Extracted from the best selling book by Author John Medina.
Start exercising couch and desk potatoes and their brains benefit.
Even couch potatoes who fidget show increased benefit over those who do not.
Our brains perform at their best when we are in motion.
Solving problems, maintaining attention, and inhibiting emotional impulses.
All it takes for your brain to benefit is aerobic exercise 2-3 times a week.
For millions of years we walked 12 miles a day.
Today we sit in cars, couches, cubicles, and classrooms.
We think best when we are moving.
Exercise improves cardiovascular fitness, which reduces the risk for diseases like heart attacks and stroke.
It improves your strength and balance, reduces your risk for many types of cancer, bolsters your immune system, and buffers against toxic effects of stress.
Take a call while walking, hold a walking meeting, or go for a walk at lunch.
It is designed to solve problems related to surviving in an unstable outdoor environment and to do so in nearly constant motion (to keep you alive long enough to pass your genes on).
We were not the strongest on the planet but we developed the strongest brains, the key to our survival.
Our ability to solve problems, learn from mistakes, and create alliances with other people helps us survive.
We took over the world by learning to cooperate and forming teams with our neighbors.
Relationships helped us survive in the jungle and are critical to surviving at work and school today.
If a student feels misunderstood because the teacher cannot connect with the way the student learns, the student may become isolated.
We used to think there were just 7 categories of intelligence.
But categories of intelligence may number more than 7 billion—roughly the population of the world.
Every student’s brain, every employee’s brain, every customer’s brain is wired differently.
The current system of education ignores it by having grade structures based on age.
Businesses such as Amazon are catching on to mass customization (the Amazon homepage and the products you see are tailored to your recent purchases).
The brains of school children are just as unevenly developed as their bodies.
Our school system ignores the fact that every brain is wired differently.
We wrongly assume every brain is the same.
a neuron lurking in your head that is stimulated only when Jennifer Aniston is in the room.
Our previous experience predicts where we should pay attention.
Culture matters too.
Whether in school or in business, these differences can greatly effect how an audience perceives a given presentation.
Regardless of who you are, the brain pays a great deal of attention to these questions:, Can I eat it?, Will it eat me?, Can I mate with it?, Will it mate with me?, Have I seen it before?
We can talk and breathe, but when it comes to higher level tasks, we just can’t do it.
The brain is a sequential processor and large fractions of a second are consumed every time the brain switches tasks.
This is why cell-phone talkers are a half-second slower to hit the brakes and get in more wrecks.
Walk into any office and you’ll see people sending e-mail, answering their phones, Instant Messaging, and on MySpace—all at the same time.
Research shows your error rate goes up 50% and it takes you twice as long to do things.
So the always online organization is the always unproductive organization.
Which means, your brain can only handle a 7-digit phone number.
If you want to extend the 30 seconds to a few minutes or even an hour or two, you will need to consistently re-expose yourself to the information.
Memories are so volatile that you have to repeat to remember.
Many of us have trouble remembering names.
If at a party you need help remembering Mary, it helps to repeat internally more information about her., “Mary is wearing a blue dress and my favorite color is blue.”
It may seem counterintuitive at first but study after study shows it improves your memory.
In partnership with the University of Washington and Seattle Pacific University, Medina tested this Brain Rule in real classrooms of 3rd graders.
They were asked to repeat their multiplication tables in the afternoons.
The classrooms in the study did significantly better than the classrooms that did not have the repetition.
If brain scientists get together with teachers and do research, we may be able to eliminate need for homework since learning would take place at school, instead of the home.
Not minutes, hours, or days but years.
What you learn in first grade is not completely formed until your sophomore year in high school.
Our schools are currently designed so that most real learning has to occur at home.
Repeated exposure to information / in specifically timed intervals / provides the most powerful way to fix memory into the brain.
But if you want to remember, remember to repeat.
It is almost unbelievably active!
It’s possible that the reason we need to sleep is so that we can learn.
Loss of sleep hurts attention, executive function, working memory, mood, quantitative skills, logical reasoning, and even motor dexterity.
It changes with age, gender, pregnancy, puberty, and so much more.
Ever feel tired at 3PM?
That’s because your brain really wants to take a nap.
There's a battle raging in your head between two armies.
Each army is made of legions of brain cells and biochemicals – one desperately trying to keep you awake, the other desperately trying to force you to sleep.
At 3PM, 12 hours after the midpoint of your sleep, all your brain wants to do is nap.
In one study, a 26-minute nap improved NASA pilots’ performance by 34 percent.
It just doesn’t make sense.
The brain is not designed for long term stress when you feel like you have no control.
The saber-toothed tiger ate you or you ran away but it was all over in less than a minute.
If you have a bad boss, the saber-toothed tiger can be at your door for years, and you begin to deregulate.
If you are in a bad marriage, the saber-toothed tiger can be in your bed for years, and the same thing occurs.
You can actually watch the brain shrink.
It damages memory and executive function.
It can hurt your motor skills.
When you are stressed out over a long period of time it disrupts your immune response.
You get sicker more often.
It disrupts your ability to sleep.
You get depressed a lot.
If you want your kid to get into Harvard, go home and love your spouse.
The same brain you have at home is the same brain you have at work or school.
The stress you are experiencing at home will affect your performance at work, and vice versa.
Your head crackles with the perceptions of the whole world, sight, sound, taste, smell, touch, energetic as a frat party.
If you're tested on the details of a movie while the smell of popcorn is wafted into the air, you'll remember 10-50% more.
When you walk into Starbucks, the first thing you smell is coffee.
They have done a number of things over the years to make sure that’s the case.
Those in multisensory environments always do better than those in unisensory environments.
They have more recall with better resolution that lasts longer, evident even 20 years later.
Hear a piece of information, and three days later you'll remember 10% of it.
Add a picture and you'll remember 65%.
Our brain sees words as lots of tiny pictures, and we have to identify certain features in the letters to be able to read them.
That takes time.
Perhaps because it's how we've always apprehended major threats, food supplies and reproductive opportunity.
It’s text-based (nearly 40 words per slide), with six hierarchical levels of chapters and subheads—all words.
Professionals everywhere need to know about the incredible inefficiency of text-based information and the incredible effects of images.
Burn your current PowerPoint presentations and make new ones.
Mental health professionals have known for years about sex-based differences in the type and severity of psychiatric disorders.
Males are more severely afflicted by schizophrenia than females.
By more than 2 to 1, women are more likely to get depressed than men, a figure that shows up just after puberty and remains stable for the next 50 years.
Males exhibit more antisocial behavior.
Females have more anxiety.
Most alcoholics and drug addicts are male.
Most anorexics are female.
When researcher Larry Cahill showed them slasher films, men fired up the amygdale in their brain’s right hemisphere, which is responsible for the gist of an event.
Their left was comparatively silent.
Women lit up their left amygdale, the one responsible for details.
Having a team that simultaneously understood the gist and details of a given stressful situation helped us conquer the world.
Emotions are useful.
They make the brain pay attention.
These differences are a product of complex interactions between nature and nurture.
Babies are the model of how we learn—not by passive reaction to the environment but by active testing through:, observation, hypothesis, experiment, conclusion
Babies methodically do experiments on objects, for example, to see what they will do.
For 20 percent of their time, employees may go where their mind asks them to go.
The proof is in the bottom line: fully 50 percent of new products, including Gmail and Google News, came from “20 percent time.”