My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Learning environment was different and the emphasis was more on learning and precision rather than thought and theory

2. Explanations of Educational Inequality - Chapter 9

2.1. The most influential factor in education is social class

2.1.1. Educational difference is the product of the relationship between socially established schools, social class and social interaction among students and teachers

2.1.2. Educational accomplishment, studies on gender and results of testing usually always revert back to social status

2.1.2.1. Unequal education performance, even within schools, can be a major factor

2.2. Two major sociological theories of education

2.2.1. Functionalists

2.2.1.1. Believe the purpose of schools is to make available a fair selection method for organizing students notwithstanding family background

2.2.1.2. Believe in equal opportunity for all students

2.2.2. Conflict Theorists

2.2.2.1. They are focused on not only equal chances for all students but for equal outcomes

2.3. Types of Cultural Differences Theories

2.3.1. African American students do less well in school because they adapt to their oppressed position in the class and structure

2.3.1.1. It is believed that there is a job maximum for minorities in the U. S.

2.3.1.1.1. Language and grade achievement also play a roll in this because 'slang-english' is documented as not spoken high of which leads to fewer successful job interviews

2.3.2. Working class and non white students resist the dominant culture of schools

2.3.2.1. Dominant culture of schools is resisted and academic success is not focused on. Basically they go from high school graduation or high school drop out to the working world.

2.3.2.2. Barriers concerning cultural differences exists but we should recognize that education achievements cannot be based solely on background. Each student is individually unique.

2.3.2.3. Prosperous families give their children entrance to art centers, library resources and widespread travels.

2.4. School Centered Explanations for Education Equality

2.4.1. Financing

2.4.1.1. There is a large difference between affluent schools and poor district schools

2.4.1.1.1. Private schools are funded by families are students and all private schools are not equal

2.4.1.2. Public schools are financed through revenues from taxes yet this does not ensure equality within all schools

2.4.2. Inequality in Schools

2.4.2.1. Schools themselves do not produce inequality. Many factors go into this.

2.4.2.2. It's complex and is a combination of students, teachers, tests, communities, culture and family life.

2.4.3. School Climates

2.4.3.1. There are still many differences among inner city schools and other schools

2.4.3.2. School climates can be conducive to positive academic achievement or they can take the 'just get by' attitude and not help or encourage learning

2.4.4. Student Grouping

2.4.4.1. Within most schools, students are grouped according to their ability or their test score results

2.4.4.2. This can either encourage or discourage students to strive to do better

2.4.4.3. Many times educators assume that students in the lower academic classes are not teachable.

2.5. Articles

2.5.1. It's not 'a black thing'

2.5.1.1. A study, 20 years ago, concerning the 'acting white' hypothesis determined it cannot be strictly a black culture

2.5.1.2. More recent studies show that any and all students that achieve outstanding grade accomplishments are labeled by other students

2.5.1.3. Many black students opt out of advanced classes, not because of negative peer pressure, but because they feel like they might not do well in the class.

2.5.2. Gender Inequalities in Education

2.5.2.1. It's a fact that men and women succeed in and do things differently and this carries from youth throughout adulthood

2.5.2.1.1. Females

2.5.2.1.2. Males

2.5.2.1.3. College

2.5.3. From Social Ties to Social Capital

2.5.3.1. Networks...social, family and organized activities directly affect students

2.5.3.2. Parent and family attitude toward education also directly affects student

2.5.3.3. How parents and students build on these networks is very important

2.5.4. A Black Students Reflection on Public and Private Schools

2.5.4.1. A 15 year old black females view, from direct experience, on both public and private education

2.5.4.1.1. Private

2.5.4.1.2. Public

3. Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Transmission of Knowledge - Chapter 7

3.1. History of Curriculum

3.1.1. Humanist

3.1.1.1. Focus on an array of intellectual skills and knowledge

3.1.1.2. Traditional Liberal Arts

3.1.1.3. Core subjects are emphasized

3.1.1.4. Focus on Western Traditions

3.1.2. Social Efficency

3.1.2.1. Varied Curriculum

3.1.2.1.1. Individualized and flexible studies based on needs and aspirations

3.1.2.2. Scientiric Management

3.1.2.2.1. Defined areas of knowledge and how to transmit it based on individual student ability

3.1.2.3. Standardized Testing

3.1.2.3.1. The definition of ability is based on test performance results

3.1.2.3.2. Utilized to place students on specific curriculum tracks

3.1.3. Developmentalist

3.1.3.1. Emphasizes the process of teaching as well as the content and student ability

3.1.3.1.1. Student Centered

3.1.3.1.2. Flexible and not so structured

3.1.4. Social Meliorist

3.1.4.1. Progressive Eduction

3.1.4.1.1. Academic

3.1.4.1.2. Vocational

3.2. Politics of Curriculum

3.2.1. Conflicts are more likely to occur in public schools than in private schools

3.2.1.1. There has always been and will always be conflicts concerning curriculum

3.3. In my opinion the best curriculum theory is the Developmentalist theory

3.3.1. All students do not learn the same way and this theory emphasizes flexibility on the individual students, not just on test scores

3.3.2. The focus is as much on the subject as on the teacher. Teacher makes all the difference in whether this theory is successful. Many times a subject is only as interesting as the teacher makes it.

3.4. Two Dominant traditions of teaching

3.4.1. Mimetic Tradition

3.4.1.1. Process of transforming information from teacher to student in the form of lectures and involves a relationship between student and teachers

3.4.2. Transformative Tradition

3.4.2.1. More than just a transfer of knowledge from teacher to student. This theory gives a more complex way of teaching that involves the whole student, his or her creativity, emotions and all aspects of the student as a person, not just their book knowledge

3.4.3. Most successful teachers combine both of these traditions

3.5. Articles

3.5.1. The Politics of a National Curriculum

3.5.1.1. While there should be controls, education is not just about numbers, its about educating our society to become better.

3.5.2. The Mimetic and the Transformative

3.5.2.1. These two traditions should not be totally separate but should mesh and overlap for the betterment of all students and teachers

3.5.3. The Silenced Dialogue

3.5.3.1. Basic Education is education and includes the cores of English, History, Math, and reading. All involve learning.

3.5.3.1.1. Within this basic education, every culture, whether Native American, African Americans, whites or others, should be honored and be allowed to express their culture while in this atmosphere of learning.

4. Educational Reform and School Improvement - Chapter 10

4.1. Significant Education Problems

4.1.1. Standards of education needs to be increased

4.1.2. U. S. educational goals were announced by G. H. W. Bush in 1990

4.1.2.1. Within each goal were individual implementation commitments for schools

4.1.2.1.1. These goals have been revamped and expanded since the initial goals were set

4.1.3. Roles of Teachers and schools in solving educational problems

4.1.3.1. Talented and dedicated teachers can make a difference

4.1.3.2. Problems within the system cannot be solved simply by relying on teachers alone

4.1.3.2.1. Much of the problems still rely on the encouragement of parents and the importance they place on their children's education.

4.2. School Based Reforms

4.2.1. Privatization

4.2.1.1. Lines of distinction between public and private schools have blurred significantly

4.2.1.2. Failing school Districts have been managed by for-profit companies hired by individual states

4.2.1.3. Supplemental tutoring has been made available

4.2.1.4. The educational marker for this type of teaching and supplemental education continues to grow

4.2.2. Teacher Quality

4.2.2.1. Hiring and retaining high quality teachers is one of the most important problems in American Education

4.2.2.2. Out of Field teachers who are teaching classes that do not line up with their education is on the rise

4.2.2.3. The staying power of teachers should increase back to the point where they teach and retire from the same school. The continuity of this process is important to both school and students.

4.3. Reforms that impact education

4.3.1. Accountability

4.3.1.1. Focus is on rewards instead of true learning

4.3.1.2. Twenty-three states have taken greater control over education within individual school districts

4.3.1.3. If properly done these measures will assist in higher education and student success

4.3.1.4. One problem that this has is that the people making decisions are unprepared and do not understand all aspects to take necessary measures

4.3.1.4.1. Very little research ahs been done as to the total effectiveness of state intervention

4.3.2. Full service and community schools

4.3.2.1. Education is focused on entire communities and not just the individual children

4.3.2.2. They establish community service centers that provide all types of services to not only the students buy parents and other adults in the community also.

4.3.2.3. It seems that the more involved parents and other adults are and the more they understand the importance of education the more successful the children will be.

4.3.3. School improvement

4.3.3.1. Three aspects of schooling

4.3.3.1.1. Integrative Realm

4.3.3.1.2. Developmental Realm

4.3.3.1.3. Egalitarian Realm

4.4. Articles

4.4.1. A few thoughts on Making This Work

4.4.1.1. Education for all and striving to rethink processes of education and how to emphasize the importance of it.

4.4.1.2. Stressing quality education for everyone

4.4.1.3. Increasing the rewards for quality teachers

4.4.2. Education and Poverty

4.4.2.1. Creating or developing policies concerning education

4.4.2.2. This country was founded on outstanding education which is what we should get back to

4.4.2.3. Students learn quickly the importance parents and other adults place on education and they either rise to those expectations or they do just enough to get by...whichever their family emphasizes.

5. Equality of Opportunity and Educational Outcomes - Chapter 8

5.1. The American Dresm

5.1.1. Respect

5.1.2. Dignity

5.1.3. Equality

5.2. Economical Educational Outcomes

5.2.1. Class

5.2.1.1. Sometimes education is expensive and only mid to upper class can afford it

5.2.1.2. The opportunity for scholarships exists

5.2.1.3. Children of working class families are more likely to underachieve

5.2.2. Race

5.2.2.1. Race and class go hand in hand

5.2.2.2. Minority students tend to receive fewer educational opportunities

5.2.3. Gender

5.2.3.1. Females

5.2.3.1.1. Tend to have a higher level of reading proficiencey

5.2.3.1.2. Females are less likely to drop out of school

5.2.3.1.3. Females have a higher level of writing proficiencey

5.2.3.2. Males

5.2.3.2.1. Males are usually more proficient in math

5.2.3.2.2. Males are more likely to score better on SAT's than females

5.2.3.3. The gap is closing between females and males but society still discriminates against women both occupationally and socially

5.2.4. Schools

5.2.4.1. Schools really do make a difference

5.2.4.1.1. Students from socially elite schools have a greater marketability...they have broader opportunities

5.2.4.2. Sociologists James Coleman The Coleman Study 1982

5.2.4.2.1. James Coleman received a large grant to study the relationship between the organizational characteristics and student achievement

5.3. Articles

5.3.1. Class and the Classroom

5.3.1.1. Educational challenges have and probably will always exist

5.3.1.2. Culture and class go hand in hand with achievement

5.3.1.2.1. In part because its been carried down from generation to generation

5.3.1.2.2. The emphasis parents place on education plays a large part in the childs view of the importance of education

5.3.1.2.3. Most success or failure goes back to the expectations and aspirations of family

5.3.1.3. Social and economically disadvantaged students can decrease the gap over time

5.3.2. Chartering and Bartering

5.3.2.1. Privilege and social status gives the students greater opportunities for education and employment

5.3.2.2. College advisors give more advantages to upper class students

5.3.2.3. Networks offered are built over time and with connectivity through generational relationships

5.3.3. College for all

5.3.3.1. Social barriers do play a major role in educational opportunities

5.3.3.2. High school counselors do not properly prepare students for the complex process of college

5.3.3.3. Students need more detailed understanding of what to expect when they start college

6. Schools as Organizations - Chapter 6

6.1. Butler County Alabama Board Members and Superintendent and Governmental Representatives

6.1.1. Superintendent - Dr. John Strycker

6.1.2. Board Members

6.1.2.1. Linda Hamilton

6.1.2.2. Mickey Jones

6.1.2.3. Michael Nimmer

6.1.2.4. Lois Robinson

6.1.2.5. Brandon Sellers

6.1.3. Alabama Legislature Representatives

6.1.3.1. Republican Representative House District 90 - Representative Chris Sells

6.1.3.2. Democrative Representative Senate District 23 - Senator Hank Sanders

6.2. School Systems shape our lives in many ways

6.2.1. Schools all over the world

6.2.1.1. United States

6.2.1.1.1. Each State, within the United States, has it's own public and private school system and each state has individualized school districts

6.2.1.1.2. Education in the United States is a large part of the business world

6.2.1.1.3. United States Schools are funded and ran by voting, board meetings and taxes

6.2.1.2. Great Britain

6.2.1.2.1. National Set of Courses are Centralized and orderly

6.2.1.3. France

6.2.1.3.1. Education System in strictly controlled by the Central Government

6.2.1.3.2. France highly encourages higher (college) eduction

6.2.1.4. Japan

6.2.1.4.1. Very successful education program

6.2.1.4.2. Produce successful common workers as well as management prospects

6.2.1.4.3. Japan emphasizes achievement and success

6.2.1.4.4. Japan encourages a love for learning within all students

6.2.1.5. Germany

6.2.1.5.1. Dictated and driven by each students early education

6.2.1.5.2. Germany assures that students are kept on track within the education system

6.2.1.6. Finland

6.2.1.6.1. Student achievement is the focus

6.2.1.6.2. They offer very few standardized testing with a focus on individualized learning

6.2.1.6.3. Teachers must pass a strict selection process and, because of this, it's difficult to become a teacher in Finland

6.3. A greater understanding through articles

6.3.1. Contradictions of Reform

6.3.1.1. The subject Mrs. Watts tends to feel as if she's meeting certain standards instead of actually teaching her students

6.3.1.1.1. Having the desire to teach is critical in order to be a good teacher

6.3.1.1.2. Being committed to teaching is vital as well as having a love for the subject you are teaching

6.3.1.2. Magnet Schools

6.3.1.2.1. The intention of Magnet Schools was to bring a higher level of education to students capable of advancement

6.3.1.3. Teacher Assessment

6.3.1.3.1. Teachers pay and advancement all tends to hinge on test results

6.3.2. Rich Land, Poor Schools

6.3.2.1. Unequal educational opportunities are both a result of education policies and unintentional consequences

6.3.2.2. In many countries, children are 'sorted' which creates a difference in basic educational resources as well as teachers

6.3.2.3. According to studies, disadvantaged American students are at a distinct disadvantage having a higher risk for educational failure

6.3.2.4. There is no right or wrong answer. It's a very complex problem that is basically a worldwide problem

6.3.2.5. This disadvantage creates a challenge to national economic and social development

6.3.2.6. Overall, the impacts of education influences the economy as well as the invaluable outpouring of educated workers

6.3.3. Is the Supply of Mathematics and Science Teachers Sufficient?

6.3.3.1. One major problem is the increasing student enrollment versus increasing teacher retirement

6.3.3.1.1. National problems or solutions do not necessarily reflect all 'local' supply levels

6.3.3.2. Studies show that this problem is geographically bases and has been an ongoing problem over the past few decades

6.3.3.3. Another issue is that the number of courses required for high school graduation is a smaller number for math and science than it is for English. Thus created the demand for more English teachers and not science and math

6.3.3.4. Most schools in studies report problems filling teacher openings that apply to math and science

6.3.3.5. Basically, there is not a surplus of math and science teachers

6.3.3.6. Studies do not address teacher effectiveness, character, performance or their passion for teacher a subject

6.3.3.7. It seems as if this problem could be addressed and possibly solved by encouraging teachers to gravitate toward math and science.