Biological Basis of Behavior

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Biological Basis of Behavior by Mind Map: Biological Basis of Behavior

1. The Nervous System

1.1. How do we Examine the nervous System?

1.1.1. EEG: tracks and records brain waves via receptors on the scalp

1.1.2. CT: An x-ray that shows details of body organs

1.1.3. PET: Image that reveals how your organs are functioning

1.1.4. MRI: Detailed image of the body's tissues and bones

1.2. fMRI: Measures brain usage

1.3. Neuron: A nerve cell

1.3.1. Synapse: Gap between neurons

1.3.2. Motor neurons: Take impulses from brain to muscles

1.3.3. Sensory neurons: Take outer stimuli and converts them into internal impulses.

1.3.4. Interneuron: neuron that communicates between neurons

1.3.5. Dendrite: Branch like structures on a neuron that receive synapsis

1.3.6. Axon: Protruding structure from a neuron that sends impulses Myelin sheath: Fatty covering of the axon.

1.3.7. Action Potential: the impulse

1.3.8. Threshold: how much of the impulse

1.3.9. Reuptake: the retreat of the impulse

1.4. Nervous System: Network of nerves that send and retrieves impulses

1.4.1. Peripheral Nervous System:The outside nervous system excluding the brain and spinal chord Autonomic Nervous System: System of involuntary movements Sympathetic Nervous System: Fight or Flight? Parasympathetic Nervous System: Actions that don't need immediate reaction (sexual arousal) Somatic Nervous System: System of voluntary movements

1.4.2. Central Nervous Sytem: Brain and spinal chord, it controls activities Glial Cells: support and protect neurons in the CNS

1.5. Endocrine System: glands that secrete hormones

2. The physical brain

2.1. Consciousness: Awareness of self

2.1.1. Dual Processing: Theory that thoughts come from controlled and uncontrolled processes.

2.2. The Forebrain

2.2.1. Thalamus: Gray matter between brain hemispheres

2.2.2. Limbic System: Controls instinct and mood Amygdala: 1 on each side, emotions, mood, and instincts.

2.2.3. Hypothalamus: Connects endocrine system to nervous system

2.2.4. Cerebral Cortex: Largest part of brain, controls higher brain functions Motor Cortex: Where muscle impulses start Frontal Lobes: behavior, learning, personality, voluntary movement. Broca's Area: functions linked to speech production Parietal Lobes: Reception and correlation of senses Occipital: Visual processing center Temporal: Understanding of speech Wenicke's Area: Place of comprehension of speech Corpus Collosum: Nerve fibers that join the two hemispheres

2.2.5. Sensory Cortex: receives all sensory inputs

2.3. The Midbrain

2.3.1. Brainstem: Trunk of brain Medulla Oblongata: lowest part of brainstem, controls lungs and heart. Reticular Formation: Connects brainstem to spinal chord, cerebrum, and cerebellum. Controls Consciousness Cerebellum: Back base of brain. It regulates and coordinates your muscles

2.4. Michael Gazzniga: Professor of cognitive neuroscience

3. Brain Disorders/Conditions

3.1. Phineas Gage: Had a pole through his head but could still speak and walk

3.2. Plasticity: The brain's ability to change due to experience

3.2.1. Rosenweig, Bennett, and Diamond: Conducted experiments to see how plasticity worked.

3.3. Parkinson's: Affecting midbrain that limits movement, includes tremors

3.4. Aphasia: disorder affecting speech and language skills, from damage or illness.

3.4.1. Karl Wernicke: Conducted research of Aphasia.

3.5. Split Brain: The corpus Collosum is severed

3.5.1. Roger Sperry: Conducted split brain research

4. Genetics

4.1. Robert Plomin: Studies Genetics

4.2. Natural Selection: Survival of the fittest


4.3. Identical Twins: Twins born from a split egg and a single sperm cell.

4.3.1. Thomas Bouchard: Studied identical twins separated at birth, Jim twins

4.3.2. David Lykken: Best known for lie tests and twin studies

4.4. Genes: The genetic instruction inside of a chromosome

4.4.1. Chromosomes: Thread like structures in nucleus of cells

4.4.2. Francis Collins: Said we can look at genome to see how you will be

4.5. Behavior Genetics: Study of environmental and genetic influences on behavior

4.6. Fraternal twins: Twins from two separately fertilized eggs.

4.7. Heritability: statistic that measures degree of genetic variation

5. David Buss: Studies in evolutionary psych. and mate selection

6. Alice Eagly: Social Psychology, personality, and industrial

7. Wendy wood: study of psychology of gender and habits of behavior change