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History by Mind Map: History

1. Cold War

1.1. Early Cold War and Who Was to Blame

1.2. US Containment of Communism

1.3. Soviet Security Over Eastern Europe

2. Inter War Years

2.1. ToV and Other Treaties Between 1919-23

2.1.1. Ideas of the Big 3 Before the ToV

2.1.1.1. Wilson

2.1.1.1.1. Strengthen democracy in defeated countries

2.1.1.1.2. Give NSD to countries, e.g Poland not being part of Austro-Hungary

2.1.1.1.3. Access to the seas, no colonisation, France to regain A-L

2.1.1.1.4. Wants to prevent another war, he wanted a fair, just and lasting peace

2.1.1.2. Clemenceau

2.1.1.2.1. Wanted Germany crippled for security

2.1.1.2.2. France wanted compensation

2.1.1.3. Lloyd George

2.1.1.3.1. Agreed that Germany should not be punished too harshly

2.1.1.3.2. Wanted Germany to lose its navy and colonies because he wanted to defend Britians empire

2.1.1.3.3. LG feared that a harsh treaty would fuel Germany to start another war.

2.1.1.4. How Did the Big 3 Disagree

2.1.1.4.1. Clemenceau/Wilson

2.1.1.4.2. Clemenceau/LG

2.1.1.4.3. Wilson and LG

2.1.2. The Terms of the Treaty

2.1.2.1. War Guilt

2.1.2.1.1. Germany had to accept full responsibility for the war, German people saw this as very harsh

2.1.2.2. Reparations

2.1.2.2.1. £6.6billion decided between the allied powers without consulting Germany, seen as very harsh, 50% of iron and steel

2.1.2.3. German Territory

2.1.2.3.1. European Borders

2.1.2.3.2. Overseas Empire

2.1.2.4. Armed Forces

2.1.2.4.1. Army limited to 100,000 men

2.1.2.4.2. Conscription was banned

2.1.2.4.3. No armoured vehicles, submarines or aircraft

2.1.2.4.4. Navy was limited to 6 battleships

2.1.2.5. Germany not invited to join the League

2.1.2.6. Why was Clemenceau not satisfied

2.1.2.6.1. Didn't split Germany into separate states

2.1.2.6.2. Only got the Saarland for 15 years - wanted it permanently

2.1.3. German Reaction

2.1.3.1. War Guilt

2.1.3.1.1. Particularly hated, they thought the blame should be shared

2.1.3.1.2. Bitter that Germany had to pay all the damage despite a ruined economy

2.1.3.2. Disarmament

2.1.3.2.1. 100,000 men was small for a country of Germany's size and the allies were not disarming

2.1.3.2.2. No one else disarming left Germany vulnerable

2.1.3.3. Territory

2.1.3.3.1. Blow to Germany pride

2.1.3.3.2. Saar and Upper Silesia were key industrial areas

2.1.3.3.3. British and French economies increasing their empire by taking control of Germany territory in Africa

2.1.3.4. Felt unfairly treated by their non representation in the League or peace talks

2.1.3.5. Reparations

2.1.3.5.1. Struggled to afford the high reparations as they had just paid for a war

2.1.3.5.2. 50% of iron and steel was taken from them and they are still expected to pay 6.6billion pends

2.1.4. Impact of the Treaty on Germany

2.1.4.1. Political Violence

2.1.4.1.1. Kapp Putsch against Ebert's government

2.1.4.1.2. Number of assassination attempts e.g Walther Rathenau

2.1.4.2. Conflict in the Ruhr

2.1.4.2.1. French and Belgian soldiers entered the Ruhr in 23 when Ebert couldn't pay reparations

2.1.4.2.2. Germans had to strike which resulted in them not having any goods to trade

2.1.4.3. Economic

2.1.4.3.1. Hyperinflation

2.1.4.3.2. 6.6 billion pounds reparations

2.1.4.3.3. Saarland’s coal was given away, has a lot of coal - put under LoN control for 15 years, within the Saarland, the coal fields were given to France in order to compensate them because the Germans had destroyed French coal fields out of spite when they left France

2.1.4.3.4. Lost Upper Silesia

2.1.4.3.5. Lost colonies such as Togoland and Cameroon

2.1.4.3.6. Lost 50% of iron and steel

2.1.5. General info

2.1.5.1. 1919-1920

2.1.5.2. Clemenceau, LG, Wilson and Orlando (Italian prime minister)

2.1.5.3. Germany was not there

2.1.5.4. Russia not invited, western powers didn't want communism to spread

2.1.5.5. Austria-Hungary not invited

2.1.5.6. Turkey not invited

2.1.5.7. Treaty of St Germanin - Austria

2.1.5.8. Sevres - Turkey

2.1.5.9. Neuilly - Bulgaria

2.1.5.10. Trianon - Hungary

2.1.5.10.1. Slovakia merged to form Czechoslovakia

2.1.5.10.2. Slovenia became part of Yugoslavia

2.1.5.10.3. Transylvania became part of Romania

2.1.5.10.4. Lost 3million Hungarians

2.1.5.10.5. Expected to pay reparations, but she was too poor to pay

2.1.5.11. Versailles - Germany

2.1.5.12. Germany treated Russia extremely harshly at the treaty of Brest Livtosk, they took 32% of agricultural land and 300million Gold rubbles and 54% of industry, what would Germany have done to us, they deserved the harsh treaty that came to them

2.2. Hitlers Foreign Policy and Collapse of International Peace

2.2.1. Anglo German naval deal

2.2.1.1. Germany allowed to increase their navy to 35% of Britain's - France were not happy with this as they were not consulted

2.3. League of Nations (Document Paper

3. Depth Study: Germany

3.1. Hitlers Consolidation

3.1.1. Police State

3.1.1.1. Gestapo

3.1.1.1.1. Secret police

3.1.1.1.2. Feared by the ordinary German citizen

3.1.1.1.3. Could send people to concentration camps without trial or explanation

3.1.1.1.4. Removed resistance

3.1.1.2. The Courts

3.1.1.2.1. High ranking Nazis got top jobs in police forces, and reported to Himmler, meaning Nazis got bias treatment

3.1.1.2.2. Helped them remove resistance and protest to the Nazi regime

3.1.1.3. SS

3.1.1.3.1. Fanatics that were loyal to Hiter

3.1.1.3.2. Led by Himmler

3.1.1.4. Night of the Long Knives

3.1.1.4.1. Officers in the army were suspicious of SA and Rohm

3.1.1.4.2. Hitler feared that Rohm control over 4 million SA made him a dangerous rival

3.1.1.4.3. SS men broke into the homes of Rohm and army generals and murdered them

3.1.1.4.4. 400 SA leaders were killed, including Rohm and Von Schliecher

3.1.1.5. Concentration Camps

3.1.1.5.1. Auschwitz

3.1.1.5.2. Dakaut

3.1.2. Propaganda

3.1.2.1. Culture and Media

3.1.2.1.1. Radio Broadcasting

3.1.2.1.2. Books

3.1.2.2. Education

3.1.3. Nazi Persecution of Society Groups

3.1.3.1. Jews

3.1.3.1.1. Hitler became obsessed with the Jews in his early years, that they were at fault for Germanys defeat in the first world war

3.1.3.1.2. He took control in 1933 and mobilised the army against them

3.1.3.1.3. Final Solution

3.1.3.1.4. 1935 - Nurenburg laws took citizenship away from the Jews and sterilised them

3.1.3.2. Homosexuals

3.1.3.2.1. Threat to Nazis about family life, disabled Aryan reproduction

3.1.3.3. Disabled People

3.1.3.3.1. Disabled people went against the belief that Germany being a perfect race

3.1.3.3.2. Wanted to stop people polluting the Aryan gene pool

3.1.4. Improving the Economy

3.1.4.1. Schacht

3.1.4.1.1. National Labour Service sent men on Public Works Programmes to build infrastructure such as Autobahns

3.1.4.2. Rearmament

3.1.4.2.1. Introduced conscription which reduced unemployment

3.1.4.2.2. Used a increased army to invade other countries and take over their economy, e.g Cezchoslovakia

3.1.4.3. Remove women from the work place

3.1.4.3.1. Reduced unemployment

3.1.4.4. 4 Year Plan, Guns vs Butter Debate

3.1.5. Women

3.1.5.1. Birth Rate

3.1.5.1.1. Women were tasked to increase birth rate and were offered financial incentives, the Gold Cross, for having more than 4 children

3.1.5.1.2. Reproduce Aryan children

3.1.5.2. Reduces unemployment

3.1.5.2.1. Women were taken out of the work place, this reduced unemployment as the men could take their jobs

3.1.6. Enabling Act and Emergency Decree

3.2. Rise to Power

3.2.1. Elections of 1930-33

3.2.1.1. Promises to German People

3.2.1.1.1. Uniting Germans under one leader

3.2.1.1.2. Going back to traditional values

3.2.1.1.3. Persecute communism

3.2.1.1.4. Restore the economy

3.2.1.1.5. Bread and soup kitchens

3.2.1.1.6. More jobs

3.2.1.1.7. Offering women health care