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1. In 610 ce Muhammed visited the cave and experienced a revelation from Jibril

2. Religion and the Existence of God

2.1. Arguments Against the Existence of God

2.1.1. Science

2.1.1.1. Atheists believe that religion and God were invented by people to answer questions about the origins of the universe that couldn't be answered any other way

2.1.1.2. Science can now answer the questions that couldn't be answered in the past, and it will be able to answer questions in the future that can't be answered now

2.1.1.3. According to the Bible or Qur'an, scientific accounts don't contradict religion

2.1.1.3.1. Science reveals the laws by which God created the universe

2.1.1.3.2. Science and faith are partners in understanding the meaning of life

2.1.2. Evil and Suffering

2.1.2.1. God is all knowing, loving and powerful, so why does evil exist?

2.1.2.2. Theists believe that God gave everyone free will to make their own choices and allowing suffering means people can make mistakes and learn from them

2.2. Different Ideas About the Divine

2.2.1. Omnipotent

2.2.1.1. All powerful

2.2.2. Omniscient

2.2.2.1. All knowing

2.2.3. Benevolent

2.2.3.1. Loving

2.2.4. Personal

2.2.4.1. God has human characteristics such as mercy

2.2.5. Impersonal

2.2.5.1. God has no human characterises, is unknowable like an idea or a force

2.2.6. Immanent

2.2.6.1. God is present and involved in all life

2.2.6.1.1. "he is with you wherever you are' -

2.2.7. Transcendent

2.2.7.1. Beyond and separate from our universe

2.3. The Value of Revelation and Enlightenment

2.3.1. Revelation can provide proof of Gods existence, enable believers to have a relationship with the divine, help people know Gods wishes

2.4. Arguments for Gods Existence

2.4.1. The Design Argument

2.4.1.1. Because everything is so intricately made it must have been created by God

2.4.1.2. Muslims believe that God created humans to be in charge of his world and it has complex structures, therefore it must have been designed and only God can do this

2.4.1.3. Paley argued that the workings of a watch are so intricate they must have been made by a watch maker , this is the same as the Earth, except God is the watch maker

2.4.1.4. Newton used the human thumbs evidence that God designed the universe - the thumb is designed to allow humans do stuff such as hold a pen, being so designed like this, a God must have designed it

2.4.2. First Cause Argument

2.4.2.1. Everything that exists has a cause to explain its existence

2.4.2.1.1. The universe exists, so it must have a cause

2.4.2.2. Objections

2.4.2.2.1. If everything that exists has a cause, what caused God?

2.4.2.2.2. Surely the universe can be eternal if God can be

2.4.2.2.3. The Big Bang was the cause

2.4.3. Argument From Miracles

2.4.3.1. Theists argue that if there is no scientific explanation for something happening, it must have been caused by something outside of nature e.g God

2.4.3.1.1. God is the only thing outside of nature that could have caused it

2.4.3.1.2. These events are the result of Gods intervention

2.4.3.2. Non theists may argue that miracles are no more than coincedence

2.4.3.2.1. They may be explained by science we haven't discovered yet

2.4.3.2.2. Healings could be the result of mind over matter

2.4.3.3. Religions depends on miracles to prove they are true but not all religions can be right

2.4.3.4. Christians view miracles as evidence of Gods existence

2.4.3.4.1. Jesus worked many miracles, e.g healings

2.4.3.4.2. Jesus incarnation and resurrection are considered the most important miracles

2.4.3.4.3. Lourdes is recognised by the church as a place where miracles occur, 69 miracles have been recorded there

2.4.3.5. Muslims do not believe that miracles is not a strong argument for God and there are few modern examples of miracles

2.4.3.5.1. The supreme miracle is the revelation of the Quran to Muhammed, no human could write such a book without God's intervention

2.4.3.5.2. Muslims do not see miracles as important

2.5. Revelation

2.5.1. Special Revelation

2.5.1.1. A person experiencing God directly in an event

2.5.1.1.1. E.g Mary receiving a special revelation from the Angel Gabriel when being told she would become the mother of Jesus

2.5.1.1.2. Muhammed receiving the Quran from the Angel Jibril

2.5.1.2. Visions

2.5.1.2.1. In Christianity and Islam it is interpreted as being a spiritual experience

2.5.1.2.2. Christians believe there are several examples of visions in the Bible e.g Sauls vision on the Damascus Road

2.5.1.2.3. Atheists argue that visions can be seen by sleep deprivation or drug use

2.5.2. General Revelation

2.5.2.1. Gods presence in nature

2.5.2.1.1. The beauty and power of the world around us reveals God, leads to awe and wonder at his power to create and destroy

2.5.2.1.2. Atheists argue that observing nature can lead to further scientific truth

2.5.2.2. Lives of religious leaders close to God

2.5.2.3. A persons morality

2.5.2.4. Worship and reading scriptures

2.5.2.4.1. When Christians read of listen to the word of the bible, they hope to get a better understanding of the teachings of Christianity

2.5.2.4.2. Writing is merely authors opinions, they reveal nothing about God

3. Christianity

3.1. Beliefs

3.1.1. Nature of God

3.1.2. Omnipotence, Love and Justice in God

3.1.3. Oneness of God and the Trinity

3.1.4. Christian Beliefs About Creation

3.1.5. The Incarnation

3.1.6. Crucifixion

3.1.7. Resurrection and Ascension

3.1.8. Life After Death

3.1.8.1. Heaven and Hell

3.1.8.2. Afterlife and Judgement

3.1.9. Sin and Salvation

3.1.10. The Role of Christ in Salvation

3.2. Practices

3.2.1. Worship

3.2.2. Prayer

3.2.3. The Sacraments

3.2.3.1. Baptism

3.2.3.2. Holy Communion

3.2.4. Pilgrimage

3.2.5. Celebrating Festivals

3.2.6. The Role of the Church in the Local Community

3.2.6.1. Food Banks

3.2.6.2. Street Pastors

3.2.7. Evangelism and Mission

3.2.8. Church Growth

3.2.9. Importance of the Worldwide Church

3.2.10. Christian Persecution

3.2.11. Church's Response to World Poverty

4. Islam

4.1. Beliefs

4.1.1. Tawhid and Supremacy of Allahs Will

4.1.1.1. Tawhid is a fundamental belief of Islam

4.1.1.2. 'He is God the one'

4.1.1.3. Due to Tawhid, Muslims should

4.1.1.3.1. Only worship one God

4.1.1.3.2. Never make anything in their lives more important than God

4.1.1.3.3. Don't make pictures of God, it is impossible to portray him accurately

4.1.1.4. Muslims believe that God can make anything happen when he wants it to happen, and nothing happens unless God allowed it to

4.1.1.4.1. This gives Muslims confidence when something goes wrong, as it is part of Gods plan

4.1.2. Beliefs of Sunni and Shia

4.1.2.1. Sunni

4.1.2.1.1. Leader, called the Caliph, should be elected

4.1.2.1.2. Only the Qu'ran and the Sunnah have the authority to provide religious guidance

4.1.2.1.3. Abu Bakr, Muhammed advisor was the rightful leader after Muhammed death

4.1.2.1.4. Six Articles of Faith

4.1.2.2. Shia

4.1.2.2.1. Leader, called Imam, should be a descendent of Muhammed and chosen by God

4.1.2.2.2. Ali, Muhammed cousin, was the rightful leader after Muhammed

4.1.2.2.3. Five roots of Usul ad Din give the main beliefs for Shi'a Muslims

4.1.2.2.4. Five Roots of Usul ad-Din

4.1.3. Nature of God

4.1.3.1. Transcendent

4.1.3.1.1. God created the universe, so therefore is beyond and outside it

4.1.3.2. Immanent

4.1.3.2.1. Present everywhere in the world and is within all living things

4.1.3.3. Benevolent

4.1.3.3.1. All loving and all good

4.1.3.4. Omnipotent

4.1.3.4.1. Power to create and sustain everything in the universe

4.1.3.5. Merciful

4.1.3.5.1. Shows compassion and mercy

4.1.3.5.2. Cares for people and understands their feelings

4.1.3.5.3. Forgives people who are truly sorry for what they have done

4.1.3.6. Fair and Just

4.1.3.6.1. Judge everyone equally on the day of judgement

4.1.3.6.2. Shi'a Muslims believe that everyone has responsibility for their actions and God will reward or punish people depending on their choices

4.1.4. Angels

4.1.4.1. Spiritual beings, created by God, made of light

4.1.4.2. Pure and sinless

4.1.4.3. They don't have free will, they only do what God wants them to do

4.1.4.4. Constantly serve and praise God

4.1.4.5. Able to take human form to deliver messages to people

4.1.4.6. Jibril

4.1.4.6.1. The angel of revelation

4.1.4.6.2. Purified Muhammeds heart when he was a child, so that he could later receive Gods revelation

4.1.4.6.3. Recited the Qu'ran to Muhammed to guide them through the rest of his life

4.1.4.6.4. Therefore played an important role in communicating the final version of Islam to humanity

4.1.4.7. Mika'il

4.1.4.7.1. Angel of mercy

4.1.4.7.2. Responsible for sending rain, thunder and lightening to earth

4.1.4.7.3. Brings nourishment to earth, provides food for humans by sending rain to the ground

4.1.4.7.4. Rewards people who do good deeds

4.1.5. Predestination

4.1.5.1. God has already determined everything that will happen in the universe

4.1.5.2. God has written down what will happen to everyone in the Book of Decrees

4.1.5.3. Humans do not have the power to change their destiny

4.1.5.4. Shi'a Muslims believe that God knows everything that will happen, but did not necessarily determine it

4.1.6. Afterlife

4.1.6.1. Muslims believe that life after death happens in 3 stages

4.1.6.1.1. 1: Barzakh - the state of waiting for the Day of Judgement, God sends two angels to question them about their faith

4.1.7. Prophethood and Adam

4.1.7.1. Gift from God to help humans understand his message

4.1.7.2. There have been roughly 124,000 prophets

4.1.7.3. Muhammed was the seal of the prophets

4.1.7.4. Adam

4.1.7.4.1. Considered the father of the human race

4.1.7.4.2. God created him from dust and breathed his Spirit into him

4.1.7.4.3. Gave him knowledge, and told the angels to pay him respect

4.1.7.4.4. Iblis refused to bow down to Adam, so god banished him from paradise

4.1.7.4.5. God created Hawwa to give Adam company

4.1.7.4.6. Adam and Hawwa could eat anything from the garden, except from the forbidden tree

4.1.7.4.7. Iblis deceived Adam into eating fruit from the tree, God banished Adam from the garden as they brought sin to the world. This is known as the original sin

4.1.7.4.8. God forgave Adam, and he became the first prophet

4.1.8. Ibrahim

4.1.8.1. Fulfilled all tests given to him by God

4.1.8.2. Showed great faith in God

4.1.8.3. Good role model for Muslims

4.1.8.4. Muhammed was one of his descendents

4.1.8.5. Proclaimed monotheism when majority of people were polytheistic

4.1.8.5.1. He was determined to stop all idol worship, and he destroyed all the idols in the temple of his town

4.1.8.5.2. He was burned alive, but the fire only burnt his chains and he got up and walked out

4.1.8.5.3. The miracle prompted people into following Allah

4.1.8.6. Rebuilt the Ka'aba

4.1.8.6.1. Orignial was built by Adam but destroyed in the great flood

4.1.8.6.2. Following Gods command, he rebuilt it

4.1.8.6.3. He was willing to sacrifice his son to God

4.1.9. Muhammed and Imamate

4.1.9.1. Muhammed

4.1.9.1.1. Revelation of the Quran - grew up in Mecca

4.1.9.1.2. After the first revelation, Muhammed started challenging people to follow God's teachings

4.1.9.1.3. He was persecuted and fled to Medina, where he united the tribes and conquered Mecca.

4.1.9.2. Imamate

4.1.9.2.1. Descendent of Muhammed chosen by God

4.1.9.2.2. Twelve Imams in total

4.1.9.2.3. They are able to interpret the Quran and Islamic law without fault

4.1.9.2.4. Shi'as believe that they give people divine guidance on how to live correctly

4.1.10. Holy Books in Islam

4.1.10.1. Qur'an

4.1.10.1.1. Contains 114 surahs

4.1.10.1.2. Foundation of every believers faith

4.1.10.1.3. Written in Arabic

4.1.10.1.4. Considered to be the word of God

4.1.10.1.5. Revealed to Muhammed

4.1.10.2. Torah

4.1.10.2.1. Revealed to Moses, some Muslims believe its the first five books of the original text

4.1.10.3. Psalms

4.1.10.3.1. Revealed to David, Psalms mentioned in Qur'an are similar to that of the Bible

4.1.10.4. Gospel

4.1.10.4.1. Revealed to Jesus, Muslims believe it has been lost but some of its messages can still be found in the Bible

4.1.10.5. Scrolls of Abraham

4.1.10.5.1. Revealed to Ibrahim, considered to be the earliest scriptures in Islam, no longer exist

4.2. Practices

4.2.1. 5 Pillars

4.2.1.1. Salah

4.2.1.1.1. Daily Prayers

4.2.1.1.2. Muslims should perform wudu (washing) before they pray whilst facing the city of Mecca

4.2.1.1.3. Rakah

4.2.1.1.4. Significance of prayer

4.2.1.2. Sawm

4.2.1.2.1. Origins

4.2.1.2.2. What it Involves

4.2.1.2.3. Expectations

4.2.1.2.4. Its importance

4.2.1.2.5. Night of Power

4.2.1.3. Zakah

4.2.1.3.1. Origins

4.2.1.3.2. How Much

4.2.1.3.3. Who is it given to

4.2.1.3.4. Importance of Zakah

4.2.1.4. Hajj

4.2.1.4.1. Origins and Significance

4.2.1.4.2. Performance of Hajj

4.2.2. Jihad

4.2.2.1. Greater

4.2.2.1.1. Observing the 5 pillars

4.2.2.1.2. Studying the Qu'ran

4.2.2.1.3. Putting God above anyone else

4.2.2.1.4. Avoiding temptations such as drugs and alcohol

4.2.2.1.5. Avoiding negative traits such as jealousy

4.2.2.1.6. Helping and caring for those in need

4.2.3. Festivals

4.2.3.1. Id-Ul-Fitr

4.2.3.1.1. Origins

4.2.3.1.2. Celebrations

4.2.3.1.3. Importance

4.2.3.2. Id-Ul-Adha

4.2.3.3. Ashura

5. Religion, Peace and Conflict

5.1. Violence and Terrorism

5.1.1. Aim of terrorism is to make society aware of their cause and push the authorities into giving way to their demands

5.1.2. No religion promotes terrorism, despite terrorists linking their actions to religion

5.1.3. Majority of Christians and Muslims think it is wrong as it targets innocent people

5.2. Reasons for War

5.2.1. Greed

5.2.1.1. Gain land or resources, e.g oil

5.2.1.2. To deprive an enemy of its main source of income

5.2.1.3. Bible - 'For the love of money is the root of all evil'

5.2.1.4. Qu'ran - 'God does not like arrogant, boastful people, who are miserly... hiding the bounty God has given them

5.2.2. Self Defence

5.2.2.1. Defend your country against invasion, or defend allies against invasion

5.2.2.2. Defend a countries values or beliefs

5.2.2.3. To defeat evil, e.g genocide

5.2.2.4. Bible - 'Do not repay anyone evil for evil'

5.2.2.5. Qu'ran - 'Those who have been attacked are permitted to take up arms because they have been wronged

5.2.3. Retaliation

5.2.3.1. Fight against a country that has physically or emotionally attacked you

5.2.3.2. Bible - 'If anyone slaps you on the right cheek turn to them the other cheek also

5.3. Nuclear War and WOMDs

5.3.1. Chemical and Biological weapons

5.3.2. US used atomic bombs at Nagasaki and Hiroshima during WW2, 140k people died at Hiroshima

5.3.3. Christians believe that only God has the right to take life and WOMDs kill numerous innocent people and therefore shouldn't be allowed

5.3.4. Most Muslims agree with the Christian beliefs, however, some Muslims believe that WOMDs are a good deterrent and are therefore justified

5.4. The Just War

5.4.1. Just cause

5.4.1.1. Must be fought in self defence or to defend others, not for greed or retaliation

5.4.2. Legal authority

5.4.2.1. The war must be declared by a legal authority

5.4.3. Just intention

5.4.3.1. Must be fought to promote good or defeat evil, justice and peace must be restored afterwards

5.4.4. Proportionality

5.4.4.1. Excessive force should not be used and civilians should not be killed

5.4.5. Reasonable chance of success

5.4.5.1. The good gained by winning must outweigh the evil that led to war

5.5. Holy War

5.5.1. Old Testament refers to God helming the Jews win battles to settle in the Promised Land

5.5.2. For both Christians and Muslims a Holy War should be authorised by a religious leader with great authority and should only be fought to defend the faith from attack

5.5.3. Christians sometimes justify retaliation - 'eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth', generally Christians accept Jesus' teaching that violence is wrong

5.5.4. Muslims believe war is justified if it follows the Holy War criteria and is fought for God, and not for a leader to show/gain power

5.6. Pacifism and Peacemmaking

5.6.1. Pacifists believe that war can rarely be justified, and that conflicts can be settled in a peaceful way

5.6.2. Many Christians are pacifists and follow Jesus' teaching - 'blessed are the peacemakers'

5.6.3. During WW1 and WW2, many conscientious objectors refused to fight and took the roles of cooks or doctors.

5.6.4. Whilst Islam is a religion of peace, there aren't pacifists due too Jihad, 'fighting has been ordained for you'

5.6.5. However, Muslims must not refuse peace if it offers

5.7. Religious Responses to War Victims

5.7.1. Needs of war victims

5.7.1.1. Physclogical support

5.7.1.2. Money if main wage earner dies

5.7.1.3. Safe living place

5.7.1.4. Medical help for injuries

5.7.1.5. Access to clean water and food

5.7.1.6. Means of earning a living

5.7.2. Christians reasons for helping

5.7.2.1. Jesus taught to l'love your neighbour as yourself'

5.7.2.2. Parable of the Good Samaritan taught that everybody is everyones neighbour, regardless of race, age, gender religion or political beliefs

5.7.2.3. Christian Aid, works to end poverty and promotes peace justice and human rights

5.7.3. Muslim reasons for helping

5.7.3.1. The Qu'ran teaches 'whoever saved a life, it would be as if they saved the life of all mankind

5.7.3.2. Principles such as compassion, empathy, generosity and helping those in need

6. Religion, Crime and Punishment

6.1. Reasons for Crime

6.1.1. Poverty

6.1.1.1. E.g People can't afford food, so they steal it to feed their family

6.1.1.1.1. Muslims believe that Zakah ensures no one lives in poverty

6.1.1.1.2. Christians believe that society should ensure everyone has enough food, e.g Christian foodbanks

6.1.2. Upbringing

6.1.2.1. People grow up in a household where crime is a way of life and may even be encouraged

6.1.2.1.1. Muslims believe that family should ensure muslims are guided to respect the law

6.1.2.1.2. Christians believe that parents should teach children to behave righteously

6.1.3. Mental Illness

6.1.3.1. Mental illness can lead people to crime, e.g depression leading to drug abuse

6.1.3.1.1. Muslims believe punishment is still justified, but the illness should be treated

6.1.3.1.2. Christians believe treating the causes of illness is the most loving and compassionate thing to do

6.1.4. Addiction

6.1.4.1. E.g taking drugs

6.1.4.1.1. Muslims believe that addiction is no excuse as drugs and alcohol are not allowed in Islam

6.1.4.1.2. Christians support rehabilitation as a way of defeating the addiction

6.1.5. Greed

6.1.5.1. People may steel in order to gain possessions that they can't afford

6.1.5.1.1. Muslims believe that Greed is a temptation that should be avoided

6.1.5.1.2. The Ten Commandments forbids envy, which causes greed

6.1.6. Hate

6.1.6.1. Leads to violence or aggression

6.1.6.1.1. Hatred is against Muslim morality

6.1.6.1.2. Jesus taught to love everyone

6.1.7. Opposition to an Unjust Law

6.1.7.1. People may break the law in protest, the laws may deny equality or human rights

6.1.7.1.1. Muslims believe that Shari'ah Law is Gods law and therefore cannot be unjust

6.1.7.1.2. Christians agree with this if no one is harmed and no violence is used

6.2. Attitudes to Lawbreakers and Different Types of Crime

6.2.1. Christian Views to Lawbreakers

6.2.1.1. Offenders must be punished according to the seriousness of the crime

6.2.1.2. Offenders have basic rights - no harmful punishment

6.2.1.3. Punishment should help offenders to become a useful member of society

6.2.2. Muslims Views to Lawbreakers

6.2.2.1. Shari'ah punishments fit the seriousness of the crime

6.2.2.2. The aim is to ensure the offender does not reoffend

6.2.2.2.1. 'God commands justice, and prohibits wrong doing and injustice

6.3. Three Aims of Punishment

6.3.1. Retribution

6.3.1.1. (revenge) society is getting retribution on the offender

6.3.1.1.1. Muslims believe that the 'eye' quote should be taken literally, and that a criminal should receive the same consequences that their action caused

6.3.1.1.2. Christians do not believe the quote should be taken literally, but punishment should be severe enough to match crime

6.3.1.2. 'eye for eye, tooth for tooth'

6.3.1.3. justice - life for life, death penalty

6.3.2. Deterrence

6.3.2.1. To set a warning to others, prevent people repeating the same crime

6.3.2.1.1. Shari'ah punishments are carried out in public, including executions

6.3.3. Reformation

6.3.3.1. Offenders may be given treatment such as counselling in a hope that they will change their attitude and can return to society

6.3.3.1.1. Muslims believe that offenders can seek forgiveness from God and be purified. This isn't a replacement for punishment however

6.3.3.1.2. Christians believe that it is positive as it improves peoples life chances, it is not a replacement for punishment

6.4. Religious Attitudes to Suffering

6.4.1. Christian

6.4.1.1. Believe that they have a duty to help those who are suffering

6.4.1.2. Try to follow the example of Jesus

6.4.2. Muslim

6.4.2.1. Believe that God allows suffering to happen, possibly as a test from God

6.4.2.2. Believe they have a duty to help those who are suffering

6.4.3. Why Does God Allow People to Suffer?

6.4.3.1. God gave Humans free will, and has only given guidance to how to use the freedom

6.5. Treatment of Criminals

6.5.1. Prison

6.5.1.1. Christians believe that prisoners should be treated well, and that their time in prison should be positive and encouraging

6.5.1.2. In Muslim countries prison is used more for a place to keep people awaiting trial, and some Muslims believe that it is a greater penalty than inflicting pain through corporal punishment

6.5.2. Corporal Punishment

6.5.2.1. Christians do not support corporal punishment, it is negative and harmful, and does not seek to reform the offender

6.5.2.2. Used in Muslim countries as they believe it serves as a deterrent

6.5.3. Community Service

6.5.3.1. Christians agree with it for offenders who are likely to benefit, allows them to reform and make reparations, and no harm is done to the offender

6.5.3.2. Muslims disagree as it not seen as a sufficient deterrent to protect society

6.6. Religious Attitudes to Forgiveness

6.6.1. Christians believe that people should be forgiven as far as possible, but punished enough that justice is served

6.6.1.1. Father forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing

6.6.2. Muslims believe that there are two types of forgiveness

6.6.2.1. Forgiveness from God - only God can truly forgive someone

6.6.2.1.1. God is most forgiving and merciful

6.6.2.2. Forgiveness from Humans - People should forgive each other to allow goodness to override evil

6.6.2.2.1. Pardon each others faults and God will grant you honour

6.7. Religious Attitudes to the Death Penalty

6.7.1. Christians

6.7.1.1. Agree with DP

6.7.1.1.1. Retribution is justified for the worst possible crimes

6.7.1.1.2. Its a deterrent

6.7.1.1.3. Protects society from the worst criminals

6.7.1.2. Disagree

6.7.1.2.1. Aim of punishment is reformation - dead people can't reform

6.7.1.2.2. Miscarriages of justice

6.7.1.2.3. God gave life, only God can take it

6.7.2. Muslims

6.7.2.1. Agree

6.7.2.1.1. Shari'ah law says it should be used for some crimes, such as murder or rape

6.7.2.1.2. Seen as deterrent and fair retribution

6.7.2.2. Disagree

6.7.2.2.1. Some Muslims see it as a misinterpretation of the Qu'ran's teachings

7. Religion and Life

7.1. Origins of the Universe

7.2. Value of the World

7.3. Use and Abuse of the Environment

7.4. Use and Abuse of Animals

7.5. Origins of Human Life

7.6. Abortion

7.7. Euthanasia

7.8. Death and the Afterlife