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1.1. Energy is the ability to do work or cause change.

1.2. The Law of Conservation states that energy can neither be created or destroyed.

1.3. Albert Einstein's equation E (Kinetic energy) = m (mass) x c2 (speed of light squared), states that mass and energy are the same physical entity and can be changed into each other.

1.4. Work = Force (Mass x Acceleration) x Distance


2.1. Conventional Energy: Leads to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions

2.1.1. Hydroelectric Energy

2.1.2. Nuclear Energy

2.1.3. Thermal Power

2.2. Non - Conventional Energy: Renewable/Inexhaustible

2.2.1. Solar Energy

2.2.2. Wind Energy

2.2.3. Geothermal Energy

2.2.4. Fossil Fuels

2.2.5. Biomass Energy

2.2.6. Ocean Energy Tidal Energy Wave Energy


3.1. SOLAR SCHOOLS: "Water stored in a dam for hydroelectricity generation is a form of potential energy. When valves are opened the force of gravity cause water to begin to flow. The gravitational potential energy of the water is converting to kinetic energy. The flowing water can turn a turbine, which will further convert the kinetic energy of the water into useable mechanical energy. An alternator or generator then converts the mechanical energy from the turbine into electrical energy. This electricity is then sent to the electricity grid and to our homes where it is converted into light energy (lights and televisions), sound energy (televisions, stereos), heat energy (hot water, toasters, ovens), mechanical energy (fans, vacuum cleaners, fridge and air conditioner compressors) and so on."

3.2. Electrical energy is transformed into thermal energy when using the oven/stove.

3.3. When we consume food and store the chemical energy, that energy is transformed into electrical and mechanical energy

3.4. Nuclear energy from the Sun is transformed into electromagnetic and thermal energy.

3.5. When an object falls, its kinetic energy changes to gravitational energy.


4.1. Kinetic Energy: Energy an object has due to its motion (energy of motion; vertical or horizontal motion). Depends on the mass and velocity.

4.1.1. KE = 1/2 x Mass x Velocity2

4.1.2. Work = Force (Mass x Acceleration) x Distance

4.1.3. KHAN ACADEMY: "If we want to accelerate an object, then we must apply a force. Applying a force requires us to do work. After work has been done, energy has been transferred to the object, and the object will be moving with a new constant speed. The energy transferred is known as kinetic energy, and it depends on the mass and speed achieved."

4.1.4. Kinetic energy must always be zero or a positive value, because velocity squared will always be positive.

4.1.5. Three types of kinetic energy: Vibrational, rotational, and translational. Vibrational Kinetic energy: The energy due to vibrational motion. The Law of Vibration states that nothing rests and everything on the Universe moves and vibrates. Even thoughts and feelings have their own frequency. Rotational Kinetic Energy: The energy due to rotational motion. Translational Kinetic Energy: The energy due to motion from one location to another. Simply referred to as "kinetic energy".

4.1.6. Kinetic energy is a scalar quantity, meaning it does not have direction.

4.1.7. The standard metric unit of measurement for kinetic energy is the Joule.

4.1.8. 1 Joule = 1 kg x m2/s2

4.1.9. The two variables/factors that kinetic energy depends on is the mass of the object (m) and the speed (velocity) of the object (v). As the mass of an object increases, kinetic energy increases. Greater mass means greater kinetic energy. Ex. If a bowling ball and a golf ball were rolled down a bowling lane at the same velocity, the bowling ball is more likely to knock down the pins because it has a greater mass, therefore greater kinetic energy. As the mass of an object decreases, its kinetic energy decreases. Less mass means less kinetic energy. As the velocity of an object increases, its kinetic energy increases. Greater velocity means greater kinetic energy. Ex. If two bowling balls were rolled down a bowling lane at the different velocities, the bowling ball with the greater velocity is more likely to knock down the pins because it has greater kinetic energy. As the velocity of an object decreases, its kinetic energy decreases. Less velocity means less kinetic energy. Changing the velocity of an object has a greater effect on an object's kinetic energy than changing its mass by the same factor. This is because velocity is squared in the kinetic energy equation (KE = 1/2 x Mass x Velocity2). Ex. Doubling the mass of an object will double its kinetic energy, whereas, doubling its velocity will quadruple its kinetic energy.

4.2. Potential Energy: Energy stored in an object based on its shape or position

4.2.1. Gravitational Potential Energy The potential energy associated with an object's height. The more an object weighs, or the greater the objects height, the greater its gravitational potential energy. GPE = Mass (Kg) x Acceleration due to Gravity x Height (From above the ground; meters) OR Weight x Height OR GPE = mgh (g = 9.8 Newtons). The force used to lift an object is equal to its weight. The more an object weighs, the greater its gravitational potential energy. Ex. Two skiers are on ski jumps with the height of 40 meters, although the green skier weighs 600 Newtons and the red skier weighs 500 Newtons. Because the green skier weighs more, he has more gravitational potential energy than the red skier. The greater the height of an object from the ground, the greater the potential energy. Ex. Two skiers with a weight of 500 Newtons are on ski jumps, one with a height of 40 meters (blue skier) and the other with a height of 60 meters (red skier). The red skier has more gravitational potential energy because he is at a greater height.

4.2.2. Elastic Potential Energy The potential energy an object gains by stretching or compressing. Hooke's Law states that the displacement of the size or deformation of an object is directly proportional to the deforming force or load OR the force needed to extend or compress a string is directly proportional to distance you stretch it. Hooke's Law Equation: F = kx. F represents the applied force (Newtons), K represents the spring constant, and X represents the extension of the object/material (Meters). Ex: Bow and arrow; When the arrow is pulled back, the bow changes its shape. The bow has now gained potential energy. When the archer releases the string, the stored energy sends the arrow flying to its target.

4.2.3. Factors/Variables that affect potential energy are the weight of the object and the height of the object from the ground.


5.1. Mechanical Energy

5.1.1. Mechanical Energy = Potential Energy + Kinetic Energy

5.1.2. The more mechanical energy an object has, the more work it can do.

5.2. Thermal Energy

5.2.1. The energy possessed from the movement of particles in an object/system.

5.3. Electrical Energy

5.3.1. The energy taken from electric potential energy (electric charges) or kinetic energy.

5.4. Chemical Energy

5.4.1. Energy stored in the bonds of chemical compounds which can be released during a chemical reaction, mostly in the form of heat (exothermic reaction) Exothermic reaction:

5.5. Nuclear Energy

5.5.1. Energy which comes from the energy of the nucleus of an atom.

5.6. Electromagnetic Energy

5.6.1. Energy that is emitted or reflected from objects in the form of magnetic and electrical waves that can travel through space. Forms of electromagnetic energy: gamma rays, x-rays, infrared radiation,

5.7. Radiant Energy

5.7.1. Energy of electromagnetic waves. Radiant energy can travel through space.