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Fuels and new car technologies by Mind Map: Fuels and new car
technologies
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Fuels and new car technologies

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Costly, damaging to engines, low shelf life, low fuel density, large amount of land needed for crops

Hydrogen Fuel Cell

Definition

A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts a source fuel into an electrical current and water. It generates electricity inside a cell through reactions between a fuel and an oxidant, triggered in the presence of an electrolyte

Advantages

Only emissions are water vapour, Carbon neutral, greater efficiency, safe, quiet, low maintenance

Disadvantages

No good source of the element Hydrogen, Costly to liquid

Inventor

The concept was discovered in 1838 in Germany. The first functioning hydrogen fuel cell was built in 1843 by Sir William Robert Grove.

Mpg range

50-150 mpg

Electric Powered

Definition

An electric vehicle (EV), also referred to as an electric drive vehicle, is a vehicle which uses one or more electric motors for propulsion

Advantages

Does not produce pollution, Carbon neutral, lower cost of fuel, Batteries are recyclable, high fuel efficiency

Disadvantages

Takes a long time to recharge batteries, Batteries are quite large and heavy (a third of a electric cars weight is the battery) , limited distance able to travel

Inventor

In 1828, Hungarian, Ányos Jedlik invented a small-scale model car powered by an electric motor that he designed

Mpg range

80-400 Mpg

Alcohol Fuel

Definition

An alternative fuel that can be used to power vehicles

Advantages

Renewable, Cleaner burning than fossil fuels, high octane rating, non-toxic

Disadvantages

Inventor

n 1860, German inventor Nikolaus Otto uses ethyl alcohol as a fuel in an early internal combustion engine

Mpg range

20-50 mpg

Biofuels

Definition

A fuel derived directly from living matter e.g. Starch (Corn) crops, Rapeseed crops , Sugar crops

Advantages

Reduced CO2 emissions, saves drivers money, less particles pollution, biodegradable and renewable, non-toxic

Disadvantages

Large amount of land needed, less efficient and powerful than fossil fuels, can damage engines

Inventor

Biodiesel was most probably discovered in 1853 by two chemists making soap (E. Duffy and J. Patrick).

Mpg range

20-50 mpg

Fossil Fuels

Definition

fuel consisting of the remains of organisms preserved in rocks in the earth's crust with high carbon and hydrogen content

Advantages

Generates a huge amount of energy, easy to find, gas is very efficient

Disadvantages

Highly polluting, Produces high levels of CO2 when burnt, natural gas can produce displeasing odors, many environmental disasters are related with fossil fuels, e.g. nuclear meltdown, oil spills etc

Types

oal, petroleum, and natural gas

Hybrid Vehicles

Definition

A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to move the vehicle. The term most commonly refers to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which combine an internal combustion engine and one or more electric motors.

Advantages

Better performance, less CO2 emissions, better milage

Disadvantages

High cost, Low acceleration, expensive spare parts

Inventor

The first hybrid vehicle was invented by Victor Wouk in the 1990's

Mpg range

30-100 mpg