Sensation and Perception

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Sensation and Perception by Mind Map: Sensation and Perception

1. Absolute threshold- least amount of stimuli needed to be processed

1.1. Subliminal: sensed below the level on consciousness

1.2. Difference threshold- smallest amount things can be different in order to notice the difference

1.2.1. Weber's Law: The change in a stimulus that is noticeable is a constant ratio of the original stimulus

2. How do we sense things?

2.1. Sensation- processes that allow the brain to take in information.

2.1.1. Nicholas Spanos: Also worked with hypnosis

2.1.2. Ernst Hilgard: discovered hypnosis

2.1.3. Perception- recognizing and interpreting sensory input

2.1.3.1. Priming: exposure to a stimulus affects later exposure

2.1.3.2. Intentional blindness: someone fails to see something in plain sight

2.1.3.2.1. Change blindness- people don't notice change in images

2.1.3.3. Bottom up processing:sensory data is pieced together based on only sensory inputs

2.1.3.4. Top down processing-sensory starts in our brain and then goes to our senses

2.1.3.5. Selective attention: responding to stimuli when several occur at once

2.1.3.6. Signal Detection Theory- how we distinguish patterns from non-patterns

2.1.3.7. Sensory Adaptation: change in response to a stimuli over time

2.1.3.7.1. Habituation: diminishing emotional effect of a stimuli

2.1.3.8. Transduction: How the brain takes outside stimuli and transforms them into neural impulses

3. How do we see things?

3.1. Wavelength: wave of light that is converted into colors of the speectrum

3.1.1. Hue: color from a specific wavelength of light

3.2. The eye

3.2.1. Lens: What focuses light to the back of the eye, to the retina

3.2.2. Iris: Ring shaped membrane around the pupil

3.2.3. Pupil: The opening in your eye that allows light to enter

3.2.4. Retina: layer behind eye that trigger nerve impulses by being sensitive to light

3.2.5. Rods: give the ability to us to see in the dark

3.2.6. Cones: sharp images and color vision

3.2.7. optic nerve: transmits info from retina to brain

3.2.8. Blind spot: spot on the optic nerve that is unresponsive to light

3.2.9. fovea: small portion of retina where visuals are most clear

4. Sleeping

4.1. William Dement: Discovered sleep disorders

4.2. Eugene Aserinsky: accidentally discovered sleep stages

4.3. Nathaniel Leitman: Father of modern sleep research

5. Stanley cohen: discovered growth factors