Learning Design and Technology by Ng Yan Kit (2008136532)

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Learning Design and Technology by Ng Yan Kit (2008136532) создатель Mind Map: Learning Design and Technology by Ng Yan Kit (2008136532)

1. Topic 1: Design of Learning/Instructional Products

1.1. History

1.1.1. Tool/Medium

1.1.1.1. visualization

1.1.1.2. Audiovisual movement

1.1.1.2.1. Audio visual instruction

1.1.1.2.2. educational technology

1.1.1.2.3. instructional technology

1.1.1.2.4. instruction media

1.1.1.2.5. computer

1.1.2. Paradigm Shift

1.1.2.1. instructional to non-instruction

1.1.3. Instructional practice

1.1.4. traditional VS contemporary

1.1.4.1. tradition

1.1.4.1.1. mediam

1.1.4.1.2. learning theory

1.1.4.2. comtemporary

1.1.4.2.1. medium

1.1.4.2.2. learning theory

1.2. Systematic instruction

1.3. Instructional product

1.4. Instructional design

1.4.1. instructional designer

1.5. Project management

2. Topic 8: Designing Learning Technology for Mobile Learning

2.1. Categories

2.1.1. Administrative

2.1.1.1. Calenders

2.1.1.2. Contact

2.1.1.3. Grading

2.1.1.4. Sample Application

2.1.1.4.1. Due Yesterday Student Organiser

2.1.1.4.2. Palm Gradebook Assistant

2.1.1.4.3. Moodle ( on iPhone)

2.1.1.4.4. TaskAnt (iPhone app)

2.1.1.5. Pedagogical underpinning

2.1.1.5.1. Little

2.1.2. Referential

2.1.2.1. Dictionary

2.1.2.2. Word Processor & Office Style Tools

2.1.2.3. E-Books

2.1.2.4. Sample Applications

2.1.2.4.1. Documents-to-Go

2.1.2.4.2. Apple ibook

2.1.2.4.3. Adobe Reader

2.1.2.4.4. Word Lens (iPhone app)

2.1.2.4.5. Wikipedia (iPhone app)

2.1.2.4.6. iTunes U

2.1.2.4.7. Apple page ( iOS app)

2.1.2.5. Pedagogical underpinning

2.1.2.5.1. Instructional

2.1.3. Interactive

2.1.3.1. Drill and Test

2.1.3.2. Animation

2.1.3.3. Graphing

2.1.3.4. Wireless Response Technology

2.1.3.5. Sample Application

2.1.3.5.1. Sketchy

2.1.3.5.2. KidPad

2.1.3.5.3. Geometer's Sketchpad

2.1.3.5.4. Study Cards

2.1.3.5.5. Classroom Performance System

2.1.3.5.6. Draw something (iPhone app)

2.1.3.6. Pedagogical underpinning

2.1.3.6.1. Constructionist

2.1.4. Microworld

2.1.4.1. Models of Real World Domains

2.1.4.2. Sample Application

2.1.4.2.1. uDrumSteps

2.1.4.2.2. Carom Billiards

2.1.4.2.3. Chess game

2.1.4.3. Pedagogical underpinning

2.1.4.3.1. Constructionist

2.1.5. Data collection

2.1.5.1. Note Taking

2.1.5.1.1. Evernotes

2.1.5.2. Sensor Reading

2.1.5.3. Data Logging

2.1.5.4. Scientific Application

2.1.5.5. Multimedia Application

2.1.5.5.1. Clubbhouse Digital Narrative

2.1.5.5.2. RAMSES

2.1.5.6. Reflective Application

2.1.5.6.1. RAMBLE

2.1.5.7. Pedagogical underpinning

2.1.5.7.1. Little Pedagogy

2.1.5.7.2. Contextual

2.1.5.7.3. Reflective

2.1.5.7.4. Constructivist

2.1.6. Location aware

2.1.6.1. Museum Guides

2.1.6.2. Augmented Environment

2.1.6.2.1. Stelleriaum

2.1.6.3. Sample Application

2.1.6.3.1. The Exploratorium GuideBook

2.1.6.3.2. FieldNote

2.1.6.3.3. Ambient Wood

2.1.6.4. Pedagogical underpinning

2.1.6.4.1. Little Pedagogy

2.1.6.4.2. Behaviourist

2.1.6.4.3. Constructivist

2.1.6.4.4. Contextual

2.1.7. Collaborative

2.1.7.1. Co-Present Games

2.1.7.2. Collaborative Environment

2.1.7.3. Sample Application

2.1.7.3.1. Txt IT

2.1.7.3.2. Sort IT

2.1.7.3.3. Moodle

2.1.7.3.4. Mapping Challenge

2.1.7.3.5. Syllabus

2.1.7.3.6. Cooties

2.1.7.3.7. Savannth

2.1.7.4. Pedagogical underpinning

2.1.7.4.1. Collaborative

2.1.7.4.2. Contextual

2.1.7.4.3. Constructivist

2.1.7.4.4. Constructionist

2.2. Learning Theory/Padgogical underpinning

2.2.1. Contextual Learning

2.2.2. Constructivist Learning

2.2.3. Collaborative Learning

2.2.4. Behaviourist

2.2.5. Instructional

2.2.6. Constructionist

2.2.7. identified most appropriate of these

2.2.7.1. Collaboration

2.2.7.2. Contextualization

2.2.7.3. Constructionism

2.2.7.4. Constructivism

2.3. Platform

2.3.1. PDA

2.3.1.1. Microsoft CE

2.3.1.2. Microsoft windows phone 7

2.3.1.3. Palm OS

2.3.1.4. Symbian OS

2.3.1.5. iOS

2.3.1.6. Android

2.4. Learning Object

2.4.1. ebook

2.4.2. Apps

2.4.3. Podcasts

2.5. Unique attribute

2.5.1. tend to replicate traditional application

2.5.2. more creative

2.5.3. on spot reflection

2.5.4. Appropriate and innovative use

2.5.4.1. Data colleciton

2.5.4.2. Location aware

2.5.4.3. Collaborative

2.6. Design Framework

2.6.1. Driven by pedagogical consideration

2.6.2. Misconception

2.6.2.1. Driven by financial

2.6.2.2. Driven by logistical

2.6.2.3. Driven by technical reason

2.6.3. Categorising

3. Topic 2: Instructional Design Models

3.1. Learning theory

3.1.1. Definition

3.1.1.1. explanation for observation made

3.1.1.2. explains and predicts behaviour

3.1.1.3. never establish beyond all doubt

3.1.1.4. maybe modifed

3.1.1.5. seldom disproved completely

3.1.2. example

3.1.2.1. Behavorism

3.1.2.1.1. Based on observable change in behavior (Schuman, 1996)

3.1.2.1.2. Focuses on a new behavioral pattern being repeated until it become automatic (Schuman, 1996)

3.1.2.1.3. Learning objective

3.1.2.1.4. Taxonomic Analysis of Learning Behavior

3.1.2.1.5. Systems Approach to Instruction

3.1.2.1.6. break down task into small step and find the shaping learner's behaviour

3.1.2.1.7. Weakness

3.1.2.1.8. Strength

3.1.2.2. Cognitivism

3.1.2.2.1. Based on the premise construct our own perspective of the world (Schuman, 1996)

3.1.2.2.2. Through individual experience and schema (Schuman, 1996)

3.1.2.2.3. Prepare learners to problem solved in ambiguous situation (Schuman, 1996)

3.1.2.2.4. Shift from behavioristic practices to internal mental processes of the mind

3.1.2.2.5. Break down task into smaller step to develop instruction from simple to complex

3.1.2.2.6. Evidence

3.1.2.2.7. Computer-based instruction

3.1.2.2.8. Weakness

3.1.2.2.9. strength

3.1.2.3. Constructivism

3.1.2.3.1. Based on the thought process behind the behavior (Schuman, 1996)

3.1.2.3.2. What is happening inside learner's mind after change in behaviour (Schuman, 1996)

3.1.2.3.3. Shifting to Construction

3.1.2.3.4. Limitation

3.1.2.3.5. Implication

3.1.2.3.6. Constructivist VS objectivist

3.1.2.3.7. suggest to Model

3.1.2.3.8. Weakness

3.1.2.3.9. Strength

3.2. Model

3.2.1. Definition

3.2.1.1. mental picture help us understand something we cannot see or experience directly ( Dorin, Demmini & Gabel, 1990)

3.2.2. example

3.2.2.1. Linear Model by Dick & Carey (1990 )

3.2.2.2. Spiral Model by Romiszowsi (1981)

3.2.2.3. Rapid Prototyping Model by Tripp & Bichelmeyer (1990)

3.2.2.4. Oval Model by Kemp (1985)

3.2.2.5. Top-to-Bottom Model by Braden (1996)

3.2.3. Technology instructive model

3.2.3.1. Drill and Practice

3.2.3.2. Computer based tutorial

3.2.3.3. intelligent tutorial system

3.2.3.4. Gange's 9-events of instruction

3.2.3.4.1. 1. Gaining Attention

3.2.3.4.2. 2. Informing the Learner of the objective

3.2.3.4.3. 3. Stimulating Recall of Prerequisite Learned Capabilities

3.2.3.4.4. 4. Presenting the Stimulus Material

3.2.3.4.5. 5. Providing Learning Guidance

3.2.3.4.6. 6. Eliciting the Performance

3.2.3.4.7. 7. Providing Feedback

3.2.3.4.8. 8. Assessing Performace

3.2.3.4.9. 9. Enhancing retention and transfer

3.2.3.4.10. self instruction and self learner

3.2.3.4.11. Function of instructional events

3.2.3.5. Reusable Learning Objects

3.2.4. Technology constructivist model

3.3. Conclusion

3.3.1. Objective approach

3.3.1.1. anchor for learner

3.3.1.2. Training VS Education

3.3.2. Advancement in technology

3.3.2.1. branched constructivist

3.3.3. Increasing number of theoretical application

3.3.4. Increasing number of physical possibilities

3.3.5. limitation of learning theory

3.3.5.1. mix and match/compare

3.3.5.1.1. old

3.3.5.1.2. new

3.3.5.1.3. compare

3.3.6. Criteria for hypermedia learning

3.3.6.1. exploration of relevant learning theories

3.3.7. Learning theory

4. Group project

4.1. ADDIE Model

4.1.1. Analysis

4.1.1.1. Instructional goal and objectve

4.1.2. Design

4.1.2.1. Learning objective

4.1.2.2. Assessment instrument

4.1.2.3. Content

4.1.2.4. Subject matter analysis

4.1.2.5. Lesson planning

4.1.2.6. Media selection

4.1.3. Development

4.1.3.1. Storyboard

4.1.3.2. Prototyping

4.1.4. Implementation

4.1.5. Evalution

4.1.5.1. Formative assessment

4.1.5.2. Summative assessment

4.2. CISCO reusable learning object

5. Topic 3: Designing Instructional / Learning Technology Product 1

5.1. Define a Goal

5.2. Conduct Instructional Analysis (Performance, Task, Content Analysis

5.2.1. Analysis of job description

5.2.2. Analysis of job-related documents

5.2.3. Observation of people at work

5.2.4. Discussion with people about specific jobs

5.2.5. Extrapolation of task from customer's started trainning

5.3. Analyze Learners and Context

5.4. Write Performance/Learners objectivies

5.4.1. Performance objective

5.4.2. Instructional objectives

5.4.3. Behavior objective

5.4.4. Specific Instructional objectives

5.4.5. Learning outcome

5.5. Develop Assessment Strategy

5.5.1. Drill and practice

5.5.2. Essay

5.5.3. Problem solving

5.5.4. Task

5.6. Develop Instructional Strategy

5.7. Arrange Instructional Events

5.7.1. Gain attent

5.8. Multimedia learning

5.8.1. Occurance

5.8.1.1. Student build mental representation from words and picture

5.8.2. Promise

5.8.2.1. Student can learn more deeply

5.8.2.2. verbal only method is not always working well

5.8.3. Multi media effect

5.8.4. Coherence effect

5.8.5. Spatial contiguity effect

5.8.6. personalization effect

5.8.7. Conclusion

5.8.7.1. instructional design promote deeper learning in one media enviroment

5.8.7.1.1. promote deep learning in other media

5.8.7.2. Principle of instructional design do no change when learning environment change

5.8.7.3. Learner-centered approach

5.8.7.3.1. nature of human

5.8.7.4. based on cognitive theory of multimedia

5.8.7.5. design depend on understanding of human mind

5.9. Instructional design system 4C

5.9.1. 1. Learning task

5.9.2. 2. Supportive information

5.9.3. 3. Just -in-tIme (JIT) information

5.9.4. 4. Part-task practice

6. Topic 4: Designing Intructional/Learning Technology Product 2

6.1. Problem based learning

6.1.1. Constructivism

6.1.1.1. 1. Understanding is in our interactions with the environment

6.1.1.2. 2. Cognitive conflict or puzzlement is the stimulus for learning and determines the organization and nature of what is learned

6.1.1.3. 3. Knowledge evolves through social negotiation and through the evaluation of the viability of individual understanding

6.1.2. Instructional Principles

6.1.2.1. 1. Anchor all learning activities to a larger task or problem

6.1.2.2. 2. Support the learner in developing ownership for the overall problem or task

6.1.2.3. 3. Design an authentic task

6.1.2.4. 4. Design the task and learning environment to reflect the complexity of the environment they should be able to function in at the end of learning

6.1.2.5. 5. Give the learner ownership of the process used to develop a solution

6.1.2.6. 6. Design the learning environment to support and challenge the learner's thinking

6.1.2.7. 7. Encouraging testing ideas against alternative views and alternative contexts

6.1.2.8. 8. Provide opportunity for and support reflection on both the content learned and the learning process

6.1.3. Problem-based learning process

6.1.3.1. examination of own learning environmnet

6.1.3.2. Opportunity of reflect learner's belief

6.1.3.3. student generate learning objective

6.1.3.4. self-directed learning

6.1.3.4.1. no assigned text

6.1.3.4.2. evaluation of resource

6.1.3.4.3. self-evalution

6.1.3.4.4. outside of curriculum structure

6.1.3.4.5. assessment

6.1.3.5. Learning goal

6.1.3.5.1. stimulate by environment

6.1.3.5.2. facilitator model the metacognitive thinking

6.1.3.5.3. Student develop strategy for identify learning issue

6.1.3.6. Limitation

6.1.3.6.1. no guarantee of content area

6.1.3.7. Problem generation

6.1.3.7.1. content domain

6.1.3.7.2. Real problem

6.1.3.8. Problem presentation

6.1.3.8.1. student engage in authentic problem solving

6.1.3.8.2. No highlighting the critical factor

6.1.3.9. Facilitator role

6.1.3.9.1. Small group learning

6.1.3.9.2. tutoring

6.1.3.10. Conclusion

6.1.3.10.1. Goal

6.1.3.10.2. PBL consistent with instruction from construction

6.1.3.10.3. link between theory and practice

6.1.3.10.4. students understanding

6.1.3.10.5. social negotation

6.1.3.10.6. case based approach

6.1.3.10.7. Problem solving

7. Topic 5: Development of a Product

7.1. Multimedia Learning Theory (Mayer, 2003)

7.1.1. Multimedia principle

7.1.1.1. Integrating visual and verbal information in the learning object

7.1.2. Spilt-attention principle

7.1.2.1. words and picture physically integrated

7.1.3. Redundancy principle

7.1.3.1. same information in one format

7.1.4. Modality principle

7.1.4.1. spoken words instead of written

7.1.5. Segmented principle

7.1.5.1. multimedia message presented in students' pace

7.1.6. Pre-training principle

7.1.6.1. familiar name and characteristic of concept to student

7.1.7. Coherence

7.1.7.1. exclude extraneous material

7.1.8. Signaling

7.1.8.1. highlight clue of essentail material

7.2. Four-Component Instructional Design model - 4C/ID model

7.3. Learning by Doing / Case-based Reasoning ( Schank, Berman & MacPhersoon, 1999)

7.3.1. Goal

7.3.2. Mission

7.3.3. Cover Story

7.3.4. Role

7.3.5. Activities

7.3.6. Resources

7.3.7. Feedback

7.4. Kolb Learning Cycle

7.4.1. Active Experimentation

7.4.1.1. Planning/ trying our what you have learned

7.4.2. Concrete Experience

7.4.2.1. Doing/having an experiment

7.4.3. Reflective Obervation

7.4.3.1. Reviewing / reflecting on the experience

7.4.4. Abstract Conceptualization

7.4.4.1. Concluding/ learning from the experience

7.5. Dufour's Learning by Doing

7.5.1. Experience

7.5.1.1. the activity perform do it

7.5.2. Share

7.5.2.1. the result and observation publicly

7.5.3. Process

7.5.3.1. Discussion, looking at experience, analyze, reflect

7.5.4. Genralize

7.5.4.1. connect the experience to real world

7.5.5. Apply

7.5.5.1. learned and similar or different situation

7.6. Resource-based learning

7.6.1. Resources and tools

7.6.2. Activities

7.6.3. Support

7.6.4. Evaluation

7.7. Jonassen's Constructivist Learning Environment (1999)

7.7.1. Constructive

7.7.2. Collaborative

7.7.3. Conversational

7.7.4. Reflective

7.7.5. Contextualized

7.7.6. Complex

7.7.7. Intentional

7.7.8. Activity/Manipulative

7.7.9. Problems structure

7.7.9.1. 1.1 Problem/Project Context

7.7.9.1.1. A.Modeling

7.7.9.2. 1.2 Problem/Project Representation

7.7.9.2.1. B. Coahing

7.7.9.3. 1.3 Problem/Project Manipulation

7.7.9.3.1. C. Scaffolding

7.7.9.4. 2. Related

7.7.9.5. 3. Information

7.7.9.6. 4. Cognitive

7.7.9.7. 5. Conversational

7.7.9.8. 6. Social

7.7.10. Problem types

7.7.10.1. Logical problem

7.7.10.1.1. eg. How can I divide the water in the first jug and second jug using only three jogs

7.7.10.2. Algorithm

7.7.10.2.1. Calculate area of triangle

7.7.10.3. Story Problem

7.7.10.3.1. How long for car A to overtake car B traveling at different speeds

7.7.10.4. Rule-Using Problem

7.7.10.4.1. Row many hours are required to rich the airport to meet my friend, and should i take bus, a taxi of walk

7.7.10.5. Decision-making Problem

7.7.10.5.1. Should i go to study in Australia

7.7.10.6. Troubleshooting Problem

7.7.10.6.1. Troubleshoot inoperative car light

7.7.10.7. Diagnosis-Solution Problem

7.7.10.7.1. Identifying and treating a common cold in your workplace

7.7.10.8. Strategic Performance

7.7.10.8.1. Managing a small team of designers developing a multimedia product

7.7.10.9. Situated Case-Policy Problems

7.7.10.9.1. Plan a visit to a local museum

7.7.10.10. Design Problems

7.7.10.10.1. Design a presentation to promote your school

7.7.10.11. Dilemmas

7.7.10.11.1. Should nuclear power station be build

8. Topic 6: Designing for Concept Learning

8.1. Theoretical perspectives on Collaborative Learning Tools

8.1.1. A Learner-Centered View on Collaborative Technology

8.1.1.1. Cognitive and Metacognitive Factors

8.1.1.2. Motivation and Affective Factors

8.1.1.3. Developmental and Social Factors

8.1.1.4. Individual Differences

8.1.2. A Constructivist View on Collaborative Technology

8.1.3. Sociocultural Views on Collaborative Technology

8.1.4. Zone of Proximal Development

8.1.5. Internalization

8.1.6. Cognitive Apprenticeship

8.1.7. Assisted Learning

8.1.8. Teleapprenticeship

8.1.9. Scaffolded Instruction

8.1.10. Intersubjectivity

8.1.11. Activity Setting as Unit of Analysis

8.1.12. Distributed Intelligence in a Learning Community

8.1.13. Some Sociocultural "Ifs"

8.2. Traditonal Teacher centered model

8.2.1. guiding student

8.2.2. support student

8.3. Shift to Constructive activity of learner

8.4. Human computer interaction

8.4.1. Computer Supported Collaborative learning

8.4.1.1. closer to real world

9. Topic 7: Web 2.0-based Learning Technolgoies

9.1. Definition

9.1.1. Spectrum of emerging novel internet application

9.1.2. Paradigm shift

9.1.2.1. understanding

9.1.2.2. expectation

9.1.3. Advance approach

9.1.3.1. appliation of internet

9.1.4. Retrieve methodology

9.1.4.1. access recommendation from crowd

9.1.4.1.1. "Wisdom of crowd"

9.1.5. Repository

9.1.5.1. Floxonomy

9.1.5.1.1. tag

9.1.5.2. Wiki-like system

9.1.5.3. syndication feed

9.1.5.4. tracking mechanism

9.1.5.5. podcasting

9.1.6. Criticism

9.1.7. Mobile and handheld technology

9.2. Example

9.2.1. Read-Write web

9.2.1.1. Web-based publication

9.2.1.1.1. Blog

9.2.1.1.2. Wiki

9.2.1.2. Create content from user

9.2.2. Subscribing to informatioin

9.2.2.1. RSS Feed

9.2.2.1.1. news

9.2.2.1.2. radio program

9.2.2.2. Reader

9.2.2.3. iTunes

9.2.3. Social Space

9.2.3.1. Myspace

9.2.3.2. Facebook

9.2.3.3. Resource sharing

9.2.3.3.1. Flickr

9.2.3.3.2. Napster

9.2.3.3.3. Youtube

9.2.3.4. Reference system

9.2.3.4.1. del.icio.us

9.2.4. Platform

9.2.4.1. Google Doc

9.2.4.2. Google Sites

9.2.4.3. Microsoft sharepoint

9.2.5. Opensource

9.2.5.1. Moodle

9.2.5.2. Wikipedia

9.2.5.3. honest in their intention of use

9.2.6. Mashup

9.3. Education and Web 2.0

9.3.1. E-learning

9.3.1.1. Podcasting class

9.3.1.2. learning management system

9.3.1.2.1. Moodle

9.3.1.2.2. Blog

9.3.1.3. social space

9.3.2. New form of assessment

9.3.2.1. Digital portfolios

9.3.3. internet social learning space

9.3.4. new model of leanring

9.3.4.1. Multi media expression

9.3.5. new resources sharing model

9.3.6. new learning management system

10. reflection

10.1. Student-centered learning

10.1.1. self directed

10.1.2. opportunity of reflection

10.1.3. difficult to assess

10.2. Mobile learning

10.2.1. at any time any where on spot learning

10.3. Learning theory

10.3.1. Contructivism

10.3.1.1. reflection

10.3.1.2. learner find out the learning outcome

10.3.1.3. learner get lost in internet

10.3.2. behaviourism

10.3.3. cognitivism

10.3.4. no the best one

10.3.4.1. Contextual

10.3.4.2. limitation

10.4. multimedia

10.4.1. focus on learning

10.4.2. principle of cognitive theory

10.4.2.1. channel of human reception

10.5. technology

10.5.1. pedagogical driven instead of technology based

10.5.2. should not be limited by technical view

10.6. Web 2.0

10.6.1. collaborative learning

10.6.2. social cultural context

10.6.2.1. sharing of knowledge

10.6.3. new model of learning

10.6.3.1. sharing

10.6.3.2. learning

10.7. Design model

10.7.1. Addie model

10.7.2. Taxonomoy

10.7.2.1. Bloom's