Second Language Acquisition

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Second Language Acquisition by Mind Map: Second Language Acquisition

1. Linguistic

1.1. Emphasizes the characteristics or the differences and similarities in the languages that are being learned. (Saville-Troike & Barto, 2017, Pg. 3)

1.1.1. Linguistic Competence = Underlying Knowledge

1.1.2. Linguistic Performance = Actual Production

1.2. Transformational-Generative Grammar - first linguistic framework with an internal focus.

1.3. Functionalism - emphasize the information content of utterances, and in considering language primarily as a system of communication.

2. Psychological

2.1. Emphasizes the mental or cognitive processes involved in acquisition, and the representation of languages in the brain. (Saville-Troike & Barto, 2017, Pg. 3)

2.2. Neurolinguistics was one of the first to influence cognitive perspectives on SLA when systematic study began in the 1960's.

2.3. Information Processing - learning processes that have been heavily influenced by computer based.

2.3.1. Processability is a more recently developed framework which extends IP concepts of learning and applies them to teaching second language.

2.3.2. Connectionism is another cognitive framework for the focus on learning processes.

3. Social

3.1. Emphasizes variability in learner linguistic performances, and extend the scope of study to communicate competence. (Saville-Troike & Barto, 2017, Pg. 3)

3.2. Microsocial focus relates to language acquisition and use in immediate social contexts of production, interpretation, ad interaction.

3.2.1. Variation theory & accommodation theory include exploration of systematic differences in learner production which depend on contexts of use.

3.2.2. Sociocultural theory view interaction as the essential genesis of language.

3.2.3. Computer-Mediated Communication is of the most interest for this social perspective on SLA because it emphasizes L2 production and interpretation within a virtual community, interaction among its participants, and often both formal and functional goals.

3.3. Macrosocial focus focus relates to language acquisition and use to broader ecological contexts, including cultural, political, and educational settings.

3.3.1. Ethnography of communication framework extends the notion of what is being acquired in SLA beyond linguistic and cultural factors to include social and cultural knowledge that is required for appropriate use.

3.3.2. Acculturation theory and social psychology offer broader understandings of how such factors as identity, status, and values affect the outcomes of SLA.

4. Module 1

4.1. SLA refers both to the study of individuals and groups who are learning a language subsequent to learning their first one as young children. ( Saville-Troike & Barto, 2017, Pg. 2)

4.2. Second Language = Second language, foreign language, library language, and auxiliary language

4.3. First Language = First language, native language, primary language, and mother tongue

4.4. Acquisition of more than one language during early childhood is called simultaneous multilingualism, to be distinguished from sequential multilingualism.

5. Module 2

5.1. Multilingualism = more than two languages, Bilingualism = ability to use two languages, & Monolingualism ability to speak only one language.

5.2. Motivation is required to learn a new language.

5.2.1. invasion or conquest of one's country by speakers of another language.

5.2.2. a need or desire to pursue educational experiences where access requires proficiency in another language.

5.2.3. adoption of religious beliefs and practices which involve use of another language.

5.3. Natural Ability refers that humans are born with a natural ability or innate capacity to learn language.

5.3.1. children begin to learn their L1 at the same age, and in much the same way.

5.3.2. children master the basic phonological and grammatical operations in their L1 by the age of about 5 or 6.

5.3.3. acquisition of L1 is not simply a facet of general intelligence.

5.4. children will never acquire such language-specific knowledge unless that language is used with them or around them.

5.5. L1 vs L2 learning

5.5.1. Initial state - the underlying knowledge about language structures and principles that is in learners' heads at the very start of L1 or L2 acquisition.

5.5.2. Intermediate state - covers all stages of basic language development.

5.5.3. Final state - the outcome of L1 and L2 learning.

6. Module 3

6.1. Languages are systematic - they consist of recurrent elements which occur in regular patterns of relationships.

6.2. Languages are symbolic - sequences of sounds or letters do not inherently possess meaning. the meanings of symbols in a language come through the tacit agreement of a group of speakers.

6.3. Languages are social - each language reflects the social requirements of the society that uses it, and there is no standard for judging whether one language is more effective for communication than other.

6.4. List of areas of knowledge which every L1 or L2 learner must acquire at different levels.

6.4.1. Lexicon (vocabulary) - word meaning, pronunciation, grammatical category, possible occurrence in combination with other words and in idioms.

6.4.2. Phonology (sound system) - speech sounds that make a difference in meaning, possible sequences of consonants and vowels, intonation patterns and perhaps tone in words, rhythmic patterns.

6.4.3. Morphology (word structure) - parts of words that have meaning, inflections that carry grammatical information, prefixes and suffixes that may be added to change the meaning of words or their grammatical category.

6.4.4. Syntax (grammar) - word order, agreement between sentence elements, ways to form questions, to negate assertions, and to focus or structure information within sentences.

6.4.5. Nonverbal structures (with conventional, language-specific meaning) - facial expressions, spatial orientation and position, gestures and other body movement.

6.5. Contrastive analysis (CA) is an approach to the study of SLA which involves predicting and explaining learner problems based on a comparison L1 and L2 to determine similarities and differences.

6.5.1. the goal of CA was primarily pedagogical in nature: to increase efficiency in L2 teaching and testing.

6.5.2. Structuralism - the dominant linguistic model of the 1950's, which emphasized the description of different levels of production in speech.

6.5.3. Behaviorism - the most influential cognitive framework applied to language learning in the 1950's. it claims that learning is the result of habit formation.

6.5.4. Another assumption of this theory is that there will be transfer in learning: in the case of SLA, this means the transfer of elements acquired in L1 to the target L2.

6.5.4.1. Positive or facilitating - when the same structure is appropriate in both languages.

6.5.4.2. Negative or interference - when the L1 structure is used inappropriately in the L2.

6.6. Error analysis - the first approach to the study of SLA which includes an internal focus on learners' creative ability to construct language.

6.6.1. Predictions made by CA did not always materialize in actual learner errors.

6.6.2. As linguistic theory changed, the exclusive focus on surface-level forms and patterns by structural linguists shifted to concern for underlying rules.

6.6.3. the behaviorist assumption that habit formation accounts for language acquisition was seriously questioned by many linguists and psychologists.

6.7. Interlanguage (IL) - refers to the intermediate states of a learner's language as it moves toward the target L2.

6.7.1. Systematic - at any particular point or stage of development, the IL is governed by rules which constitute the learner's internal grammar.

6.7.2. Dynamic - the system of rules which learners have in their minds changes frequently, or is in a state of flux, resulting in a succession of interim grammars.

6.7.3. Variable - although the IL is systematic, differences in context result in different patterns of language use

6.7.4. Reduced system, both in form and function - the characteristic of reduced form refers to the less complex grammatical structures that typically occur in an IL compared to the target language.

6.8. Different cognitive processes

6.8.1. Language transfer from L1 to L2

6.8.2. Transfer of training, or how the L2 is taught

6.8.3. Strategies of second language learning, or how learners approach the L2 materials and the task of L2 learning.

6.8.4. Strategies of second language communication, or ways that learners try to communicate with others in the L2.

6.8.5. Overgeneralization of the target language linguistic material, in which L2 rules that are learned are applied too broadly.

6.9. Monitor Model, proposed by Stephen Krashen - Explicitly and essentially adopts the notion of a Language Acquisition Device, which is a metaphor Chomsky used for children's innate knowledge of language.

6.9.1. Acquisition-learning hypothesis - there is a distinction to be made between acquisition and learning.

6.9.2. Monitor hypothesis - what is "learned" is available only as a monitor.

6.9.3. Natural order hypothesis - we acquire the rules of language in a predictable order.

6.9.4. Input hypothesis - language acquisition takes place because there is comprehensible input. If the input is understood, the necessary grammar is automatically provided.

6.9.5. Affective filter hypothesis - input may not be processed if the affective filter is "up".

7. Module 4

7.1. Information process are concerned with the mental processes involved in language learning and use.

7.1.1. learning of a skill initially demands learners' attention, and thus involves controlled processing.

7.1.2. learners go from controlled to automatic processing with practice. Automatic processing requires less mental "space" and attentional effort.

7.1.3. central processing is the heart of this model, where learning occurs.

7.2. Differences among learners

7.2.1. Age - it is a common belief that children are more successful L2 learners than adults.

7.2.2. Sex - widespread belief in many western cultures that females tend to be better L2 learners than males.

7.2.3. Aptitude - the assumption that there is a talent which is specific to language learning.

7.2.4. Motivation - largely determines the level of effort which learners expend at various stages in their L2 development, often a key to ultimate level of proficiency.

7.3. Cognitive style refers to individuals' preferred way of processing of perceiving, conceptualizing, organizing, and recalling information.

7.3.1. Personality - is added to cognitive style in characterizing more general learning style.

7.4. Learning strategies -the behaviors and techniques they adopt in their efforts to learn a second language.

7.4.1. Metacognitive: previewing a concept or principle in anticipation of a learning activity; rehearsing linguistic components which will be required for an upcoming language task.

7.4.2. Cognitive: repeating after a language model; remembering a new word in L2 by relating it to one that sounds the same in L1.

7.4.3. Social/affective: seeking opportunities to interact with native speakers; working cooperatively with peers to obtain feedback or pool information.

8. Module 5

8.1. Microsocial factors - an emphasis within the social perspective that is concerned with the potential effects of different immediately surrounding conditions of language use on SLA, including specific social contexts of interaction.

8.1.1. Linguistic Contexts: elements of language form and function associated with the variable element.

8.1.2. Psychological contexts: factors associated with the amount of attention which is being given to language form during production, the level of automaticity versus control in processing, or the intellectual demands of a particular task.

8.1.3. Microsocial contexts: features of setting/situation and interaction which relate to communicative events within which language is being produced, interpreted, and negotiated.

8.1.4. Accommodation theory - speakers usually unconsciously change their pronunciation and even the grammatical complexity of sentences they use to sound more like whomever they are talking to.

8.2. Characteristics of foreign talk: simple vocabulary, long pauses, slow rate of speech, careful articulation, loud volume, stress on key words, simplified grammatical structures, topicalization, more syntactic regularity, retention full forms.

8.3. Scaffolding - verbal guidance which an expert provides to help a learner perform any specific task, or the verbal collaboration of peers to perform a task which would be too difficult for any one of them in individual performances.

8.4. Intrapersonal interaction - communication that occurs within an individual's own mind.

8.4.1. Private speech - the self-talk which many children engage in that leads to the inner speech that more mature individuals use to control thought and behavior.

8.5. some individuals apparently interact quite successfully with others while developing little or no competence in a common linguistic code.

8.5.1. background knowledge and experience which help individuals organize new information and make guesses about what is going on.

8.5.2. extralinguistic context, including physical setting and objects.

8.5.3. Prosodic features of tone and stress to convey emotional state

8.6. Macrosocial factors - an emphasis within the social perspective that is concerned with effects of broad cultural, political, and educational environments on L2 acquisition and use.

8.6.1. Boundaries & identities - part of the identity function of language is accomplished by creating or reinforcing national boundaries, but linguistic boundaries often also exist within or across national borders.

8.6.2. Institutional forces and constraints - within the bounds of nations and communities, social institutions are systems which are established by law, custom, or practice to regulate and organize the life of people in public domains: politics, religion, and education.

8.6.3. Social categories - people are categorized according to may socially relevant dimensions: age, sex, ethnicity, education level, occupation, and economic status. such categorization often influence what experiences they have.

8.7. Communicative competence - everything that speaker needs to know in order to communicate appropriately within a particular community.

9. Module 6

9.1. the ability to use language appropriately includes pragmatic competence.

9.2. Academic competence would include the knowledge needed by learners who want to use the L2 primarily to learn about other subjects or as a tool in scholarly research, or as a medium in a specific professional or occupational field.

9.2.1. Priorities for L2 activities = 1. reading, 2. listening, 3. writing, 4. speaking

9.3. Interpersonal competence encompasses knowledge required of leaners who plan to use the L2 primarily in face-to-face contact with other speakers.

9.3.1. Priorities for L2 activities = 1. listening, 2. speaking, 3. reading, 4. writing

9.4. Vocabulary is the most important level of L2 knowledge for all learners to develop.

9.4.1. the core in every language includes function words, a limited set of terms that carry primarily grammatical information.

9.5. Morphology can be very important for vocabulary development as well as for achieving grammatical accuracy.

9.5.1. grammatical accuracy in many languages requires knowledge of the word parts that carry meanings such as tense, aspect, and number inflectional morphology.

9.6. Phonology, the mastery of the L2 sound system was considered the first priority for teaching and learning during the middle of the twentieth century. this level of language received much less attention during the second half of the century.

9.6.1. Difference between L1 and L2: possible sequences of constants and vowels, intonation patterns, rhythmic patterns, which speech sounds are meaningful components of the phonological system.

9.7. Syntax of another language may be seen as an issue of internalizing new construction patterns, generative rules, different parameters for innate principles, or collocational probabilities and constraints.

9.8. Nonverbal structure contributes more to language when speakers or listeners are visible, whether in face-to-face reciprocal interaction or as electronic images.

9.8.1. Much of our use of nonverbal behaviors in communication is unconscious, and thus outside of our control.

9.9. Discourse the linguistic unit which is larger than a single sentence and involves ways of connecting sentences, organizing information across sentence boundaries, and structuring storytelling, conversation, and interaction in general.

9.10. Contrastive Rhetoric is an area of research that compares genre-specific conventions in different languages and cultures, with particular focus on predicting and explaining problems in L2 academic and professional writing.

9.10.1. Content knowledge is background information about the topic that is being read about or listened to.

9.10.2. Context knowledge includes information learned from what has already been read or heard in a specific text or situation, as well as an understanding of what the writers or speakers intentions are.

9.10.3. Culture knowledge subsumes content and context in many ways but also includes an understanding of the wider social setting within which acts of reading and listening take place.

10. Module 7

10.1. What exactly does the L2 learner come to know?

10.1.1. Patterns of recurrent elements that comprise components of L2-specific knowledge.

10.1.2. How to encode particular concepts the L2, including grammatical notion of time, number of referents, and the semantic role of elements.

10.1.3. Pragmatic competence, or knowledge of how to interpret and convey meaning in contexts of social interaction.

10.1.4. How to select among multiple language systems, and how to switch between languages in particular social contexts and for particular purposes.

10.2. How does the learner acquire L2 knowledge?

10.2.1. Interaction. Processing of L2 input in interactional situations is facilitative, and some think also causative, of SLA.

10.2.2. Mapping of relationships or associations between linguistic functions ad forms.

10.2.3. Automatization. While simplistic notions of habit formation are no longer accepted as explanations for language acquisition, frequency of input as well as practice in processing input and output are widely recognized determinants of L2 development.

10.2.4. Application of prior knowledge. The initial state of L2 includes knowledge of L1, and the processes of SLA include interpretation of the new language in terms of that knowledge.

10.3. Why are some learners more successful than others?

10.3.1. Social experience. Quantity and quality of L2 input and interaction are determined by social experience, and both have significant influence on ultimate success.

10.3.2. Relationship of L1 and L2. All languages are learnable, but not all L2s are equally easy for speakers of particular L1s to acquire.

10.3.3. Motivation largely determines the level of effort which learners expend at various stages in their L2 development.