The Foundations of Education: Exploring Education An Introduction To The Foundations of Education

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The Foundations of Education: Exploring Education An Introduction To The Foundations of Education by Mind Map: The Foundations of Education: Exploring Education An Introduction To The Foundations of Education

1. Ch. 2 Politics of Education

1.1. Four Purposes of Education

1.1.1. 1. Intellectual Purpose: to educate children with basic reading, writing, math, history, logic, etc

1.1.2. 2. Political Purpose: to educate children on political views, to teach them about their country and laws, to develop patriotism.

1.1.3. 3. Social Purpose: to educate children through socialization. To help them create social skills of learning to work together as a group and to get along with different types of people. To teach them how to take on different roles, values, and actions within a society.

1.1.4. 4. Economic Purpose: to educate and prepare children for the work force. May prepare them to work in different societies.

1.1.5. **Education concerned with--> Creating educated people by the society we live in and the type of people we wish to live in it.

1.1.5.1. What constitutes the "good life" and a good person"? Questions from Plato, Aristotle, Marx, Freud, & Dewey

1.1.5.2. Decide: what purposes of schooling are and what they ought to be.

1.2. 1.) Role of School: focuses on the aims, functions, and purposes the person has within a society.

1.2.1. Conservative Perspective: prepare hard-working individuals for work force that will help the economy grow. Schools socialize students into adults that will help maintain social order.

1.2.1.1. Conservative's view of the school's role is ultimately to INCREASE economic PRODUCTIVITY and social STABILITY.

1.3. 2.) Explanation of Unequal Perfomance

1.3.1. Conservative Perspective: Some students are smarter than others. These students excel in their education due to taking the initiative, through working hard and putting in the time and effort needed to for good grades.

1.3.1.1. Conservative's believe that the school system gives every student the opportunities to excel, but some students may not because of the person themselves or because of their environment at home.

1.4. 3.) Conservative Perspective on the Definition of Education Problems:

1.4.1. 1.DECLINE OF STANDARDS: Standards have been lowered because they are trying to please liberals and radicals by creating a chance for equality.

1.4.2. 2. DECLINE OF CULTURAL LITERACY: this means that the history material, American and Western civilization, has been watered down in order to appease liberal and radical demands of more multicultural education.

1.4.3. 3. DECLINE IN THE VALUES OR OF CIVILIZATION: this means that in order to appease liberal and radical views on relativism, schools lose their standards and values. (Relativism means to incorporate every child's cultural background and beliefs and that they are equally valid.)

1.4.4. 4. DECLINE OF AUTHORITY: The loss of authority and discipline. Liberals and radicals call for freedom and letting the children "express" themselves in order to be individualistic.

1.4.5. 5. STATE CONTROLLED: stifled with bureaucracy and inefficiency.

2. Ch. 3 History of U.S. Education

2.1. All of the education reforms seem important to me, but I feel that the Rise of the Common School to be most influential. For Horace Mann to initially take the stand that we should provide public access to elementary education for all is a great turning point.

2.1.1. The Rise of the Common School: freely publicly funded elementary schools--concerns for stability and order and social mobility. Opened access for ELEMENTARY EDUCATION

2.1.2. Horace Mann 1837, led a struggle for a free public education. Spoke of school as "the great equalizer of men." Saw schools as a means of addressing social problems. School was no longer limited to the wealthy.

2.2. Conservative Perspective on the historical interpretation of U.S. Education feels that our education system has diluted our academics.

2.2.1. Believed that the historical pursuit of social and political objectives resulted in significant harm to the traditional academic goals of schooling.

2.2.2. Diane Ravitch 1980's more conservative stance, feels that politics use education to try and solve social problems and has led to the decline of educational excellence.

2.2.2.1. Ravitch feels that the system has adjusted their curriculum too much in order to appease immigrant or disadvantaged groups and thus has violated the fundamental function of schooling, which is to develop the powers of intelligence.

2.2.2.2. Ravitch believes system ought to be fair and honest, but also argued that efforts at multiculturalism are often historically incorrect and neglect our heritage.

2.2.2.3. Praises schools for being part of a large-scale social improvement, but damns them for losing their academic standards in the process.

2.2.3. Allan Bloom and E.D. Hirsch, Jr pointed to the failure of so-called progressive education to fulfill the U.S. lofty goals without sacrificing academic quality.

2.2.3.1. Bloom blames universities for watering down their curriculums.

2.2.3.2. Hirsch blames the public schools for valuing skills over content

3. Ch. 4 Sociological Perspectives of Education: the relationship between school and society. **Sociologists take interest in how schools act as agents of culture and social transmissions.

3.1. Define each of the theoretical perspectives concerning the relationship between school and society:

3.1.1. 1. Conflict Theory: feels that social order is based on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups through force, cooptation, and manipulation.

3.1.1.1. Through this view the economy is held together by economic, political, cultural, and military power.

3.1.1.1.1. From a conflict point of view, schools are similar to social battlefields, where students struggle against teachers, teachers against administrators, etc.

3.1.2. 2. Functionalist Theory: focuses on how parts of society work together. Functionalists view society as a machine where one part causes another part to work and produce energy that makes society work.

3.1.2.1. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917): virtually invented sociology of education; believed that education in most all societies, was important in creating the moral unity necessary for social harmony and cohesion.

3.1.2.1.1. Durkheim's emphasis on values and cohesion shaped present day functionalists view on education.

3.1.3. 3. Interactionalist Theory: primarily critiques and extensions of the functionalist and conflict perspectives.

3.1.3.1. Critiques arises from the observation that functionalist and conflict theories are very abstract and emphasize structure and process at a very general (macrosociological) level of analysis.

3.1.3.1.1. Interactionist theries attempt to make the commonplace strange by turning on their heads every day taken-for-granted behaviors and interactions between students and teachers, and students and students.

3.2. Identify and describe 5 effects of schooling on individuals that you think have the greatest impact on students as explained in the book.

3.2.1. 1. Knowledge and Attitudes: the more education a person receives, the greater knowledge and social participation that person presents.

3.2.1.1. According to Ron Edmonds (1979), children who are given opportunities in schools with higher academic standards have higher rates of learning.

3.2.1.2. An important study conducted by Heyns (1978) found that 6th & 7th grade students who went to summer school, used the library, and read a great deal in the summer made greater gains in knowledge than pupils who didn't study in the summer.

3.2.2. 2. Teacher behavior: in a study conducted by Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968), teachers' expectations of students were found to directly influence student achievement.

3.2.2.1. Labels that teachers apply to children can influence actual performance. If a teacher feels that a certain child has more potential, they will expect more out of that child.

3.2.2.2. Self-fulfilling prophecy indicates that teachers' expectations play major role in encouraging or discouraging students to work to their full potential.

3.2.3. 3. Student Peer Groups and Alienation: Labels put on students while in school.

3.2.3.1. Alienation of students into certain groups can lead to violence in schools towards teachers and other students.

3.2.3.2. As students are labeled by their peers in school, this label can continue after high school and into their college career. These students are categorized into how they will approach and complete (or not) their college education.

3.2.4. 4. Employment: students that receive a good education have more employment opportunities.

3.2.4.1. Employers expect their workers to have a formal education. Unfortunately, just because a student has a higher education, it doesn't necessarily mean that as an employee they will preform well at their job.

3.2.5. 5. Mobility: defined as the belief that occupational and social mobility begin at the school. A good education opens the doors of opportunity.

3.2.5.1. The number of years a person receives in higher education and where they received it affects their mobility. Private schools may represent a more prestigious educational route.

4. Ch. 5 Philosophy of Education

4.1. Existentialism

4.1.1. Generic Notations: These philosophers believe that people are placed on earth alone and must make sense of their life through ups and downs. People are always learning and developing through experiences. People have the freedom to make choices and have to be responsible for their outcomes.

4.1.2. Key Researchers: roots of existentialism can go back as far as the Bible. More recent philosophers include: Martin Buber (1878-1965), Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), Jean Paul Sartre (1905-1986), and Maxine Greene.

4.1.3. Goal of Education: believe that education should focus needs of students' individually. Also believe that stresses should be addressed, especially anxiety created by conflict.

4.1.4. Role of Teachers: These philosophers believe that a teacher should be very personal with their students. They believe a teacher should help the students by taking risks that may expose more of themselves than a teacher feels comfortable. In doing this, a teacher may be able to reach hard to reach students. A teacher should enable their students to become "wide awake." A teacher should have a great understanding of the "lived world" and help their students accomplish their own best "lived world."

4.1.5. Method of Instruction: They believe that their is no certain "method," but that each student learns differently and the teacher should learn what works for each child. The teacher should then adapt their lessons and work together with the child to understand the world around them.

4.1.6. Curriculum: Interested in humanities, in particular literature that allows for questions to be presented and in result help the children develop a new awareness. Also art, drama, and music that encourage personal interaction.

5. Ch. 6 Schools as Organizations

5.1. Stake holders in Alabama

5.1.1. Alabama's Federal State Senators are: Richard Shelby and Doug Jones.

5.1.2. Alabama's House of Representatives are: Bradley Byrne, Martha Roby, Mike Rogers, Robert Aderholt, Mo Brooks, Gary Palmer, & Terri Sewell.

5.1.3. State Superintendent: Alabama has an interim superintendent who is Dr. Ed Richardson.

5.1.4. Representative on State school board: Senator Paul Bussman

5.1.5. Local Superintendent: Cullman County has two superintendents because the schools are divided up between city and county. Susan Patterson is the city's and Shane Barnette is the county's.

5.1.6. Members On Cullman's City & County School Board

5.1.6.1. City School Board Members include: Suzanne Harbin, Jason Neal, Chris Branham, Joey Orr, and Lee Powell

5.1.6.2. County School Board members include: Wayne Myrex, Chris Carter, Jason Speegle, Kenny Brockman, Heath Allbright, Mike Graves, & Gene Sullins

5.2. Identify and explain Elements of Change within school processes and school culture.

5.2.1. 1. School Processes: elements involved with school processes deal with being able to keep order within a school day. Teachers have material that they want to cover and have to stop and go as they address disruptions within their classroom. A teacher must have established authority and respect from the students in order to accomplish teaching goals. Also teachers must deal with, not only reaching their goals, but also pressure from the administration who is trying to comply with higher up goals as well. This can cause tension within a school.

5.2.2. 2. School Culture is the result of many different people/organizations interest. Schools are very political. The principal shapes the culture of a school. They are the ones who decide what goals should be met, how discipline is carried out, and what their school's academic expectations will be. School culture is very difficult to change because how they are organized. Change within a school takes time, patience, lots of work and having intelligent individuals involved and dedicated to the change.

6. Ch. 7 Curriculum, Pedagogy, & the Transmission of Knowledge

6.1. Curriculum theory that I advocate

6.1.1. The Developmental Curriculum focuses on the needs and interests of the students rather than the needs of society.

6.1.1.1. Student centered and relates the curriculum to what student will need for life experiences, which in turn makes the lesson come alive.

6.2. Two dominant traditions of teaching.

6.2.1. 1.Didactic (Mimetic) Method: Involves lecture and presentations as main form of teaching. Focuses on the teacher and the learner (student) and that the student doesn't know what the teacher knows. Focus on the teacher being the authoritative figure in classroom. Considered "traditional"

6.2.2. 2. Transformative Method: believes students are changed in a meaningful way through education. Views teaching as an artistic endeavor. Less authoritarian view of teacher, and students are allowed more input. Considered "Progressive."

7. Ch. 9 Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Types of Cultural Differences Theory

7.1.1. 1. John Ogbu (Macrosocial Perspective) feel that black children do worse in school because they feel that they aren't worth doing well. Ogbu also did a study and created a hypothesis that there is an academic achievement gap between blacks and whites because blacks don't want to be accused of "acting white" by doing well in school.

7.1.2. Bourdieus' Concept of Social and Cultural Capital: points that different social classes raise their children differently. Children from more affluent families are exposed to greater learning opportunities vs. those from poorer backgrounds.

7.2. School Centered Reasons for Educational Inequalities

7.2.1. 1. School Financing: Public schools are financed mostly through property taxes. Schools receive different amounts because of the different values of property located within each school district. In result, poorer communities have less money for their schools.

7.2.2. 2. Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices: Theorists argue that there is a difference between schools because of the community that they are in--lower socioeconomic vs higher socioeconomic areas. Working class areas are more likely to have an authoritarian teachers and more focused on vocational learning whereas higher class areas offer more college oriented teaching as well as a classical-humanistic curriculum.

7.2.3. 3. Curriculum and Ability Grouping (Tracking by Ability): Students are divided into groups according to their race, class, gender or academic abilities.

7.2.4. 4. Gender and Schooling: Some feminists believe that "the argument that women are more caring and connected, and more more competitive and intellectual, may reproduce sexist stereotypes that historically justified the domestic roles of women. These feminists believe the traditional male and female characteristics are part of the full range of human possibilites, and that schools should socialize both boys and girls to be caring and connected" (p. 403).

8. Ch. 8 Educational Inequality

8.1. Describe how class, race and gender impact educational outcomes.

8.1.1. Effects of Race on Educational Outcomes

8.1.1.1. Blacks and Hispanics are more likely to drop out of school.

8.1.1.2. Extremely difficult to separate race from class.

8.1.2. Effects of Class on Educational Outcomes: studies show that class is related to achievement on reading and basic skills tests.

8.1.2.1. Lower class cannot afford expensive education.

8.1.2.2. Lower class has lower expectations for students to finish education.

8.1.2.3. Middle and Upper class families more likely to push students to continue education.

8.1.2.4. Lower class children may not be exposed to as many books or speak standard English.

8.1.2.5. Teachers tent to think more of middle and upper-class students.

8.1.3. Effects of Gender on Educational Outcomes

8.1.3.1. Females less likely to drop out of school and high a higher reading proficiency level than males.

8.1.3.2. Males have higher mathematics proficiency level

8.1.3.3. Even though there has been great change among the inequalities of men and women, women still are discriminated in our society occupationally and socially.

8.2. What were the two responses to the Coleman Study from 1982?

8.2.1. 1. Differences among schools DO make a difference

8.2.2. 2. Private schools were more effective learning environments because they are more focused on academic achievements and discipline and they expect more out of their students.

9. Ch. 10 Educational Reform

9.1. Describe two school-based reforms (school based, school business partnerships, privatization, school to work programs, teacher education or teacher quality.)

9.1.1. 1. Charter Schools: public schools that have more freedom from many regulations but are held accountable for student performance. Paid with tax dollars and must be open to all students within the district. Can be virtually started by anyone. Promoters of charter schools say that the school provides more effective and efficient education for lower-income students.

9.1.2. 2. Teacher Education: want to recognize and improve teacher working conditions in order to help educational problem.

9.1.2.1. Carnegie Report (1986): called for educational quality of teachers--"which would include the restructuring of schools and the teaching profession, the elimination of the undergraduate education major, the recruitment of minorities into the teaching profession, and the increase of standards in teacher education and in teaching.

9.2. Describe at least two societal, economic, community, or political reforms that impact education.

9.2.1. 1. School Finance Reform: potential to improve schools for low-income and minority children.

9.2.1.1. In 1990, the court ruled that more funding was needed in order to better educate the children in lower income areas. Extra funding was to be used for additional programs in order to eliminate disadvantages within poorer school districts.

9.2.1.2. Supplemental Funding: preschools, social services, increased security, technology, after-school, and summer-school programs.

9.2.1.3. In 2009, in New Jersey, the court ruled a new formula, SFRA, that gave money to the school districts based on the student need. The money follows the "at-risk" children.

9.2.2. 2. Full Service and Community Schools: educates not only the child, but the entire community. Designed to improve at-risk neighborhoods.

9.2.2.1. Models of full-service schools include: Canada's Harlem Children's Zone, Dryfoo's, and Newark's Broader Bolder Approach are all community-based reforms.

9.2.2.2. "Full service schools focus on meeting students' and their families' educational, physical, psychological, and social needs in a coordinated and collaborative fashion between school and community services" (p. 500).