it might affect the positivity and make a negatively outpu, making the viewers unhappy.

6. Lesson 4: Understanding Media: Aesthetics of New Media and Social Media

6.1. Deconstructing New Media

6.1.1. New Media Technology: Convergence and Characteristics In most of the creative industries today, traditional media and new media exist and are utilized side by side. The key to these newer forms of ICTs is the convergence of systems and functions. Analog systems of traditional media are now being upgraded into digital systems. in order to produce better quality media content. New media systems also make it easier to duplicate, store, and distribute these media content worldwide

6.1.2. New Media as Multimedia Multimedia originally pertained to the way a single product can contain several forms of media content. New Media created products that acts this way.

6.1.3. New Media Transitions: From Synergy to Transmedia Synergy pertains to maximizing the economic within its conglomerate. Transmedia is about creating another different media from the original media. For example, Pokemon Go from the famous cartoon, Pokemon.

6.1.4. Transitioning Media, Transitioning Users Media theorists have identified two types of audiencesliving in the digital age: the digital native and the digital immigrant. Digital native means "those that have inhabited the terrain of the Internet from childhood; they are those who have never known a world without e-mail, mobile phones and texting. They tend to be impressive multitaskers, jugglers of information in all forms and from all sources." Digital Immigrants came lately to net communication, their handwriting having taken place in an age dominated by single one-at-a-time source materials such as books.

6.1.5. New Media technologies usually encompass two forms: the web-based applications or those you access by going online with laptops or desktop computers, and the mobile applications which pertain to accessing online information via a mobile device.

6.2. Deconstructing Social Media

6.2.1. What is Social Networking? Networking means a supportive system of sharing information and services among individuals and groups having a similar interest. Social Networking pertains to the online platforms that connect different people in your networks.

6.2.2. Kind of Social Media and Its Varying Uses Print-based It hones in on the power of immediate and often uncensored publication of thoughts in new media platforms. An example of print-based would be an app/site called "Twitter" Audio-based It is for those who want free or subscription-based music streaming services. An example would be the app/site "Spotify" Photo-based These are the social media where people usually publish photos of events in their life. An example would be the app/site "Instagram" Video-based these are the social media that lets you upload videos and watch them in the Internet. An example of this would be the app/site called "Youtube" Social Networking sites These are sites that enables you to connect with other people. It is also multimedia. An example would be "Facebook" Call and Chat-based Apps that could be used to send text messages in chat form. An example would be "Messenger"

6.2.3. Relevance of Social Media in Today's Society Personal Communications Business and Customer Care Tools Social services and Governance Entertainment Portals

6.3. Ggg

6.3.1. Journal + Internet = Blogging

6.3.2. Broadcasting + Internet = Podcast

7. The essential competencies (knowledge, skills, and attitudes) that allow citizens to engage effectively with media and other information providers and develop critical thinking and lifelong learning skillsfor socializing and becoming active citizens.