Changes with Aging

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Changes with Aging by Mind Map: Changes with Aging

1. Reproductive System

1.1. Males

1.1.1. Andropause: decreased sperm count/testosterone

1.1.2. Erectile Dysfunction: can't maintain an erection

1.1.3. Prostate Enlargement

1.2. Females

1.2.1. Less vascular epithelium and thinner

1.2.2. Produce less secretory fluid

1.2.3. Uterus shrinks

1.2.4. Ovary changes: becoming thicker and smaller

1.2.5. Cervix gets smaller

1.2.6. Flatter Labia, loss of SubQ fat

1.2.7. Menopause

1.2.8. Cancer

1.2.8.1. Breast Cancer

1.2.8.2. Cancer of the Vagina

1.2.8.3. Cervix Cancer

1.2.8.4. Ovarian Cancer

1.2.9. Prolapsed Uterus

2. Neurological Changes

2.1. Fraility

2.2. Failure to thrive

2.3. Impaired Cognition

2.3.1. Delerium

2.3.2. Dementia

2.3.2.1. Alzheimer's Disease

2.3.2.2. Parkinson's disease, Aids, trauma and toxins

2.4. Altered Sleep

2.4.1. Insomnia

2.4.2. Sleep Apnea

2.5. Reduction in neurons, nerve fibers and cerebral blood flow

3. Physical Appearance

3.1. Hair loss, graying

3.2. wrinkles

3.3. loss of tissue elasticity

3.4. diminished stature

4. Respiratory System

4.1. Calcification of costal cartilage

4.2. rib cage more rigid

4.3. reduced cough and laryngeal reflex

4.4. increased residual capacity

4.5. reduced vital capacity

4.6. COPD

4.6.1. asthma

4.6.2. chronic bronchitis

4.6.3. emphysema

4.7. Lung Cancer

4.8. Lung Abscess

5. Cardiovascular System

5.1. heart muscles loosen

5.2. reduced cardiac output

5.3. thick and rigid valves

5.4. blood vessels reduce elasticity

5.5. oxygen used less efficiently

5.6. hypertension/hypotension

5.7. congestive heart failure

5.8. pulmonary emboli

5.9. hyperlipidemia

5.10. Varicose Veins

5.11. Heart Failure

6. Gastrointestinal System

6.1. less acute taste sensation

6.2. decreased esophageal motility

6.2.1. dysphagia

6.3. atrophy of small and large intestines

6.4. increased risk for aspiration, indigestion and constipation

6.5. Xerostomia- from decreased saliva production

6.6. Hiatal Hernia

6.7. Esophageal Cancer/Stomach cancer/colorectal cancer

6.8. Peptic Ulcer disease

6.9. Diverticular disease

6.10. Intestinal Obstruction

7. Renal System

7.1. Hypertrophy and thickening of bladder muscles

7.2. kidney filtration decreases

7.3. daytime urinary frequency/nocturia

7.4. Inefficient neurological control of bladder emptying and weaker bladder muscles

7.5. Urinary incontinence

7.5.1. stress

7.5.2. urgency

7.5.3. overflow

7.5.4. neurogenic

7.5.5. functional

7.5.6. mixed

7.6. Bladder cancer

7.7. Renal calculi

7.8. Glomerulonephritis

8. Integumentary

8.1. reduced thickness and vascularity of the dermis

8.2. degeneration of elasticitc fibers

8.3. increased coarseness of collagen

8.4. reduction of melanocytes

8.5. decline in hair and nail growth

8.6. skin becomes more fragile

8.7. body image misconceptions

8.8. pruritus

8.9. keratosis

8.9.1. actinic or solar keratoses

8.10. seborrhea keratosis

8.11. skin cancer

8.11.1. basal cell carcinoma

8.11.2. squamous cell carcinoma

8.11.3. melanoma

8.12. stasis dermatitis

8.13. pressure ulcers

9. Musculoskeletal System

9.1. decline in size and number of muscle fibers, reduction in muscle mass

9.2. decreased body strength

9.3. endurance declines

9.4. reduced flexibility

9.5. brittle bones

9.5.1. fractures

9.5.2. osteoporosis

9.6. osteoarthritis

9.7. rheumatoid arthritis

9.8. gout

10. Sensation

10.1. vision

10.1.1. reduced elasticity and stiffening of the muscle fibers on the lens

10.1.1.1. decreased ability to focus

10.1.1.1.1. presbyopia

10.1.2. reduced pupil size

10.1.3. opacification of th lens and vitreous

10.1.4. light perception decreases

10.1.5. dark and light adaptation takes longer

10.1.6. difficulty night vision

10.1.7. disorder depth perception

10.1.8. clouding of lens

10.1.8.1. cataracts

10.1.9. damage to optic nerve

10.1.9.1. glaucoma

10.1.10. corneal ulcer

10.1.11. detached retina

10.2. hearing

10.2.1. impacting communication

10.2.1.1. sensorineural hearing loss

10.2.1.1.1. presbycusis

10.2.2. impacted cerumen

10.2.3. otosclerosis

10.2.4. tinnitus

10.3. additional:

10.3.1. taste buds decrease

10.3.2. decreased tactile sensation

10.3.3. cant differentiate temperatures

11. Endocrine

11.1. diminished adrenal function

11.2. ACTH secretion decreases

11.3. insufficient insulin release

11.3.1. reduced sensitivity to insulin

11.3.1.1. type 2 dm

11.4. volume of pituitary gland decreases

11.5. thyroid gland atrophy

11.5.1. decreased function

11.5.1.1. primary hypothyroidism

11.5.1.2. secondary hypothyroidism

11.5.1.3. uncontrolled weight gain

11.6. diabetes

11.7. hypothyroidism