CHAPTER 6: THE PRESIDENCY

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CHAPTER 6: THE PRESIDENCY by Mind Map: CHAPTER 6: THE PRESIDENCY

1. 6.1 THE PRESIDENT

1.1. 1. ROLES OF THE PRESIDENT

1.1.1. 1. OFFFICIAL ROLES - 5 duties

1.1.1.1. a. chief executive

1.1.1.2. b. chief administrator

1.1.1.3. c. commander in chief

1.1.1.4. d. foreign policy leader

1.1.1.5. e. chief agenda setter

1.1.2. 2. UNOFFICIAL ROLES

1.1.2.1. a. chief of state

1.1.2.2. b. party leader

1.1.2.3. c. chief citizen

1.2. 2. FORMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PRESIDENCY

1.2.1. 1. FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS - 3 qualifications

1.2.1.1. a.

1.2.1.2. b.

1.2.1.3. c.

1.2.2. 2. TERM OF OFFICE

1.2.3. 3. ELECTION TO OFFICE

1.2.4. 4. SUCCESSION

1.2.5. 5. SALARY AND BENEFITS

1.3. 3. INFORMAL QUALIFICATIONS FOR THE PRESIDENCY - Experience and personal qualities the public looks for in a president

1.3.1. 1. PRESIDENTIAL BACKGROUNDS

1.3.2. 2. PERSONAL QUALITIES

1.4. QUESTIONS

1.4.1. What are the roles of the president?

1.4.2. What are the formal characteristics of the presidency?

1.4.3. What are the informal qualifications for the presidency?

1.5. VOCABULARY

1.5.1. chief executive

1.5.2. commander in chief

1.5.3. foreign policy

1.5.4. diplomacy

1.5.5. chief of state

1.5.6. succession

2. 6.2 POWERS OF THE PRESIDENCY

2.1. SUMMARY

2.1.1. Presidents swear to "preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States"

2.1.2. Three main powers

2.1.2.1. a. appointment and removal of key executive branch officials

2.1.2.2. b. issuing executive orders

2.1.2.3. c. maintaining executive privilege

2.2. 1. EXECUTIVE POWERS

2.2.1. 1. APPOINTMENT AND REMOVAL POWERS

2.2.1.1. Constitution gives president power to appoint people to top posts in executive branch

2.2.1.2. Often used as a political tool by putting people who support their policies in top positions

2.2.1.3. These people can be removed by the president at any time for any reason. Except for federal judges who have to be impeached by Congress.

2.2.2. 2. EXECUTIVE ORDERS

2.2.2.1. Presidents are the chief executive. Therefore can issue executive orders

2.2.2.2. executive order = rule or regulation that instructs executive branch officials how to do their jobs. Executive orders have the force of law

2.2.2.3. Not actually permitted by Constitution, but used as a way of "taking care that laws be faithfully executed"

2.2.2.3.1. Gives presidents great power to interpret laws

2.2.3. 3. EXECUTIVE PRIVILEGE

2.2.3.1. Allows president to refuse to release information to Congress or court

2.2.3.2. For example, used to shield information related to national security

2.2.3.3. Not mentioned in Constitution, but generally supported by the courts

2.3. 2. DIPLOMATIC AND MILITARY POWERS

2.3.1. 1. DIPLOMATIC POWERS

2.3.1.1. The president is the foreign policy leader and therefore represents the US in interactions with other countries

2.3.1.2. Gives president power to negotiate agreements, form alliances, establish trade relationships with other countries

2.3.1.3. Two-thirds of Senate must approve any treaty made by the president

2.3.1.4. Power to make executive decisions

2.3.1.4.1. Executive decision = agreements made between president and head of a foreign government

2.3.1.4.2. Does not require advice and consent of Senate

2.3.1.5. Power of diplomatic recognition

2.3.1.5.1. Power to formally recognize legitimacy of a foreign government

2.3.2. 2. MILITARY POWERS

2.3.2.1. Constitution gives Congress power to declare war but presidents historically claimed power to declare war without Congress declaring war

2.4. 3. LEGISLATIVE AND JUDICIAL POWERS

2.4.1. 1. LEGISLATIVE

2.4.1.1. President = chief agenda setter and has great power to influence work of Congress

2.4.1.2. President suggests legislation in the State of the Union address and the federal budget proposal

2.4.1.3. Main legislative power = to veto

2.4.1.3.1. After Congress passes a law, president can refuse to sign it. This is the power to veto

2.4.2. 2. JUDICIAL

2.4.2.1. Consitution gives president two ways to exercise judicial power

2.4.2.1.1. 1. Presidents may nominate people who become federal judges

2.4.2.1.2. 2. They may alter sentences of people convicted of crimes

2.5. 4. INFORMAL POWERS

2.5.1. Not directly stated in Constitution but are important to success of presidency

2.5.2. Two main sources

2.5.2.1. Access to media - presidents can easily present their story to the media

2.5.2.2. Position as party leader - party members in Congress are expected to follow the president's agenda

2.6. 5. CHECKS ON THE PRESIDENT'S POWERS

2.6.1. 1. FORMAL CHECKS

2.6.1.1. President's actions can be reviewed by judicial branch

2.6.1.2. Senate can block president's choice for top positions

2.6.1.3. Congress can reject a veto with two-thirds majority vote

2.6.2. 2. INFORMAL CHECKS

2.6.2.1. Media - the main informal check on the president because it keeps people informed about what the president is doing

2.6.2.2. Public approval

2.7. 6. CHANGES IN PRESIDENTIAL POWER

2.7.1. 1. THE FIRST 100 YEARS

2.7.1.1. Framers created government based on separation of powers

2.7.1.2. most government power given to Congress

2.7.2. 2. PRESIDENTIAL POWER EXPANDS

2.7.2.1. Civil War was turning point because President Lincoln had to take on great powers

2.7.2.2. President Theodore Roosevelt and Franklin Roosevelt both increased power of the executive branch

2.7.3. 3. PRESIDENTIAL POWER AND THE MEDIA

2.7.3.1. Media can scrutinize and criticize a president

2.7.3.2. Presidents try to control their image in the media

2.8. QUESTIONS

2.8.1. What are the executive powers of the president?

2.8.2. What are the diplomatic and military powers of the president?

2.8.3. How does the president exercise legislative and judicial powers?

2.8.4. What are some of the informal powers of the president?

2.8.5. How are the president's powers checked by the other branches?

2.8.6. In what ways has presidential power changed over the years?

2.9. VOCABULARY

2.9.1. executive orders

2.9.2. executive privilege

2.9.3. diplomatic recognition

2.9.4. reprieve

2.9.5. pardon

2.9.6. amnesty

2.9.7. commute

3. 6.3 THE PRESIDENT'S ADMINISTRATION

3.1. 1. EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT

3.1.1. 1. FORMATION OF THE E.O.P.

3.1.2. 2. THE WHITE HOUSE OFFICE

3.1.3. 3. NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL

3.1.4. 4. COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISORS

3.1.5. 5. THE O.M.B.

3.2. 2. THE VICE PRESIDENT

3.2.1. 1. THE EARLY VICE PRESIDENCY

3.2.2. 2. THE MODERN VICE PRESIDENCY

3.3. 3. THE CABINET

3.3.1. 1. THE CABINET'S HISTORY

3.3.2. 2. THE CABINET TODAY

3.4. QUESTIONS

3.4.1. What is the Executive Office of the president and what are its duties?

3.4.2. How has the role of the vice presidency changed over time?

3.4.3. What is the cabinet and how does it work with the president?

3.5. VOCABULARY

3.5.1. administration

3.5.2. executive office of the president

3.5.3. White House Office

3.5.4. chief of staff

3.5.5. National Security Council

3.5.6. Council of Economic Advisors

3.5.7. Office of Management and Budget

3.5.8. executive departments