Change in Culture from 1914 to 2016

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Change in Culture from 1914 to 2016 создатель Mind Map: Change in Culture from 1914 to 2016

1. Cultural Contributions

2. Immigrants from Europe and their descendants greatly influenced the diet in many provinces.

2.1. Settlers and traders from England influenced cuisine in early English Canada in the Maritimes and Southern Ontario, while settlers from France influenced the cuisine of southern Quebec, northern Ontario, and New Brunswick. Scandinavian and Dutch immigrants influenced southwestern regions of Ontario.

2.2. Prairie provinces had immigrants from Ukraine, Germany, and Poland, which led to many culinary changes in diet. Russian immigrants also affected the food culture in the Prairies, as well as British Columbia.

2.3. The Waterloo region in Ontario, and southern Manitoba were influenced by traditional Mennonite and Germanic cookery.

2.4. Maritime provinces' cooking was influenced by British and Irish cooking - a preference for salt-cured fish, beef, and pork. Ontario, Manitoba, and British Columbia still retain similar British cooking traditions.

3. Traditional Aboriginal cuisine of Canada was a mixture of wild game, foraged foods, and farm produce. Each region of Canada with its own First Nations and Inuit people used their local resources and custom preparation techniques.

3.1. Maple syrup, one of the most commonly consumed foods of Aborignal origins, was first used by Aboriginal people from Eastern North America.

3.1.1. Canada is the world's largest producer of maple syrup.

3.2. In western and northwestern Canada, Pacific salmon, as well as other marine mammals, was a main food resource for First Nations peoples. Whipped soapberry is consumed as ice cream or cocktail drink.

3.2.1. Salmon were caught during spawning and consumed fresh, or smoked dry to create a jerky.

3.2.2. Soapberry drinks are known for beign kidney tonics.

3.3. Inuit peoples in the Arctic consumed fish, land and marine mammals, and plant products.

3.3.1. Fish are eaten boiled, fried, or in dried forms. Meats were consumed fresh or prepared - allowed to ferment into products with soft, cheese-like consistency. Snacks contained whale skin and blubber, sometimes dipped in soy sauce. Plant products include the plant nicknamed the "Eskimo potato" and other "mousefoods".

3.4. Foods like bannock were popular with First Nations and the Inuit, due to the exchange of cultures with Scottish fur traders. Aboriginals were began using powdered milk and bologna in their diets.

4. National foods of Canada include poutine, butter tarts, Montreal-style bagels, salmon jerky, perogies, ketchup chips, California rolls, and Kraft Dinner products

5. Along with the immigrants from Europe and Asia, and the Caribbean, cuisines have been mixed together to form Canada's unique cuisine

6. Canadian cuisine varies depending on the region of the country

7. Prestigious Canadian awards

7.1. Books in Canada First Novel Award, for the best first novel of the year

7.2. Hilary Weston Writers' Trust Prize for Nonfiction, for best work of non-fiction

7.3. Gerald Lampert Award for the best new poet

7.4. Lieutenant-Governor's Award for High Achievement in the Literary Arts

7.5. Quebec Writers' Federation Awards, for the best fiction, non-fiction, poetry, children's and young adult literature, and best English-French translation

7.6. 3 Day Novel Contest, an annual literary marathon

8. Late 20th century to 21st century

9. By the 1990s, Canadian literature was viewed as some of the world's best

9.1. Many authors won international awards

9.1.1. In 1992, Michael Ondaatje became the first Canadian to win the Booker Prize for his book "The English Patient"

9.1.2. Carol Shields won the 1995 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction for "The Stone Diaries"; she won the Orange Prize for her novel "Larry's Party"

9.1.3. In 2000, Margaret Atwood won the Booker Prize for "The Blind Assassin"

9.1.4. Alistair MacLeod's "No Great Mischief" won the 2001 IMPAC Award

9.1.5. Yann Martel won the 2002 Booker Prize for "Life of Pi"

9.1.6. In 2008: Rawi Hage won the IMPAC Award for his book "De Niro's Game", and Lawrence Hill won the Commonwealth Writers' Prize for his "Book of Negroes"

9.1.7. Alice Munro became the first Canadian author to win the Nobel Prize in Literature for her short stories; she had already won several awards such as the Governor General's Award, and the man Booker International Prize

9.1.7.1. After WWII, few books were considered to have any literary merit. Munro was among the authors who brought Canadian literature to the world stage

9.2. The best known living Canadian writer is Margaret Atwood, a novelist, poet, and literary critic.

9.3. Great 20th century authors include Margaret Laurence, Gabrielle Roy, and Carol Shields.

9.4. Well known children's fiction writers include L.M. Montgomery, author of the Anne of Green Gables series, and Monica Hughes, the author of several acclaimed science fiction stories including"The Story Box", and "The Dream Catcher"

10. Canada's first nationwide music awards began in the music industry trade magazine RPM Weekly, in 1964. The first ceremony was held in 1975.

11. several developments following international trends; contemporary art became popular

11.1. Ian Wallace was one of the most influential figures in growing these trends

11.1.1. his teaching and exchange programs at the former Vancouver School of Art

11.1.2. visits from famous artists such as Lucy Lippard and Robert Smithson

11.1.2.1. his pupils - younger artists - to conceptual art

11.2. Regina Five, a group of five abstract painters became known after displaying their works in the National Gallery of Canada's 1961 exhibition

11.3. Spadina Avenue in Toronto became a hotspot for artists who would later define the "Toronto look"

11.3.1. Gordon Rayner, Graham Coughtry, and Robert Markle

11.4. Michael Snow became successful internationally due to his interdisciplinary artistic practice

11.5. AA Bonson, Felix Partz and Jorge Zontal became internationally successful, under the name of General Idea

11.6. David Askevold greatly contributed to the development of the conceptual art movement through his video art and photography

11.7. Janet Cardiff and George Bures Miller, who represented Canada at the 2001 Venice Biennial, has been well known for their photography

12. World War I led to many Canadian -written popular songs, many of which had lasting commercial success

12.1. The military produced music such as marches and bugle calls.

13. the 1960s

14. 1920 - 1933:  the Group of Seven is the first art group with a distinctly Canadian style

14.1. produced paintings of many sizes

14.2. portrayed Canadian landscapes/wilderness

14.3. expanded in the 1930s to become the Canadian Group of Painters, made up of 28 artists from across the country

14.4. Emily Carr and artists such as Tom Thomson were associated with this group, but weren't actually members

15. ART

16. MUSIC

17. Early 20th century

18. 1938: the Eastern Group of Painters formed in Montreal Quebec

18.1. common interest was painting

18.2. had an art for art's sake aesthetic, unlike the nationalism of the Group of the Seven and the Canadian Group of painters

18.3. many artists felt that artists in Ontario defined Canadian art; the Eastern Group of Painters formed to restore confidence in these painters

18.3.1. Canadian art became varied again in purpose, method and geography

19. 1930s, Canadian painters developed a variety of very different styles

19.1. Emily Carr became known for paintings of totem poles, native villages, and forests

19.2. David Milne became known for his winter landscapes

19.3. William Kurelek became known as a "prairie painter" for his famous paintings

20. World War II

20.1. government support grew, and many art schools and colleges/universities were established

20.2. abstract art became more popular among Canadian artists

20.3. Canadian sculpture was enriched by Inuit carvings of walrus ivory and soapstone

20.3.1. scenes from their myths and legends

20.3.2. objects and activites of their daily lives (modern and traditional)

21. Before gramophones were widely used, Canadian songs and other music were published as sheet music or in local newspapers such as the Toronto Empire or The Montreal Gazette

22. Robert Nathaniel Dett was one of the first black Canadian composers from the early years of the Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers

22.1. He performed at Carnegie Hall and at the Boston Symphony Hall as pianist and choir director.

23. Canadian songwriters also created many popular songs

24. Murray Adaskin was a violinist, composer, conductor, and chamber musician.

24.1. From 1923 to 1936, he was an orchestral and chamber musician for the Toronto Symphony Orchestra.

24.2. He was a composer-in-residence at the University of Saskatchewan, the first in Canada to be appointed as such.

25. Most Canadians to swing/jazz music during the Great Depression

25.1. the evolution of swing dancing is reflected in its many names - Jive, Jitterbug, Lindy, etc.

25.2. Guy Lombardo created his easy listening band with his brothers and firends - "The Royal Canadians"

25.2.1. they reached international success starting in the mid-1920s: selling 250 million phonograph records

25.2.2. they were the first Canadians to have a #1 single on Billboards top 100

26. after the Great Depression, Canadian pop music remained equally as successful as American pop music

26.1. Oscar Peterson, jazz virtuoso from Montreal, was considered one of the greatest jazz pianists of all time

26.1.1. He released over 200 recordings, won eight Grammy Awards and other awards and honours, and performed in thousands of concerts worldwide

26.1.2. His career as pianist in duets, trios, quartets, and as composer and teacher, lasted more than 60 years

26.2. several Canadian singers who specialized in opera singing were invited to perform in major international opera houses

26.2.1. the most notable singer being contralto Portia White, who was known for her voice and stage presence

26.2.1.1. as a Canadian female of African descent, her popularity paved the path for future talented opera singers

26.3. In 1958, Canada's first rock and roll idol Paul Anka auditioned for Channel ABC with his song "Diana", which reached #1 on the US Billboard charts almost immediately

26.3.1. "Diana" went on to be one of the best selling songs on vinyl record ever

26.4. Ronnie Hawkins, rockabilly pioneer born in the US, came to Canada in 1958 and became a key player in Canadian blues and rock music

26.4.1. he was inducted into Canada's Walk of Fame on October 4th

26.4.2. later on, he was also inducted into the Canadian Music Industry Hall of Fame

27. Canada produced some of its most influential singers during this time

27.1. Neil Young has been inducted into the Canadian Music Hall of Fame, Canada's Walk of Fame, and the rock and Roll Hall of Fame

27.2. Leonard Cohen was inducted into the Canadian Songwriters Hall of Fame, the Canadian Music Hall of Fame, and is also a Companion of the Order of Canada - the highest level of the Order of Canada

27.3. Joni Mitchell, a folk music legend from Alberta, is in both the Canadian Music Hall of Fame and the Rock and Roll of Fame

27.4. Canadian Brass, a group of classical musicians, is said to have reshaped presentation styles for classical artist

27.5. the progressive rock band Rush produced 25 gold records and 14 platinum records, and is one of the best-selling ensembles ensembles in history

27.5.1. on  April 18 2013, they were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame

27.6. French-Canadian singer Celine Dion became best-selling music artist, and surpassed 175 million in album sales worldwide

28. the CD replaces the vinyl album and compact cassette because it is much cheaper to manufacture and/or buy

29. Canadian artists with global record contracts such as Drake and Justin Bieber set new record in terms of success, dominating both Canadian and American charts

30. LITERATURE

31. Father Henri Casgrain became one of Canada's first literary theorists, stating that literature should portray proper Catholicism.

31.1. A few authors disagreed with his idea, and wrote more interesting works

31.2. The debate on the true purpose of literature continued until the 1930s, when a new group of author, educated at the University of Laval and the University of Montreal, began writing books centred upon psychological and sociological foundations.

31.2.1. Among these authors, Gabrielle Roy and Anne Hebert began to gain international acclaim, which had never occurred with French Canadians authors before.

32. Following WWII, the industrialization in the 50s, and the Quiet Revolution of the 60s, French Canadian literature began to cover more topics, and attracted more attention.

32.1. Acadian novelist Antonine Maillet won the Prix Goncourt - an award for the most imaginative prose of the year

32.2. Nicole Brossard wrote experimentally in formalist style; several authors followed suit

32.3. Roch Carrier wrote the well-known story "The Hockey Sweater" in 1979, which emphasized the cultural and social tensions between French and English speaking Canada

32.3.1. Originally written in French, this story was translated into English a few years afterwards. It has since been made into a film.

33. Writers like Mavis Gallan, Mordecai Richler, Norman Levine and Irving Layton contributed to the Modernist movement

34. In 1967, Canada's centennial year, the national government vastly increased funding to publishers and presses throughout the country

35. FOOD

36. Most Chinese labour workers who helped construct the Canadian Pacific Railway was completed, opening small restaurants or working as cooks in camps, canneries, or as private chefs.

36.1. They prepared variations on traditional Chinese food.

36.2. A form of buffet called the Chinese smorgasbord developed in what would become Vancouver, British Columbia.

36.2.1. Soon after the creation of this type of buffet, restaurants began offering take-out service, which became very popular among Canadian citizens.

36.3. In the Chinatowns of major cities such as Toronto and Calgary, many authentic Chinese restaurants opened.

36.3.1. Chinese food was well liked because it citizens didn't know how to make it.

36.3.2. Soon, Chinese food became a staple cuisine in most cities.

36.3.2.1. For example, children in British Columbia use chopsticks just as well and as often as forks and knives.

36.3.2.2. Some Chinese recipes have become very frequently used in Canadian households, such as dumplings, chow mein, sweet and sour pork, and chop suey.

36.3.2.3. expensive dishes such as shark fin, abalone, lobster, jumbo shrimp, sea bass, squid, and sea cucumber have become common dishes used on formal occasions, such as graduations or weddings.

36.4. Chinese food beliefs have also influenced Canadian cuisine. A large number of customers also believe these cuisine related superstitions.

36.4.1. For example, eating a whole fish on New Year's Eve will bring fortune for the following year.

36.4.2. Eating noodles on one's birthday is said to bring longevity. Eating hard-boiled eggs on one's birthday will bring good luck.

36.4.3. A whole pig means luck and completeness in the Chinese culture.