My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Sociological Perspectives Chapter 4

1.1. The Relation between School and Society-Theoretical Perspectives

1.1.1. Functional Theories- This sociological perspective views the social system as interdependent and based upon shared values. Functionalist believe unity is the standard and when this is disrupted by breakdown of shared values then conflict occurs. Reform under the functional theory is supposed to create social unity.

1.1.2. Conflict Theories-This theory believes that dominant groups of society impose their beliefs upon other groups. This theories focuses on the struggle in society.

1.1.3. Interactional Theories- Interactionalist observe, analyze, and critique the relation between school and society and then elaborate upon functional and conflict perspectives in a way to which viewed as a whole.

1.2. 5 Effects of Schooling on Individuals

1.2.1. 1. Teacher Behavior- Teachers are models for students. They not only teach them how to behave but also set expectations that the students strive for.

1.2.2. 2. Education and Inequality- Although schools can not completely eliminate social classes and other inequalities, it offers children opportunities they might not have otherwise.

1.2.3. 3. Inside the Schools-Quality schools with culturally diverse environment and rich curriculum prepare students for college.

1.2.4. 4. Knowledge and Attitudes- Students gain more knowledge when they have positive attitudes about learning.

1.2.5. 5. Student Peer Groups and Alienation-Student culture and groups enhance the school experience and therefore, make the student more invested in their schooling.

2. Politics of Education Chapter 2

2.1. Four Purposes of Schooling

2.1.1. intellectual,

2.1.1.1. The intellectual purpose of school is to educate children on basic skills and knowledge with the ability to learn and analysis future information.

2.1.2. political

2.1.2.1. The political purpose of school is to guide students into becoming educated, active members of a political. School is where children learn to follow basic rules which later will help prepare them to become law-abiding citizens.

2.1.3. social

2.1.3.1. The social purpose of school is to teach children to behave in a way that is socially acceptable to society.

2.1.4. economic

2.1.4.1. The economic purpose of school is to prepare students to become future workers of society. This can be through direct trade programs or more indirect through preparation for college or entry level jobs.

2.2. Political Perspectives

2.2.1. The Conservative Perspective

2.2.1.1. Role of the School

2.2.1.1.1. To provide the students with the training necessary to become members of society that help maintain economic and social productivity.

2.2.1.2. Explanations of Unequal Educational Performance

2.2.1.2.1. The conservative perspective believes that schools give all students the opportunity to succeed. It is up to each student to work hard in order to achieve it,

2.2.1.3. Definition of Educational Problems

2.2.1.3.1. 1. The decline of standards is an issue. This refers to the lowering of academic standards.

2.2.1.3.2. 2. The decline of cultural literary. This is what conservatives call the demand for multicultural education that has weakened the ability to teach American cultural.

2.2.1.3.3. 3. Decline of values- The schools have lost their ability to teach morals and values.

2.2.1.3.4. 4. Decline of authority- The schools have lost their traditional authority and therefore, schools have become chaotic.

3. History of U.S. Education Chapter 3

3.1. The Rise of the Common School- The reform for Common School, or free public funded elementary school was lead by Horace Mann. This reform is arguably the most influence movements in the history of education. This reform would highlight the importance of education in society and thus set the groundwork for all future reforms to come.

3.2. The Democratic-Liberal School interpretation of the U.S. education is one of optimism while understanding that conflicts and challenges will be faced along the way. This perspective is one of evolution and progression and with every reform expansion would occur to make education available to larger segments of society. The Democratic-Liberal interpretation steadily strives for improvement with the ideals of equality and excellence in mind.

4. Philosophy of Education Chapter 5

4.1. Pragmatism

4.1.1. generic notations

4.1.1.1. Dewey's form of pragmatism believed that children learned through experience and books. The classroom should model the community.

4.1.2. key researchers

4.1.2.1. George Sanders Peirce,and William James

4.1.3. goal of education

4.1.3.1. The goal of education should be to create successful members of a democratic society.

4.1.4. role of teacher

4.1.4.1. Teacher is not authoritarian but instead a facilitator of information. They are to help plan and implement study.

4.1.5. method of instruction

4.1.5.1. Students learn individually and in groups. Problem-solving learning is key. Furniture should be easily moved to suit needs.

4.1.6. curriculum

4.1.6.1. Core curriculum or integrated curriculum. In this type of curriculum different subject areas interconnected or overlap.

5. Schools as Organizations Chapter 6

5.1. Elements of Change

5.1.1. School Processes

5.1.1.1. Change in school processes occurs through new ways of thinking through the power of the teachers influence. As educators we must be the leaders in reform in the schools.

5.1.2. School Cultures

5.1.2.1. School culture is taken for grated the most. The school itself is a separate social organization, according to Willard Waller. School culture is maintained through the use of authority. Patience, time, effort, skill, and good will are necessary for change to occur within the school culture.

5.2. Stakeholders of My District

5.2.1. Federal

5.2.1.1. Senators: Doug Jones and Richard Shelby

5.2.1.2. House of Representatives: Mo Brooks represents the 5th congressional district. Richie Whorton represents Madison, County.

5.2.2. Local

5.2.2.1. Senators: Richard Shelby and Doug Jones

5.2.2.2. House of Representative: Mo Brooks represents the 5th congressional district. Richie Whorton represents Madison County.

5.2.2.3. State Superintendent: Currently, Dr. Ed Richardson is serving as the interim State Superintendent after Michael Sentance resigned in 2017.

5.2.2.4. State School Board Representative for District 5 is Ella B. Bell.

5.2.2.5. Local Superintendent is Matt Masey for District 2.

5.2.2.6. In The Schools

5.2.2.6.1. Principal

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy Chapter 7

6.1. Curriculum Theory

6.1.1. Developmentalist Curriculum is based on the psychological development of the student. It is based upon the theories of Dewey and Piaget. Balance between content and instruct is key with the student's need as focus.

6.2. Dominant Traditions of Teaching

6.2.1. Mimetic tradition of teaching is grounded in the belief that lecture or presentation is the best method to transmit knowledge to students.

6.2.2. Transformative tradition is a more broad approach that believes in changing the student in a meaningful way. This tradition believes there is more to teaching than transition of knowledge and growth must occur through active participation of students.

7. Equality of Opportunity Chapter 8

7.1. Effects on Educational Outcome

7.1.1. Race

7.1.1.1. Minorities often have higher drop out rates and score lower on test. Minority students do not receive the same opportunities, rewards, or incentives as white students which explains the reason for lower test scores and why they are more likely to drop out. Often race and social class go hand in hand with educational experiences and outcome.

7.1.2. Class

7.1.2.1. Student's educational outcome is effected by their social class. Wealth provides upper and middle class students with materialistic and financial support that aids them in school and makes higher education more attainable. They are also typically held to higher expectations from family than the students from lower social class.Due to this labeling and sterotyping can occur which effects educational outcome.

7.1.3. Gender

7.1.3.1. Throughout history male students have been better in Mathematics, while female students are better in other subjects. In current society, females are now out performing males in education but still are behind in the job market.

7.2. Coleman Study-Response from 1982

7.2.1. Borman and Dowling (2010) responded by stating that the achievement gaps are the product of segregation in schools and the strong influence of middle-class values. They believed that the racial and socioeconomic composition of the school was the greatest effect on student success.

7.2.2. Other responses such as Jencks (1985) and Alexander and Pallas (1983) responded by downplaying the significance of the findings from the 1982 Coleman Study. They did acknowledge that there are differences between the private Catholic schools and public schools but that they are insignificant in terms of student learning.

8. Educational Inequality Chapter 9

8.1. Cultural Difference Theories

8.1.1. John Ogbu theorized that minorities settle into the role that society has created for them through oppression. They are not encouraged to strive for better but instead to accept their position. Under Ogbu's theory, he believed that minorites did not embrace education because to them it did not seem beneficial because they still faced oppression.

8.1.1.1. John Ogbu - Anthropology - iResearchNet

8.1.2. Minority and lowerclass are considered part of the anti-school culture because they do not conform to the white, middle class culture based upon academic success.

8.2. School-centered Explanations of Educational Inequality

8.2.1. 1. School financing effects educational equality because more affluent schools are able to provide more per-pupil spending. This is because funding for public schools comes from state and local taxes. Property tax plays a large role in funding. The higher the property value is in an area, the more property tax is paid and in turn the more funding the schools in that area receive.

8.2.2. 2. Effective school research looks at school-centered processes for unequal educational achievement in students. It finds that there are differences in effective schools versus ineffective schools that affect student success. The effective school literature describes five characteristics of effective schools. Most researchers do agree that educational outcome is affected by schools.

8.2.3. 3. Differences between schools such as curriculum and pedagogic practices can result in educational inequality. The differences between schools according to social-class examined through the works of Bernstein (1990). His findings stated that working-class schools were more authoritarian, had teacher-directed practices, and vocational directed in curriculum. Middle-class were more student-centered and less authoritarian. Last, the upper-class schools were authoritarian with a secondary level classical-humanistic college preparatory curriculum. The results supported the fact that type of schooling is representative of the student's society and social class. These differences play a role in the educational inequality of students between schools. However, the extent is debatable.

8.2.4. 4. Within-school differences come from the curriculum and ability grouping that each student receives. Tracking is at the center of these differences. Students may be taught at different pace, have different course work to complete, or have different expectations than their peers based on grouping. This is seen more in secondary than elementary. Oakes (1985,2005) found that when tracking is based on different curricula that students are not receiving equality of education. Teacher expectations and ability groupings play a role in the inequality of education for students within the school.

9. Educational Reform Chapter 10

9.1. School Based Reforms

9.1.1. Privatization

9.1.1.1. Beginning in the 1990's, the public schools began to be influenced by the private sector through the influences of businesses. Education became a lucrative business in the eyes of corporations that would run schools through providers and management agencies.

9.1.2. Teacher Education

9.1.2.1. Due to the failing of schools, the education of teachers began to be focused upon. The importance of quality teacher education and need to retain high quality teachers became the priority of organizations such as the American Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association. This lead to increased teacher preparation, standards for students and teachers, rewards for knowledgeable teachers, and reorganization of schools that would focus on both student and teacher success through established standards.

9.2. Societal, Community, Economic, and Political Reforms

9.2.1. School Finance Reforms

9.2.1.1. Cases such as Rodriguez v. San Antonio, Roinson v. Cahill, Abbott v. Burke, and many more fought for more funding in education to ensure that all students had the right to equal education regardless of their community. Financial Equity was the focus of many education reforms that would even the playing field by providing funding to schools for preschool, after-school care, technology, social services, and security. The increased funding would help to close achievement gaps. of students in urban areas.

9.2.2. Full Service Schools

9.2.2.1. This reform was aimed to improve at-risk communities by providing schools that collabratively served the needs of the students and families, not only educationally but also, physically, psychologically and socially. The goal of Full Service Schools is to have a larger impact on society by improving public education and breaking social limitations often faced in at-risk communities.