Cell structure and function

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Cell structure and function создатель Mind Map: Cell structure and function

1. Prokaryotic cells

1.1. Consist of bacteria and archeabacteria

1.2. no chromosom,only circular DNA stands

1.3. no nucleus

1.4. cell wall made by peptidoglycan

1.5. undego binary fusion

2. Eukaryotic cells

2.1. Consist plants,animals,funfi,slieme moulds,protozoa and algae

2.2. chromosome are present

2.3. have distinct nucleus

2.4. many membranous organelles

2.5. cell wall was made by cellulose

2.6. undergo mitosis and meiosis

3. Plant cells

3.1. have fixed shape

3.2. have cell wall

3.3. have vacuoles

3.3.1. maintaining turgidity of cells

3.4. have chloroplast

3.4.1. contain chloropyll for photosynthesis

3.5. food storage at starch

3.6. do not have centrioles

4. Animal cells

4.1. do not have fixed shape

4.2. do not have cell wall

4.3. do not have vacuoles

4.4. do not have chloroplast

4.5. food storage at  glycogen

4.6. have centrioles

5. Muscle tissues

5.1. smooth muscle

5.1.1. involuntary muscles

5.2. striated muscles

5.2.1. known as skeletal muscle

5.3. cardiac muscles

5.3.1. only found in heart

6. Epithelial tissues

6.1. squomous epithelium

6.2. cuboidal epithelium

6.3. columnar epithelium

6.4. sratified epithelium

6.4.1. stratified squamous

6.4.1.1. found in epidermis of skin and in the lining of the innermost layer of esophagus

6.4.2. sratified cuboidal

6.4.2.1. found in the excretory duct of sweat glands

6.4.3. stratified columnar

6.4.3.1. found in the secretory ducts of the mamary glands

6.5. pseudostratified epithelium

6.5.1. appear to be layer but layer do not exist

7. Cartilage

7.1. Hyaline cartilafge

7.1.1. most common form

7.2. Elastic cartilage

7.2.1. contains many elastic fibers giving int a yellowish color

7.3. Fibrous cartilage

7.3.1. contains a dense network of collagenn fibers

8. Bones

8.1. act as lever

8.1.1. converting muscle contraction into movement

8.2. Spongy bones

8.2.1. found in the center of flat bones and in the end of long bones

8.3. Compact bones

8.3.1. form by osteocytes located in the lacunae

9. Nerve tissues

9.1. neurones

9.1.1. a cell body

9.1.2. dendrites

9.1.3. the axon

9.2. neuroglial cells

10. Blood

10.1. Red blood cells ( Erythrocytes)

10.2. White blood cells ( Leukocytes )

10.2.1. Granulocytes

10.2.2. Neutrophils

10.2.3. eosinophils

10.2.4. Basophils

10.2.5. Agranulocytes

10.2.6. Lymphocytes

10.2.7. Monocytes

10.3. Platelets ( Trombocytes)

11. Cell wall

11.1. tough, rigid, thick non-living structure

11.2. give very difine shapes

11.3. Function:

11.3.1. maintaining the shape of the cells

11.3.2. providing strength and give mechanical support

11.3.3. maintains the turgidity of cells

11.3.4. allow exchange substance during homeostasis

11.3.5. an important reserve of carbohydrates

12. Plasma membrane

12.1. encloses the cytoplasm/protoplasm of the cells

12.2. provides shape and protection for cells

12.3. semi-permeable or selective permeable

12.4. protein are embedded in phospholipid bilayer

13. Cytoskeleton

13.1. made of filamentous protein networks and skeleton of the cells

13.2. microfilament

13.3. microtubules

13.4. intermediate filaments

14. Nucleus

14.1. largest and most prominent organelle

14.2. oval or sperical shape

14.3. store genetic material in the form of DNA

14.4. Nucleolus

14.4.1. to synthesize ribosomal RNA subunits for the synthesis of protein

15. Endoplasmic Reticulum(ER)

15.1. Rough endoplasmic reticulum(RER)

15.1.1. next to nucleus

15.1.2. synthesizing protein,modifying,packaging and transport of secretory proteins

15.2. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum(SER)

15.2.1. diverse metabolics activities

16. Golgi body

16.1. consist of a stack of flattened membranous sacs known as cisterinae

16.2. receives,stores,concetrate,modifies,finishes and sorts proteins

17. Ribosomes

17.1. small,solid, spherical granules

17.2. an assembly of two ribosomal RNA(rRNA) that are synthesizedd in nucleus

17.3. synthesized protein molecules

18. Lysosomes

18.1. dark spherical bodies, recyling center of the cell

18.2. contains hydrolytic enzymes

18.2.1. to digest macromolecules in the cells

18.3. recycling centre

18.4. also digest the remains of dead organelle(autolysis process)

19. Mitocondria

19.1. bounded by two layerof membrane

19.2. the cristae partially divide by mitochondrial fluid called mitochondrial matrix

19.3. mitochondrial matrix contains enzymes, DNA and ribosomes

19.4. powerhouse of cell

19.4.1. energy production for the cell

20. Chloroplast

20.1. biconvex disc shape

20.2. have their own DNA, RNA and ribosomes

20.3. enclosed by two memmbranes separated by intermembrene space